Saturday, 1 January 2011

Fadak seizures

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After the "pen and paper", and "saqifa" plots, the new rulers confiscated Fadak and other lands after the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632.

Fadak - The property of Fatima al-Zahra

Quotation from ancient sunni books:

Sahih Bukhari V4, Book 53, Number 325:

Narrated Ayesha (mother of the believers),'After the death of Allah's Prophet, Fatima, the daughter of Allah's Prophet asked Abu Bakr As-Siddiq to give her the share of inheritance from what Allah's Prophet had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting)which Allah had given him. Abu Bakr said to her, "the Holy Prophet had said, 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. prophets) leave is Sadaqah (to be used for charity)." Fatima, the daughter of Allah's Prophet got angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died. Fatima remained alive for six months after the death of the Holy prophet.

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"Fadak was a city, which was situated 2 or 3 days of travel from Madina. There were wells of water and trees of dates in it. It was the same Fadak, about which Fatima Zahra said to Abu Bakr, "My father gave me this Fadak as a present". Abu Bakr asked her in reply to produce witnesses."

Maujam ul Buldan by Yaqoot Hamawi, v14, p238
Tareekh Khamees, v2, p88
Wafa-ul-Wafa by Noor-ud-Deen Al-Samhoodi, v4, p1480

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Maujam-ul-Buldan, v14 p240 and Wafa-ul-Wafa, V4 p1281:

"This city was named Fadak, while the son of Adam Ham first came to this place and he put the foundation of this city".

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Sunan Abu Dawud, V3 p144 it is written:

Abu Dawood said: ‘When Umar bin Abdul-Aziz became Caliph, the income (from the property of Fadak) was 40,000 Dinars.’

Sharh Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed, V4 p108:

"Umar expelled the Jews from Fadak. And the value of the land along with its dates was 50,000 Dirhams."

Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed in Sharh Nahj ul Balagha wrote in v4, p108:

"There were eleven fruit trees in Fadak, that Rasulullah planted with his own hands. The children of Fatima used to present them to Hajj pilgrims and they would give them Dinars and Dirhams for this service."

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Insanul Ayun fi Seerah al Halbeeya V3, p487-488, Chapter "The death of the Prophet"

"Umar was angry with Abu Bakr and said, "If you give Fadak back to Fatima, where the expenses for army and defence will come from for at present all the Arabs are fighting against you. He then took the papers of Fadak from Fatima, and tore them into shreds".

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Fatah ul Buldan, p46, by Abi al-Hassan Baladhuri.
Majma ul Baldan, p139, v14
History of Tabari, v3, p1583
Tareekh Kamil, v2, p108, by Ibn Atheer Jazari
Tareekh Khamees, v2, page58, by Husayn Diyar Bakari.

All of the books record the following:"When the Prophet returned from Khayber, he sent Muhisa bin Masood to propagate Islam to the people of Khayber. The leader of the Jews of Khayber at that time was Yusha bin Nun. The people of Fadak refused to accept Islam, but offered to give them half of their Land of Fadak. The Prophet took half the land and allowed them to live there. This half Land of Fadak was the property of the Prophet, as the Muslims didn't ride horses over it".

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Nawawi in Sharh Sahih Muslim, V2, p92
Sunan Nasai, v7, p137
Wafa ul Wafa, v4, p1280
Sirat un Nabi by Ibn Hisham, v3, p353
Tareekh Abul Fida, p140, Dhikr Ghazwa Khayber

Imam Nawawi writes in his Sharh of Sahih Muslim:

"Half the Land of Fadak, which was given by the Jews following the peace treaty, was purely the property of Rasool Allah. Similarly, 1/3rd of the Valley of Qari which was given by the Jews after the peace treaty and 2 castles of Khayber which is al-Watikh & al-Selalem, were owned by him after the peace treaty. The third his share 1/5 of Khaybar booty after the conquest by force, these were the exclusive properties of the Prophet and no one else had a share of it".

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al Farooq V2 p289-290 by Shams al Hind Allamah Shibli Numani:

"…after the conquest of Syria and Iraq Omar addressed the companions, he declare on the basis of the Holy Qur'an that the conquered territories were not the property of any man, but that they were a national trust, as has been discussed under Fay. However, from the verse of the Qur'an it appears that the lands of Fadak were the Holy Prophet's own property, and that Omar himself understood the verse to imply so: What Allah has made this people (i.e. Bani Nadir) deliver to his Prophet, to conquest which you did not lead any camels or horses, but Allah empowers his Prophets over who, he pleases". On reading this verse Omar declared that the land was reserved for the Holy Prophet. The matter is mentioned in Sahih al Bukhari in detail in the chapters on Khums al Maghazi and al Mirath"

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Sahih Muslim, Bab ul Fai Book 019, Number 4347:

It has been narrated on the authority of Umar, who said: The properties abandoned by Banu Nadir were the ones which Allah bestowed upon His Prophet for which no expedition was undertaken either with cavalry or camelry. These properties were particularly meant for the Holy Prophet. He would meet the annual expenditure of his family from the income thereof, and would spend what remained for purchasing horses and weapons as preparation for Jihad.

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Allah declares in the Holy Qur'an:

And render to the kindred their due rights, as (also) to those in want, and to the wayfarer: But squander not (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift.

Al-Qur'an, Surah 17, Ayah 26, translated by Yusufali

When this verse was revealed the Prophet gave the land of Fadak to Fatima Zahra under the order of Allah.

Tafseer Durre Manthur v4, p177
Kanzul Ummal, v2, p158
Lababul Naqool, p137, Sura Isra
Tafseer Mazhari, in Tafseer of above mentioned verse
Tafseer Ruh Al-Ma'ani

In the Tafseer of above mentioned verse we read:

"Abu Saeed al Khudri and Abdullah Ibn Abbas narrate that when the verse relating to giving rights to kindred was revealed, the Prophet called Fatima Zahra and gifted the land of Fadak to her".

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Sahih Bukhari: V4, Book 51, Number 3

Narrated Talha bin Musarrif: I asked 'Abdullah bin Abu Aufa, "Did the Prophet make a will?" He replied, "No," I asked him, "How is it then that the making of a will has been enjoined on people, (or that they are ordered to make a will)?" He replied, "The Prophet bequeathed Allah's Book (i.e. Quran)."

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Rauzat ul Safa as quoted in Tashdheed-ul-Mathaeen p102
Ma'arij un Nabuwwah, p321
Habeeb us Siyaar, v 1, Dhikr of Ghazwa Khayber

"Jibrael came to Prophet Muhammad and told him that Allah had ordered that he give the Dhul Qurba (close relatives) their rights. Rasulullah asked who was meant from Dhul Qurba and what is meant from 'right'. Jibrael replied that Dhul Qurba refers to Fatima Zahra, and from 'right' it is meant the property of Fadak. The Prophet called Fatima and presented Fadak to her giving her a written paper as a proof. This paper was presented to Abu Bakr after the death of Rasool Allah by Fatima and she said that it was the paper which the Prophet wrote for her, Hasan and Husayn"

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In Fatawa Azizi, p165, al Muhaddith Shah Abdul Aziz sets out the contents of the written document:

Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim bin Abd Manaf has given this piece of land, whose premises are known, to his daughter Fatima Zahra. And after her, this land is entrusted to her children. And anyone who denies it after hearing it, then it's sin is on his head. And Allah is "Sami" and "Aleem".

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Abu Bakr usurped the land of Fadak and Fatima Zahra asked him for her Right:

Sahih Bukhari V4, Book 53, Number 325 and V5, Hadeeth number 546, pp 381-383
Sahih Muslim, V2 p72, Chapter 'Prophets leave no inheritance
Sunan Abu Dawood Book 19, Tribute, Spoils, and Rulership (Kitab Al-Kharaj, Wal-Fai' Wal-Imarah) Number 2967:
Sunan al Kabeera V, 6 p30 (published in Hyderabad)
Riyadh al Nadira V, 4 p231 (Baghdad publishers)
Sawaiqh al Muhriqa, p21 Bab Muthaeen Abu Bakr
Maujam-ul-Buldan, V3 p312, Dhikr Fadak
Tafseer Kabeer, V8 p125 Ayat Fay
Kanz al Ummal, V3 p129, Kitab al Khilafat ma al Imara
al Milal wa al Nihal, V1 p18
al Bidayah wa al Nihaya, V5 p245
Tareekh Tabari, V4 p1825
Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, V1 p158
Tareekh Khamees, V2 p174
Futuh al Buldan, p35
Wafa al Wafa, p995
Tabaqat Ibn Sa'd (Book of the Major Classes, d. 852 AD.), V2, p392 translated by S. Moinul Haq assisted by H.K. Ghazanfar M.A.
Naseem al Riyadh, Sharh Shifa Qadhi Khan V3 p414


We read in Riyadh:

When the Prophet died, Abu Bakr took Fadak from Fatima. Fatima went to him and said 'Give the land of Fadak to me, as my father the Prophet gave it to me'.

Tafseer Kabeer:

When Rasulullah died, Fatima claimed that Fadak was land bestowed to me by my father the Prophet; Abu Bakr said 'I don't know if you are telling the truth".

We read in Sahih Bukhari V4, Book 53, Number 325:

Narrated 'Ayesha: (mother of the believers) After the death of Allah's Prophet Fatima the daughter of Allah's Prophet asked Abu Bakr As-Siddiq to give her, her share of inheritance from what Allah's Prophet had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allah had given him. Abu Bakr said to her, "Allah's Prophet said, 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. prophets) leave is Sadaqah (to be used for charity)." Fatima, the daughter of Allah's Prophet got angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died. Fatima remained alive for six months after the death of Allah's Prophet.

al-Bukhari under the Chapter of "The battle of Khaibar", Arabic-English,v5, tradition 546, pp 381-383, narrates from Ayesha that:

".. Fatimah became angry with Abu Bakr and kept away from him, and did not talk to him till she died. She remained alive for six months after the death of the Prophet. When she died, her husband 'Ali, buried her at night without informing Abu Bakr and he said the funeral prayer by himself".

Tabaqat Ibn Sa'd:

"... Verily Fatimah, the daughter of the Prophet of Allah, sent (a message) to Abu Bakr asking him about her share in the inheritance of the Prophet of Allah, which Allah had bestowed on His Prophet as booty (without bloodshed). She at that time claimed (a share from) the (Arabic text) of the Prophet, at al-Mad'inah, Fadak and what had remained of the Khums of Khaybar. Thereupon Abu Bakr said: Verily, the Prophet of Allah said: We do not leave inheritance, what we leave goes into sadaqah. Verily the members of Muhammad's family will get provision from this money. By Allah! I shall not change the distribution of the sadaqah of the Prophet of Allah from what it was in the time of Prophet of Allah. I shall continue to spend them under the same heads as the Prophet of Allah was spending. So Abu Bakr refused to give anything to Fatimah. Consequently Fatimah became angry with Abu Bakr and left him. She did not talk with him till she died. She lived six months after the Prophet of Allah."

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Fadak was a gift to Fatima:

al Milal wa al Nihal p13, Allamah Sharastani discusses the disputes that arose following the death of Rasulullah:

"The 6th dispute concerned Fadak and the inheritance of Rasulullah. Sayyida Fatima deemed it her land, and the claim of Fatima to its ownership"

Riyadh al Nadira, V1 p89:

"When the Prophet died, Abu Bakr took Fadak from Fatima, she went to him and said: 'Give the land of Fadak to me, as my father the Prophet gave it to me'...."

Allamah Yaqut al-Hamawi records in Maujam ul Buldan, V3 p313:

"After the death of the Prophet, Fatima [r] said to Abu Bakr: 'My father the Prophet gave Fadak to me, thus give it to me'."

We also read:

"This is (the land) about which Fatima said: ‘Allah's messenger gave it to me’, hence Abu Bakr said: ‘I want witnesses’. That had a story".

We read in Futuh al-Buldan, p35:

"Malik bin J'auna narrated from his father that he said: ‘Fatima [r] said to Abu Bakr, Allah's messenger gave Fadak to me, give it to me'."

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Seerah al Halbeeya V2 p488:

"Sibt ibn Jauzi narrates that after Fatima made her claim to the ownership of Fadak, Abu Bakr heard her claim and Abu Bakr left a written instruction that it be restored to her, then Umar came to Abu Bakr, and asked 'Who is this document for?' The Khalifa said 'It's with regards to Fadak this is a written document for Fatima in relation to her father's inheritance. Umar said 'then how will you spend for the Muslims, when the Arabs are preparing to fight you, Umar then took the document and ripped it up".

This proves that the Hadith 'Prophet's leave no inheritance' is a lie, since Abu Bakr did in fact accept the claim of Sayyida Fatima.

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Nahj ul Balagha p45 letter to Abi Uthman bin Haneef Ansari:

"Of course, all that we had in our possession under this sky was Fadak, but a group of people felt greedy for it and the other party withheld themselves from it. Allah is, after all, the best arbiter."

Majmal Buldan, V3 p312:

Ali used to say: ‘The prophet granted it to Fatima during His life’.

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Sunan Abu Dawood Book 19, Tribute, Spoils, and Rulership (Kitab Al-Kharaj, Wal-Fai' Wal-Imarah), Hadeeth Number 2998:

"…Banu an-Nadir were deported, and they took with them whatever their camels could carry, that is, their property, the doors of their houses, and their wood. Palm-trees were exclusively reserved for the Prophet of Allah. Allah bestowed them upon him and gave them him as a special portion. He (Allah), the Exalted, said: What Allah has bestowed on His Prophet (and taken away) from them, for this ye made no expedition with either camel corps or cavalry." He said: "Without fighting." So the Prophet gave most of it to the emigrants and divided it among them; and he divided some of it between two men from the helpers, who were needy, and he did not divide it among any of the helpers except those two. The rest of it survived as the sadaqah of the Prophet of Allah which is in the hands of the descendants of Fatimah".

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Umar ibn Abdul Aziz returned Fadak to the descendants of Sayyida Fatima.

Wafa al Wafa p99:

"When Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz became Khalifa he restored the land of Fadak to the descendants of Sayyida Fatima, and wrote to his representative in Madina on this regards"

Allamah Yaqut al-Hamawi records in Mujam al-Buldan, V3 p312:

'When Umar bin Abdulaziz become the Caliph, he wrote to his governor of Madina and ordered him to gave Fadak to the progeny of Fatima's ’.

'A short history if Islam' by Dr A. Rahim p168, Chapter Umar II:

"Umar II was very fair and generous to the member's of 'Ali's family. He restored to them the property of Fadak which was appropriated by Marwan".

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Caliph Mamun restored the land to the descendants of Sayyida Fatima.

Majma al-Buldan, V3 p313:

In year 210 Hijri Mamun gave an order to return (Fadak) to the progeny of Fatima. Thus he wrote to his representative in Madina Qatham bin Jaffar and said: ‘Allah's messenger gave Fadak to Fatima and that was a known and clear matter according to His (prophet) family and Fatima kept demanding it. Hence he (Mamun) has decided to return it to her inheritors’

Futuh al-Buldan, pages 36-37:

In 210 Hijri Ammerul Mumineen Mamun bin Harun al-Rashid gave an order that Fadak be given to the family of Fatima. This order was given to his representative in Madina Quthum bin Jafar: ‘I Commander of the Faithful as the successor of the Prophet have a duty to follow the way of the Prophet. Anything or Sadaqah that the Prophet gave must be given by me, all his virtues come from Allah, and my aim is to do that which pleases my Creator. I have found that the Prophet gave Fadak as a gift to his daughter and made her the sole owner and this is such a clear matter that carries no doubt amongst the Prophet's family. Verily the Commander of the Faithful deems it correct to return Fadak to the descendents of Fatima so as to implement the Justice of Allah and get closer to him in the process, and implement the order of the Prophet and attain a good reward. The Commander of the Faithful gives order that the return of Fadak be recorded in a Register and that this Order be sent to employees. Since the death of the Prophet the tradition has remained that Pilgrims on Hajj give an invitation to the People to claim anything Prophet gave as Sadaqah or gift to the People, their words would be accepted, in this circumstance Sayyida Fatima has a greater right that her claim regarding the possession of Fadak after the Prophet be accepted. The Khaleefa has told his Servant Mubarak Tabari 'Return Fadak to the Waris of Fatima, all its boundaries, rights, production and Servants should be returned. Muhammad bin Yahya bin Husayn bin Zaid bin 'Ali bin Husayn bin 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib and Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib, have been appointed by the Commander of the Faithful as Agents over Fadak. Verily you should be made aware that this is the opinion of the Commander of the Faithful and this is that which has come to him from Allah so as to receive the blessing of Allah and his Prophet. Your subordinates should be informed that Muhammad bin Yahya and Muhammad bin Abdullah be treated in the same manner as you dealt with Mubarak Tabari, these two should be supported with the production processes, profits should given to them so as to attain reward from Allah. Wasallam Wednesday 2nd Zeeqad 210 Hijri’

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Fatima was the only daughter and Ali only son in law:

'Riyadh al Nadira' V3 p220, Dhikr Fadail 'Ali:

Rasulullah said to 'Ali 'You possess three virtues not possessed by anyone else

You have a father in law like me.
You have received my truthful daughter as your wife
You have received pious sons such as Hassan and Husayn


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Title of Uthman Dhul Nurayn [possessor of two lights] cannot be located in the authentic Sunni works. It is not present in any of the six esteemed works of Ahl ul Sunnah.

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Abu Bakr's rejects witnesses' testimony.

Sharh ibn al Hadeed, V4 p113
Futuh al Buldan, p35 printed 1350 Hijri, Egypt.
Tafseer Kabeer V10 p506
Seerath al Halabeeya, V3 p498
Sharah Mawaqif, p735 p735
Sawaiqh al Muhriqa, p22 Bab Mathaeen Abu Bakr
Maujam-ul-Buldan, V4 p239
Wafa al Wafa, V3 p999 Bab Sadaqath un Nabi

We read in Futuh al Buldan, p35:

Malik bin Jawuna narrates from his father that Fatima said to Abu Bakr: 'Rasulullah bestowed Fadak to me, so return it.’ Ali testified in her favour, Abu Bakr asked for another witness, and Umm Ayman testified in support of Fatima. Upon this, Abu Bakr said: ‘O daughter of Rasulullah, such testimony is unacceptable unless you have two males or one male and two females, upon hearing this Fatima left.’

We also read:

Jafar bin Muhammad said that Fatima said to Abu Bakr: 'Return Fadak to me as it was given to me by Rasulullah'. Abu Bakr demanded witnesses. Umm Ayman and Rabah the Servant of Rasulullah testified in support of her claim. He said that such testimonies were unacceptable unless presented by one man and two women.

We also read:

Umm Hani states that Fatima daughter of Rasulullah appeared before the Court of Abu Bakr and asked: 'When you die who shall inherit you?' He replied: 'My family and descendants'. Fatima said: 'What is your stance when you seize the inheritance of the Prophet and do not give it to us?' He said: 'Oh daughter of Allah's messenger, I did not seize your father’s gold and silver and this or that.’ Fatima then said: 'Give us our share of Khayber, Fadak is our exclusive property'. He [Abu Bakr] replied: 'Oh daughter of Rasulullah, I heard the Prophet say that (Fadak) is a pillar that Allah has provided for me as a source of earnings during my life time, verily when I die, distribute this amongst the Muslims!.’

Tafseer Kabeer:

"After the death (of Rasulullah), Fatima raised the issue of Fadak that he (the Prophet) had granted it to her, Abu Bakr said: '…I don't know if you are telling the truth, and I cant judge according to it (your claim).' Then Umm Ayman and a male servant testified for her. Abu Bakr said: 'bring forth another witness whose word is acceptable'.

Tafseer al-Kabeer, V. 10, p506



Wafa al Wafa:

"Fadak was that land that Hadhrat Fatima claimed Rasulullah had given to me. Abu Bakr demanded witnesses. 'Ali and Umm Ayman testified. The Khaleefa replied 'Only the testimony of a man and two women are acceptable".

We read in Seerath Halbeeya:

"Abu Bakr asked Fatima to produce witnesses to corroborate her claim that Fadak had been given to her. Abu Bakr said 'Do you have any proof? 'Ali gave testimony as did Umm Ayman. Abu Bakr said the witness numbers are not met by the testimony of a male and female. The Shi'a say that Fatima [r] was Masum due to the verse of purification and the words of the Prophet 'Fatima is a part of me', and [they say] that Hasan, Husayn and Umme Kalthum also gave testimonies. That which was said [about Fatima] was merely figurative and said out of love, children are not permitted to testify in favour of their parents.

Insan al-Ayun fi Seerah al-Halbeeyah, V. 3, p487 & 488


We read in Sharah Mawaqif:

If it is advanced that Fatima claimed that Rasulullah had bestowed Fadak to her and that Ali, Hassan, Husayn, Umme Kulthum testified in her favour, and the Sahih view is that Umm Ayman testified in her favour and Abu Bakr rejected their testimony which made him an oppressor, so we will reply that the testimonies of Hasan and Husayn were not accepted being her progeny and minors. As for the testimonies of Ali and Umm Ayman, they were rejected being short of the requirement.

Admission of Ibn Hajr al Makki in his Sawaiqh al Muhriqa, P138 & 139.

He defends Abu Bakr as follows:

Fatima made a claim that Rasulullah left Fadak for her and she presented the testimonies of Umm Ayman and 'Ali in her favour, yet the criteria for witness numbers was not met. There are differences amongst the scholars as to whether a husband can testify in favour of a claim made by his wife. It can also be said that Fatima did not ask her witnesses to make a claim on oath. People have also said that Hassan and Husayn testified in support of Fatima's claim, this is Batil, the testimony of offspring or underage children in favour of their parents is unacceptable.

Sawaiq al-Muhriqa, P138 & 139

Remember Ibn Hajr was a major defender of Abu Bakr and opponent of the Shi'a.

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Umm Ayman was a female companion.

“Umm Ayman the Ethiopian, she was the slave of Allah's messenger”

Siar alam alnubala, V2 p223

Rasulullah said: ‘Whoever wishes to marry a woman of paradise should marry Umm Ayman’

Tabaqat al-Kubra, V8 p224 and Tarikh Damishq, V4 p303:

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Umar wanted Fadak for expenses:

Seerah al Halbeeya V2 p488:

"Sibt ibn Jauzi narrates that after Fatima made her claim to the ownership of Fadak, Abu Bakr heard her claim and Abu Bakr left a written instruction that it be restored to her, then Umar came to Abu Bakr, and asked 'Who is this document for?' The Khalifa said 'It's with regards to Fadak this is a written document for Fatima in relation to her father's inheritance. Umar said 'then how will you spend for the Muslims, when the Arabs are preparing to fight you, Umar then took the document and ripped it up".

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In V2 p51 of Hayatus Sahaba under the Chapter 'The practice of seeking advice of the elite by Hadrat Abu Bakr' we read a narration transmitted by Ibn Abu Shaibah in Tarikh by al Bukhari, Ibn Asakir, Baihaqi and Yaqoob bin Sufyan:

"Ubaida reports 'Aina bin Hasan and Aqra bin Habis approached Hadrat Abu Bakr and said 'O Caliph of the Messenger of Allah!" There is some fallow land in out area. If you deem it considerable, give us the land so that we can cultivate it to earn our livelihood. He donated it to them and wrote a decree in support thereof. He also put down the name of Hadrat Umar on it as a witness. On seeing the document Hadrath Umar spat over it and erased its contents. Both of them grew angry and admonished Hadrat UImar. He replied 'The Holy Prophet infused love for Islam in both of you. It was the time when Islam was unstable, but now it has gained an honourable status. You therefore go and do as you like. May Allah allow you concession if you seek any. Both of them went grambling to Hadrat Abu Bakr and said, 'Tell us who is the Caliph, yourself or Umar? 'In a way he (umar) is the Caliph, because he could become Caliph if he wanted to be so said Hadrat Abu Bakr. In the meantime Hadrat Umar said 'Does the land you have donated to these two persons belong to you or to the Muslims as a whole? Hadrat Abu Bakr replied, 'It is the property of the Muslims as a whole' Hadrat Umar said 'What them made you to reserve this piece of land for these two persons ignoring the Muslims as a whole? Hadrat Abu Bakr said, 'The people around me had advised me to do so'. At this Hadrat Umar said, 'Had you consulted only the people around you or had you sought the opinion of all the Muslims who are the real owners of the property?' Hadrat Abu Bakr replied, 'I had told you that you are stronger than me in matters of Caliphate, but you did ignore my pleas and put me as Caliph.

[Al Kanz (V2 p189)al Isabah (V3 p55) Al Bukhari (V1 p59). This Hadith has been mentioned by the above sources with a correct Isnad…]".

Hayat us-Sahaba, V. 2, P51 & 52

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Tabaqat ibn Sad V2 p451 [English translation], under the Chapter 'The learned and those who gave Fatwas from among the companions of the Prophet of Allah:

"Muhammad ibn Umar al Aslami informed us; (he said): Jariyah ibn Abi Imran informed us on the authority of Abd al-Rahman Ibn al Qasim, he on the authority of his father; Verily when Abu Bakr confronted with an important affair about which he needed council of the wise and the jurists, he called some Muhajirs and Ansars. He called Umar, Uthman, 'Ali, 'Abd-al Rahman Ibn Awf, Mu'adh ibn Jabal, Unayy Ibn Ka'b and Zayd Ibn Thabit, every one of whom gave Fatwas during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr. The cases of the people for Fatwas were referred to them(the companions). This continued till the end of Abu Bakr's life".

Tabaqat Ibn Sa'ad, V. 2, P451 & 452

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Kanz al Ummal V6 p219 Bab Fadail Min Qism al Kaul:

"Rasulullah said 'the first to enter Paradise shall be Fatima as she is the example of Maryam for this Ummah"

Dr Tahir al Qadri in ‘Al Durr’athul Baydha fee Manaqib Fatima al Zahra’ p106 also recorded this narration from Kanz, counting it as one of her virtues.
Al Duratul Baydha fee Manaqib Fatima al Zahra, P106

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al Mustadrak al Hakim, V3 p161
al Istiab, V4 p366
al Kamil fi Isma al Rijjal al Isab al Mushkwaath, p29 Dhikr Fatima binte Rasul (printed Kanpur)
Hilayath al Awliya, V2 p42

Abdullah bin Zubair narrated from his father that whenever Ayesha mentioned Fatima the daughter of the Prophet, she used to say: ‘I never saw someone more truthful than her apart from the one that produced her (her father).’

Al-Mustadrak al-Hakim, V. 3, p160 & 161

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Imam Abu Yala records in his Musnad:

"Amro bin Dinar narrated that Ayesha said: ‘I never witnessed anyone more truthful than Fatima except her father. When a dispute arose between them (Fatima and Ayesha) she (Ayesha) said: ‘Oh Allah's messenger ask her (Fatima) verily she will not lie’

Musnad Abu Yala, V9 p465 Tradition 4850

Imam Abi Bakar Al-Haythami in Majm'a al-Zawaed, V9 p201 and Allamah Salehi al-Shami in Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad, V11 p47 said: ‘The narrators are of Sahih (books)’ .

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Sahih al Bukhari V5, B 57, Number 61, Bab Fadail Fatima & V7, B 62, Number 157 Bab ul Nikah
Sahih Muslim B 031, Number 6000 Bab Fatima Binte Rasul
Mustadrak al Hakim V3 159 Bab Fadail Fatima
Kanza Thamil V6 p219 Kitab Fadail min Qism al Kaul
al Isaba V4 p366
Hilayath al Awliya V20
Ruzatul Ahbaab p608

Sahih al Bukhari V7, B 62, Number 157 Bab ul Nikah:
"Fatima is a part of my body, and I hate what she hates to see, and what hurts her, hurts me."
Sahih al Bukhari V5, B 57, Number 61, Bab Fadail Fatima:
Allah's Prophet said, "Fatima is a part of me, and he who makes her angry, makes me angry."
Sahih Muslim B 031, Number 6000 Bab Fatima Binte Rasul:
Miswar b. Makhramah reported Allah's Messenger as saying: Fatima is a part of me. He in fact tortures me who tortures her.


In Naseem al Riyadh, Shah Shifa Qadhi Khan V4 p565, the author Shuhabudin al Hanafi writes:

"The author of Nihaya said the words "Bazz'aa' whether with 'Fatha' or Kasra are both acceptable but the Kasr is better known as Biza' means a piece of flesh, the Hadeeth means that Fatima is a piece of me since Fatima is a part of Rasulullah, this Hadeeth proves the virtuous rank of Sayyida Fatima, one that no other woman can attain"

Qadhi Badradeen A'ini in his famous commentary of Sahih al Bukhari, Umdah thul Qari V7 p665, comments on this tradition as follows:

"Bayhaqi has deduced from the above Hadeeth, that anyone that swears at this lady is a Kaafir".

In Umdathul Qari V9 p514, A'ini states:

"From the above Hadeeth this ruling is proven that one whose pains Fatima, pains Rasulullah, inflicting even the slightest pain to them is haraam"

-

The Holy Book of Allah mentions Ahlul-Bayt:

"Verily Allah intends to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness O' People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt), and purify you with a perfect purification".

Al-Qur'an, Surah Al-Ahzab, Ayah 33


Hadith tell us who are these people.

Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of the virtues of the Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1883, Tradition 61.
Jami al Tirmidhi V2 p589 Bab Manaqib Ahl'ul bayt
Tafseer Gharab al Qur'an Part 22 (Qur'an) p11, commentary of Surah Ahzab
Tafseer Kabeer V6 p579 commentary of Surah Ahzab
Tafseer Rul al Ma'ani Part 22 (Qur'an) p13, commentary of Surah Ahzab
Tafseer Fathul Qadeer V4 p270
Tafseer Ibn Katheer V4 p4 commentary of Surah Ahzab
Tafseer Mazhari V7 p373
Tafseer Durre Manthur V5 p198 (printed Egypt)
Tafseer Jauhar al Qur'an Part 22 (Qur'an) p28, commentary of Surah Ahzab
Tafseer al Itqan V2 p173
Tafseer Asbaab al Nazool p627
Sharh Fiqh Akbar p121
Mishkat al Masabeeh V2 p254
Mustadrak al Sahihayn, Bab fadhail al-ahlulbayt

We read in Sahih Muslim:

Narrated Ayesha: One day the Prophet (PBUH&HF) came out afternoon wearing a black cloak (upper garment or gown; long coat), then al-Hasan Ibn Ali came and the Prophet accommodated him under the cloak, then al-Hussain came and entered the cloak, then Fatimah came and the Prophet entered her under the cloak, then Ali came and the Prophet entered him to the cloak as well. Then the Prophet recited: "Verily Allah intends to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness O' People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt), and purify you with a perfect purification (the last sentence of Verse 33:33)."

We read in al Mustadrak al Hakim:

'The narrator states, when the revelation descended, the Rasul said, "call them to me, call them to me," Safia asked the Rasul "Ya Rasulullah whom shall I call" then the Prophet replied "My family namely, Ali, Fatima, Hassan and Hussain" When they came, the Prophet wrapped them under the cloak and raised his hand in prayer and said "Ya Allah this is my progeny, send your blessings to me and my progeny" Thereafter Allah sent down the revelation of Ayat ul Tatheer'

These reports make it clear that verse was revealed about Ali, Fatima, Hassan and Hussain.

-

Prophet kept reading this verse outside the home of Sayyida Fatima months.

Fathul Qadeer by Allamah Shukani p271 V4
Tafseer Maraaghi, V7 P 22
Tafseer Durre Manthur, V5, P199
Tasfeer Khazan, P213, V54
Mustadrak al Hakim P158, V3

al Hakim states:

Anas states: The Prophet after fajr prayer recited the verse for the next six months outside the home of Sayyida Fatima.

Ahmad bin Mustafa al-Muraaghi (d. 1317 H) records in Tafseer Muraaghi:

Ibn Abbas states, we have witnessed that the Prophet, after every prayer used to visit Ali Ibne Abi Talib door and recited Ayatu Tatheer. He did this continuously for 9 months. He did this fives times a day.

-


Tafseer Ibn Katheer, v4 p4 Al Azhab
Tafseer Ruh al Ma'ani, p22 V13
Tafseer Kabeer, p213 V5 [printed Egypt]
Tafseer Durre Manthur, p189 V5
Nazool Al Ibrar, p58
Zakhair al Uqba, P22

Nazool Al Ibrar by Allamah Badkhashani al-Hanbali:

Umme Salma said that Rasul was in my house, the servant told us the Ali and Fatima have arrived, the Prophet stated, "Oh Umme Salama, please go elsewhere as my Ahlulbayt has arrived, Umme Salma stated that I got up and sat in one corner of the room. The Prophet took Hassan and Hussain in his laps and he put his hands on Ali and Fatima's head and showed his affection toward them. He put the mantle on them and raised his hands to the sky and prayed, Oh Allah, for your sake me and my Ahlul Bayts…

-

Rijs

Rijs is defined as "dirt, filth, dirty thing or act, atrocity".

Shia scholar Shaykh Seduq records in Ma'ani al-Akhbar, p64:

Ali bin Abi Talib said: 'Once Allah's messenger was asked: 'What is batool? Oh Allah's messenger, we heard you saying Mary is batool and Fatima is batool?'. He [as] replied: 'Batool is the one who never saw blood, has never had a period, because the daughters of prophets are kept free of menses.''

Imam of Sunnah Tabarani records in Muajam al-Kabir, V22 p401:

Ayesha said: I saw Allah's messenger (pbuh) kissing Fatima. Thus I said: ‘Oh Allah's messenger! I see you doing some thing you never used to do before?’ He replied: ‘Oh Humayra, the night I was taken on a journey of the heaven, I entered the paradise, I stood next to a tree amongst the trees of the paradise and I never saw any tree looking better than it, nor better leaves than it, nor better fruit than it, hence I took one of it fruits and ate it, then it became a seed in my loin and then when I return back to earth, I had intercourse with Khadija thus she become pregnant by Fatima. Therefore whenever I miss the smell of paradise, I smell Fatima. Oh Humayra, verily Fatima is not like other women and she doesn’t have periods’.

Sa'd said: The Prophet [p] said to 'Ali 'It is not permitted for anyone to be in a state of Janub (requiring the complete washing of the body known as Ghusl) in the Mosque apart from me and you'.

Tareekh ul-Khulafa, P179

On p180 we read the envy of Umar in this regards:

Abu Hurraira said: 'Umar ibn al Khattab said, 'Ali was given three qualities any one of which I should prefer the gift of over high-bred camels'. He was asked 'And what are they?'. He said 'He married him his daughter Fatimah, his dwelling at the mosque wherein what is not permitted to me in it is permitted to him; and the standard on the Day of Khayber'

Tareekh ul-Khulafa, P180

In his book 'Maraja al-Bahrayn fi Manaqib al-Hasnayn' p48, he records this tradition:

"Umme Salma narrates that she heard the Prophet say 'It is never halaal for a person in a state of Janaba or menstruation to enter this Mosque, apart from the Prophet of Allah, 'Ali, Fatima, Hassan and Husayn. With the exception of them no one else is permitted to enter the Mosque of the Prophet. Go forth! I have told you the names to ensure that you are not lead astray".

Maraja Al-Bahrayn fi Manaqib al-Hasnayn, P48

1. Sunan Bayhaqi, V7 p65 Hadeeth number 13178-131792.
Kanz al Ummal, V14 p101 Hadeeth number 341833.
Tareekh Ibn Asakir, V14 p1664.
Fadail min al Seerah, V1 p283 [by Ibn Katheer]5.
Khasais al Kubra, V2 p424

-

Abu Bakr accepted a claim without the need for witnesses:

Sahih Bukhari, V3, B 48, Number 848: Book of Witnesses
Sahih Muslim, V2 p291
Sahih al Tirmidhi, v 5 p 129
Sunan al Kabeera, V6 p302
Musnad Ahmad Hanbal, v 3 p 307-308
Tabaqat Ibn Sa'ad, v 2 part 2 p 88-89
Riyadh al Nadira, V1 p227
Tareekh ul Khulafa, p69 Fadail fi Abu Bakr

We read in Sahih Bukhari:

Narrated Muhammad bin Ali: Jabir bin Abdullah said, "When the Prophet died, Abu Bakr received some property from Al-Ala bin Al-Hadrami. Abu Bakr said to the people, "Whoever has a money claim on the Prophet, or was promised something by him, should come to us (so that we may pay him his right)." Jabir added, "I said (to Abu Bakr), Allah's Prophet promised me that he would give me this much, and this much, and this much (spreading his hands three times)." Jabir added, "Abu Bakr counted for me and handed me five-hundred (gold pieces), and then five-hundred, and then five-hundred."

Jabir words were enough that Rasulullah owed him money. No witnesses were presented to corroborate his evidence. Abu Bakr's opinion was that the money should be returned to Jabir, without the need for witnesses. Yet when Sayyida Fatima claimed that the land of Fadak was bequeathed to her as inheritance, he refused to grant her the land, on the premise that her words were questionable and demanded witnesses.

Imam Badruddin al A'ini in Umdatul Qari said:

“Some (scholars) said that according to it (the tradition) the evidence of one just companion is accepted although it may be in his own favour, because Abu Bakr did not ask Jabir to produce any witness to prove his claim.”

Umadat ul Qari, V12 p121

We also read in Umadat ul Qari, V12 p120:

"I say: By not seeking additional witnesses to back up Jabir's claim was an adherence the principles of the Qur'an and Sunnah, since in the Qur'an Allah says that you are the Khayr ul Ummah (Best of Ummah's), an wasat Ummah (Just Ummah) - if Jabir is not counted in the best and most just of Ummah's then who is? He acted on a Hadeeth in this way, Rasulullah said ‘Whoever intentionally attributes a lie to me shall enter Hell' hence whilst the comments of a normal Muslim cannot be relied upon, it cannot be that a Sahabi would attribute lies to the Prophet. If this problem arose today it would be unacceptable without proof.”

Umadat ul Qari, V12 p121


We also read in Ahle Sunnah's authority work Al Alam al Moqeen p36:

"The truth is when you have just one witness; a ruling should be based on their truthfulness. It is established that the Prophet ruled on the Abu Qathada's killing a Pagan, on the basis of sole testimony, and rewarded him his armour on this basis, he did not even ask for the clear testimony of Abu Qatada, rather the testimony of a single witness was deemed acceptable".

-

Tareekh Baghdadi V5 p37 Dhikr Ahmad ibn Ahmad bin Abu Bakr al Tamadh
Manaqib by Ibne Maghazli al Shaafi p98,
Kanz al Ammal V11 p604
Riyadh al Nadira Vp154


Tareekh Baghdad records as follows:


"Jaysh bin Janada states 'I was sitting next to Abu Bakr and he [Abu Bakr] announced 'Claim anything that the Prophet owed you'. One man said Rasulullah promised me six handfuls of dates. Abu Bakr then summoned 'Ali and told him the matter and asked that he distribute the dates with handfuls, he did do. Abu Bakr said 'Gather them' there were seven dates in each"

All four books then have the testimony of Abu Bakr:


"Verily Allah and his Prophet spoke the truth, I heard Rasulullah say on the night of Hijrah as we left Makka 'My hand and Ali's hand are EQUAL in dispensing justice.

We read in Sahih al Bukhari Chapter 52. Book of Setting Free, Hadeeth number 2481:

It is related from 'Abdullah Ibn Abi Mulayka that the two sons of Suhayb, the client of Ibn Jud'an, laid claim to two houses and a room, saying that the Messenger of Allah had given that to Suhayb. Marwan asked, "Who will testify to that on your behalf?" They said, "Ibn 'Umar." He summoned him and he testified that the Messenger of Allah had given Suhayb two houses and a room. Marwan judged in their favour on the basis of his testimony.

Imam of Ahl'ul Sunnah Badrudeen Al-A'ini has given his commentary of this Hadeeth in Umdat ul Qari, V13 p177:

Ibn Batal said: ‘How did Marwan judge on the basis of Ibn Umar testimony only? The answer is that Marwan judged by his testimony accompanied by the oath of the claimant according to Sunnah in making judgment by a single witness and oath of claimant.

We read in Ahl'ul Sunnah's authority work Kanz al Ummal:

“Ali bin Abi Talib narrates that Allah's messenger, Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman would rule upon the witness testimony of one person and the oath of the claimant ".

Kanz al Ummal, V7 p23 Tradition 17786

Similarly we read in Sunnan al-Darqutni, V10 p338:

Ali narrates that Allah's messenger would rule upon the witness testimony of one person and the oath of the claimant. (Darqutni said) Ali would issue rulings in this manner in Iraq.

Sunnan al-Darqutni, V10 p338 Tradition 4540

We read in Sunan ibn Majah:

Ibn Abbas narrates that Rasulullah ruled on the basis of the testimony of a single witness and (a claimant’s) oath.

Sunan ibn Majah, V2 p793 Hadith 2370


We read in Sunan Abu Dawud, The Office of the Judge (Kitab Al-Aqdiyah) B 24, Number 360:

Narrated Abu Hurayrah: The Prophet gave a decision on the basis of an oath and a single witness.

We read in Muwatta Imam Malik, Book of Judgements B 36, Number 36.4.5:

Yahya said, "Malik said from Jafar ibn Muhammad from his father that the Messenger of Allah pronounced judgement on the basis of an oath with one witness."

Of interest is the fact that Ibn Taymiyah al Nasibi in Minhajj al Sunnah, V4 p125 also stated:

“Yes it can be ruled by the testimony of sole witness and the claimer’s oath according to the scholars of Hijaz and Ahlul Hadith”.

Imam Mawardi records in his authority work al-Ensaf, V12 p84:

We say: ‘The testimony of one witness and oath of the claimant is acceptable’

-

Imam Malik in his Muwatta,Book of Judgements Section: Judgement Based on Oaths with One Witness, having cited the fact that the Prophet would pass judgement on the basis of the oath and testimony of a single witness, comments:

"The precedent of the sunna in judging by an oath with one witness is that if the plaintiff takes an oath with his testimony, he is confirmed in his right. If he draws back and refuses to take an oath, the defendant is made to take an oath. If the defendent takes an oath, the claim against him is dropped. If he refuses to take an oath, the claim is confirmed against him."

Malik said, "This procedure pertains to property cases in particular".

This was a property dispute and all that Khalifa Abu Bakr needed to do was take the sole testimony of Sayyida Fatima (on oath) so as to confirm the truthfulness of her claim.

-

Abu Bakr rejected Sayyida Fatima , by saying:

'I don't know if you are telling the truth'

[Tafseer al Kabeer, V10 p506]

He also rejected the witnesses she produces, Ali, Rabah, Umm Ayman, Hasan, Husayn.

-

Sahih Muslim B 019, Number 4349 that Umar acknowledged the following to Imam 'Ali :

Umar's Words:

When the Messenger of Allah passed away, Abu Bakr said:" I am the successor of the Messenger of Allah." Both of you came to demand your shares from the property (left behind by the Messenger of Allah). (Referring to Hadhrat 'Abbas), he said: You demanded your share from the property of your nephew, and he (referring to 'Ali) demanded a share on behalf of his wife from the property of her father. Abu Bakr said: The Messenger of Allah had said:" We do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity." So both of you thought him to be a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest.

-

Kanz al Ummal, V11 p399 Tradition 31519:

Rasulullah said to Ali: 'When people love this world and shall usurp inheritance and love money so much amd used the religion of Allah as a source of income and the property of Allah as estates, what will you do? Ali replied: ‘I shall leave them alone, and shall seek out Allah, his Prophet and the next world. I shall bear patience in relation to worldly problems until I meet you'. Rasulullah said: 'You spoke correctly, O Allah! Give 'Ali patience’.

Kanz al Ummal, V11 p399 Tradition 31519

This is the complete tradition from Sahih Bukhari, V5, B 59, Number 367:

Narrated Malik bin Aus Al-Hadathan An-Nasri,...Then 'Umar turned towards 'Ali and 'Abbas and said, ...So I kept this property in my possession for the first two years of my rule (i.e. Caliphate) and I used to dispose it of in the same way as Allah's Prophet and Abu Bakr used to do; and Allah knows that I have been sincere, pious, rightly guided and the follower of the right (in this matter.Later on both of you (i.e. 'Ali and Abbas) came to me, O 'Abbas! You also came to me and the claim of you both was one and the same.So I told you both that Allah's Prophet said, "Our property is not inherited, but whatever we leave is to be given in charity.' Then when I thought that I should better hand over this property to you both or the condition that you will promise and pledge before Allah that you will dispose it off in the same way as Allah's Prophet and Abu Bakr did and as I have done since the beginning of my caliphate or else you should not speak to me (about it).' So, both of you said to me, 'Hand it over to us on this condition.' And on this condition I handed it over to you. Do you want me now to give a decision other than that (decision)? By Allah, with Whose Permission both the sky and the earth stand fast, I will never give any decision other than that (decision) till the Last Hour is established. But if you are unable to manage it (i.e. that property), then return it to me, and I will manage on your behalf." The sub-narrator said,..............So, this property (of Sadaqah) was in the hands of Ali who withheld it from 'Abbas and overpowered him. Then it came in the hands of Hasan bin 'Ali, then in the hands of Hussain bin 'Ali, and then in the hands of Ali bin Hussain and Hasan bin Hasan, and each of the last two used to manage it in turn, then it came in the hands of Zaid bin Hasan, and it was truly the Sadaqah of Allah's Prophet ."

Readers can also consult traditions on this subject: Sahih Bukhari Hadeeth: 9.408, 8.720 4:326.

Shi'a work Rudhutul Kafi, Sermon of Al-Fatan wa Al-Bidah, p59:

"The Caliphs before me intentionally practiced such acts in which they went against Rasool Allah. They broke the promises (which they made with Rasool) and changed the Sunnah of Rasool Allah. If (today) I ask people to leave all these things (innovations) and restore things back to the way they were at the time of Rasulullah, my army shall rebel and abandon me, and I shall be left alone. All that shall remain turning to me shall be those Shi'a who recognise my virtues and rank. Then he further explained by giving some examples that: "If I return Fadak to the heirs of Fatima , and if I order to restore the "Sa'a" (a unit for measuring wheat) of Rasool Allah. And if I return the properties, which were given by Rasool to their original owners, and deny the decisions which were based on injustice (and tyranny), and snatch the women who were illegally taken by some people and return them to their husbands, and if I deny the (unjust) distribution of Fadak, and start giving the shares to every one equally (as were originally given by Rasool, but earlier caliphs started giving according to status), …. and restore the condition of Khums of Rasool, and to bring Masjid-e-Nabi to it's original position, and to make "Mash alal Khaffin" haram, and to issue punishment ("Had") for drinking "Nabeedh" (alcohol made out of barley), and give the fatwa for Mut'ah being Halaal, and start saying 5 Takbirs at funeral, and make it obligatory upon people to recite "Bismillah" loudly during Salat ...... and ask people to follow the Quranic and Sunnah way of giving Talaq, and ask people to give all the Sadaqat, and to restore the way of ablution, ghusl and Salah to their original forms and time, and give back the fidya (which was unjustly taken) to Ahl-e-Najran, and return the slave girls of Ahle Faras, and ask people to return to Qur'an and Sunnah of Rasool, then all people will abandon me (and I will be left alone). I ordered people that they should only gather for Fardh (obligatory) prayers during Ramadhan, and told them that congregation (Jamah) in Nafl (i.e. Tarawih) is a Bidah (innovation) then all of these people started shouting that Sunnah of Hadhrat Umar has been changed."

Umadatul Qari Sharah Sahih Bukhari, V16 p218:

Ali said: ‘You shall maintain the type of orders that you had done in the past, because I dislike disagreement, until the people gather under a single group, or I die as my companions died’.

When Hadhrat 'Ali became Khalifa, Fadak was in the hands of Marwan:

We read in Mirqat:

"Then Marwan during Uthman's time made it his personal property and his retinue, the ruler has the right to grant piece of land to whoever he wants and Marwan is Marwan ibn al-Hakam the grand father of Umar bin Abdulaziz, he was born during Allah's messenger time but he didn’t see the prophet, because the prophet had exiled his father to Taeif and he remained there until Uthman became the ruler, hence he (Uthman) brought him (al-Hakam) back to Madina with his son (Marwan), after that Fadak was transferred to Umar bin Abdulaziz”

Mirqat Sharh Mishkat, V12 p317

Hadhrat Ali was adhering to the Sunnah of Rasulullah:

We read in Sahih al Bukhari, Book of Knowledge V1, B 3, Number 128:

Narrated Aswad: Ibn Az-Zubair said to me, "Ayesha used to tell you secretly a number of things. What did she tell you about the Ka'ba?" I replied, "She told me that once the Prophet said, 'O 'Ayesha! Had not your people been still close to the pre-Islamic period of ignorance (infidelity)! I would have dismantled the Ka'ba and would have made two doors in it; one for entrance and the other for exit." Later on Ibn Az-Zubair did the same.

We read in Mirqat:

"Then Marwan during Uthman's time made it his personal property and his retinue, the ruler has the right to grant piece of land to whoever he wants and Marwan is Marwan ibn al-Hakam the grand father of Umar bin Abdulaziz, he was born during Allah's messenger time but he didn’t see the prophet, because the prophet had exiled his father to Taeif and he remained there until Uthman became the ruler, hence he (Uthman) brought him (al-Hakam) back to Madina with his son (Marwan), after that Fadak was transferred to Umar bin Abdulaziz”

Mirqat Sharh Mishkat, V12 p317

We read in Al-Aqd al-Farid, V2 p87:

“He (Uthman) granted Fadak to Marwan”

While talking about Fadak, Imam Jalaluddin Suyuti records in Tarikh Khulafa, V1 p95:

“It was so during Abu Bakr and Umar’s time, then he (Uthman) granted it to Marwan and then it transferred to Umar bin Abdulaziz”

-

We read in Ahl'ul Sunnah's esteemed work al-Istiab, V1 p147, the letter 'ra', Dhikr Rafa bin Raafi’e:

"When Talha and Zubayr rebelled against Ali, Um al-Fadhl bin al-Harith wrote to Ali informing him about their rebellion, he (Ali) said: 'This is a astonishing from Talha and Zubayr. When Allah brought his Prophet back to Him and we said 'We are his (prophet) family and guardians, no one disputes us in his authority (leadership)’ our people rejected us and made others as their leaders. By Allah! Had it not been a fear of dissension and a return to apostasy, and my fear of the destruction of the religion, we would have changed things, but we maintained silence".

Al-Istiab, V1 p147

Lughut al Hadeeth V2 p97, Kitab Jeem:

'Ali said 'had Rasulullah not made me promise I would have killed my opponents'

Sahih al Bukhari V6, B 60, Hadeeth Number 428: Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah:

We were in a Ghazwa (Sufyan once said, in an army) and a man from the emigrants kicked an Ansari man (on the buttocks with his foot). The Ansari man said, "O the Ansar! (Help!)" and the emigrant said. "O the emigrants! (Help!) Allah's Prophet heard that and said, "What is this call for, which is characteristic of the period of ignorance?" They said, "O Allah's Prophet! A man from the emigrants kicked one of the Ansar (on the buttocks with his foot)." Allah's Prophet said, "Leave it (that call) as is a detestable thing." 'Abdullah bin Ubai heard that and said, 'Have the (the emigrants) done so? By Allah, if we return Medina, surely, the more honourable will expel there from the meaner." When this statement reached the Prophet. 'Umar got up and, said, "O Allah's Prophet! Let me chop off the head of this hypocrite ('Abdullah bin Ubai)!" The Prophet said "Leave him, lest the people say that Muhammad kills his companions." The Ansar were then more in number than the emigrants when the latter came to Medina, but later on the emigrant increased.

The reference makes it clear that a hypocrite was sitting in the midst of the Sahaba, Umar offered to have him killed, but the Prophet refused stating that he did not want outsiders to think that Rasulullah kills his Sahaba. On the same principle Hadhrat 'Ali did not force Marwan to return Fadak to him. Had he done so opposition would have led to resistance and bloodshed, and people would have said 'Ali the Khalifa is killing his subjects for worldly benefits'. For the reason that Rasulullah remained silent, Imam Ali did the same.

-

Abu Bakr claimed that Khalifa inherits Rasulullah:

Sunan Abu Dawood B 19, Tribute, Spoils, and Rulership (Kitab Al-Kharaj, Wal-Fai' Wal-Imarah) Number 2967 reads:

Narrated Abu Bakr: Abu Tufayl said: Fatimah came to Abu Bakr asking him for the inheritance of the Prophet. Abu Bakr said: I heard the Prophet of Allah say: If Allah, Most High, gives a Prophet some means of sustenance that goes to his successor.

Abu Bakr admits Prophet's children are inheritors:

Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Riyadh al Nadira:

"Hadhrat Fatima went to Abu Bakr and said "Is Abu Bakr the Waris of the Prophet or his children? Abu Bakr said 'I am not the Waris, rather his children are. Fatima then said 'Why have you taken the Prophet's portion?' Abu Bakr said: I heard the Prophet of Allah say: If Allah, Most High, gives a Prophet some means of sustenance that goes to his successor".

-

Sahih al Bukhari V4, B 53, Number 325 [although similar reports can be found in Sahih Muslim and Sunan Nasai]:

Narrated 'Ayesha(mother of the believers):After the death of Allah's Prophet Fatima the daughter of Allah's Prophet asked Abu Bakr As-Siddiq to give her, her share of inheritance from what Allah's Prophet had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allah had given him. Abu Bakr said to her, "Allah's Prophet said, 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. prophets) leave is Sadaqah (to be used for charity)." Fatima, the daughter of Allah's Prophet got angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died. Fatima remained alive for six months after the death of Allah's Prophet.

Ali rejected Abu Bakr's position:

Kanz al Ummal, V4 p52 Dhikr Meeras al Nabi
Neel al Autar, V6 p88 Dhikr Meeras al Nabi
Sunan al Kabeera, Part 1, V6 p298, Kism al Fay
Sahih Muslim, B 019, Number 4349 The Book of Jihad and Expedition (Kitab Al-Jihad wa'l-Siyar)
Sahih Muslim Sharh Nawawi, V. 12, P75
Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, V. 3, P128
Musnad Abi Awana, V. 4, P137
Umdah tul Qari fie Sharh Sahih al Bukhari V11 p476 Bab
Sharh Sahih Muslim, by Nawawi V2 p90 Kitab al Fai
Fathul Bari Sharh Sahih al Bukhari, V13 p280
Irshad al Sari Sharh Sahih al Bukhari, V28 p52

We read in Kanz al Ummal taken from Ibn Hanbal:
"On one occasion Hadhrat Umar said to 'Ali and Abbas - Abu Bakr said 'I heard the Messenger of Allah had said:" We do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity." So both of you thought him to be a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest".
We read in Neel al Autaar:
"Hadhrat Umar cited the position of 'Ali and Abbas, that on the issue of the inheritance of the Prophet, you held your opponent to be Dhaalim, as is discussed in Sahih al Bukhari"

Neel al-Autaar, V. 6, P88
We read in Sunan al Kabeera:
On one occasion Hadhrat Umar said the Messenger of Allah had said: "We do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity." So both of you thought him to be a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest".

Bukhari seeking to cover up the issue as much as possible replaced the offensive terms

We read in Sahih Bukhari Hadith: 9.408:
"... Then he (Umar) turned to 'Ali and 'Abbas and said, "You both claim that Abu Bakr did so-and-so in managing the property".
Ibn Hajr Asqalani in Fathul Baree addresses this issue as follows:
Bukhari narrated the Hadeeth with Umar saying 'You both deemed Abu Bakr, the commentary of this Hadeeth is located in Sahih Muslim, that they deemed him liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest
Umadah tul Qari informs us that:
"Umar said 'Ali and Abbas you both deemed Abu Bakr to be on the wrong path".
We read in Irshad Sari Sharh Sahih Bukhari:
"Umar said that Abbas and 'Ali both deemed the usurpation of Fadak to be a sinful, treacherous deceit. This has been narrated by the Hadeeth scholar Zubayr, on some occasions he provides a commentary to the words of Umar on other he gives a mere hint".

Shams al Hind, Allamah Shibli Numani, who in Sirat ul Nabi pages 67-68 states:


"In the Sahih Muslim, in the Book of Jihad, Chapter 'al Fai', it is recorded that once Abbas and 'Ali came to Umar, Abbas said to 'Umar, 'O Caliph, be judge between me and this liar, this criminal, this misappropriator of trusts, this traitor. As no Muslim could utter such words for 'Ali, many traditionists have omitted them from their books [al Nawawi, Sharh Sahih Muslim, commentary on this Hadith, Kitab al Jihad, Chapter al Fai] Al Imam Mazari says 'When we cannot interpret it any other way, we shall say the narrator must have been a liar'

[al Nawawi, Sharh Sahih Muslim, commentary on this Hadith, Kitab al Jihad, Chapter al Fai]

Seerat un-Nabi, P67 & 68

-

The reason why the wives of the Prophet are not mentioned disputing over Fadak is because they knew that Fadak belonged to Fatima Al-Zahra but that does not mean that they didn't ask for their share of their inheritance.

Sahih Bukhari, V5, B 59, Number 367Kitab al Maghaazi
Sahih Muslim, V3 p72, Hukm al Fay
Sunan ibn Abu Dawood, V3 p145 Bab al Fay
Sunan al Kabeera, V6 p301 Kitab Fay
Majma al Buldan, V14 p239 Dhikr Fadak
Al Bidaya wa al Nihaya, V5 page285 Dhikr Meeras al Nabi
Madarij al Nubuwwa, V2 p445 Dhikr Taqseem Meeras al Nabi
Kashaf al Ghimma, V2 p42 Dhikr Meeras al Nabi
Sawaiqh al Muhriqa, p22 Dhikr Thaan Ghasb Fadak

We read in Sahih al Bukhari:

…. "I told 'Urwa bin Az-Zubair of this Hadeeth and he said, 'Malik bin Aus has told the truth" I heard 'Ayesha, the wife of the Prophet saying, 'The wives of the Prophet sent 'Uthman to Abu Bakr demanding from him their 1/8 of the Fai which Allah had granted to his Prophet. But I used to oppose them and say to them: Will you not fear Allah? Don't you know that the Prophet used to say: Our property is not inherited, but whatever we leave is to be given in charity?"

-

Ayesha’s wanting inheritance of her husband proves that other position used to deny fatima is false.

As evidence we shall cite Madarij un Nabuwwah V2 p756:
"Ayesha narrates after the death of Rasulullah I went to claim my share of inheritance that was Khayber, Fadak and the land of Banu Nadheer, but Abu Bakr gave nothing, he gave the same reply that he had given to the other wives of the Prophet and Fatima daughter of the Prophet".

Madarij un Nabuwwah, V2 p756

The questions arises how the same Ayesha that rebuked the wives from claiming inheritance (when the Prophet repeatedly stressed he would leave none) would then make an inheritance claim following his death?

The reality is Ayesha had never heard the words from the Prophet, the first that she heard that he left no inheritance was from her father.

we read her testimony in Sawaiqh al Muhriqa p14:


"No one knew about the inheritance of the Prophet save Abu Bakr".

-

The clothes and the ring of Prophet was taken by Caliphs and Aisha.

We read in Sahih Bukhari, V7, B 72, Number 767:
Narrated Anas: that when Abu Bakr became the Caliph, he wrote a letter to him (andstamped it with the Prophet's ring) and the engraving of the ring wasin three lines: Muhammad in one line, 'Prophet' in another line, and'Allah' in a third line. Anas added: 'the ring of the Prophetwas in his hand, and after him, in Abu Bakr's hand, and then in'Umar's hand after Abu Bakr. When Uthman was the Caliph, once he wassitting at the well of Aris. He removed the ring from his hand andwhile he was trifling with it, dropped into the well. We kept on goingto the well with Uthman for three days looking for the ring, andfinally the well was drained, but the ring was not found.
Sahih Muslim, B 24, under the Chapter The Book Pertaining to Clothes and Decoration (Kitab Al-Libas wa'l-Zinah) B 024, Number 5149 as follows:
Abdullah. the freed slave of Asma' (the daughter of Abu Bakr). the maternal uncle of the son of 'Ata, reported: Asma' sent me to 'Abdullah b. 'Umar saying: The news has reached me that you prohibit the use of three things: the striped robe. saddle cloth made of red silk. and the fasting in the holy month of Rajab. 'Abdullah said to me: So far as what you say about fasting in the month of Rajab, how about one who observes continuous fasting? -and so far as what you say about the striped garment, I heard Umar b. Khatab say that he had heard from Allah's Messenger: He who wears silk garment has no share for him (in the Hereafter), and I am afraid it may not be that striped garment; and so far as the red saddle cloth is concerned that is the saddle cloth of Abdullah and it is red. I went back to Asma' and informed her whereupon she said: Here is the cloak of Allah's Messenger and she brought out to me that cloak made of Persian cloth with a hem of brocade, and its sleeves bordered with brocade and said: This was Allah's Messenger's cloak with 'A'isha until she died, and when she died. I got possession of it. The Prophet of Allah used to wear that, and we washed it for the sick and sought cure thereby.
We also read in the same chapter of Sahih Muslim B 024, Number 5181:
Abu Burda reported: I visited A'isha and she brought out for us the coarse lower garment (of Allah's Messenger) made in Yemen and clothes made out of Mulabbada cloth, and she swore in the name of Allah that Allah's Messenger died in these two clothes.

Sahih Bukhari, B 23: Chapter Funerals (Al-Janaa'iz) V2, B 23, Number 475:
Narrated 'Amr bin Maimun Al-Audi: I saw 'Umar bin Al-Khattab (when he was stabbed) saying, "O 'Abdullah bin 'Umar! Go to the mother of the believers Ayesha and say, 'Umar bin Al-Khattab sends his greetings to you,' and request her to allow me to be buried with my companions." (So, Ibn 'Umar conveyed the message to 'Ayesha.) She said, "I had the idea of having this place for myself but today I prefer him ('Umar) to myself (and allow him to be buried there)." When 'Abdullah bin 'Umar returned, 'Umar asked him, "What (news) do you have?" He replied, "O chief of the believers! She has allowed you (to be buried there)." On that 'Umar said, "Nothing was more important to me than to be buried in that (sacred) place. So, when I expire, carry me there and pay my greetings to her ('Ayesha ) and say, 'Umar bin Al-Khattab asks permission; and if she gives permission, then bury me (there) and if she does not, then take me to the grave-yard of the Muslims.

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, V3, B 39, Number 521:

The Prophet concluded a contract with the people of Khaibar to utilize the land on the condition that half the products of fruits or vegetation would be their share. The Prophet used to give his wives one hundred Wasqs each, eighty Wasqs of dates and twenty Wasqs of barley. (When 'Umar became the Caliph) he gave the wives of the Prophet the option of either having the land and water as their shares, or carrying on the previous practice. Some of them chose the land and some chose the Wasqs, and 'Aisha chose the land.

Ayesha inherited the very land that her father had denied Sayyida Fatima . This is clear from Sahih Al- Bukhari: V4, B 53, Number 325:

Narrated 'Aisha: "…She used to ask Abu Bakr for her share from the property of Allah's Prophet which he left at Khaibar, and Fadak, and his property at Medina (devoted for charity). Abu Bakr refused to give her that property and said, "I will not leave anything Allah's Prophet used to do, because I am afraid that if I left something from the Prophet's tradition, then I would go astray." (Later on) Umar gave the Prophet's property (of Sadaqah) at Medina to 'Ali and 'Abbas, but he withheld the properties of Khaibar and Fadak in his custody and said, "These two properties are the Sadaqah which Allah's Prophet used to use for his expenditures and urgent needs.

--

Umar gave Prophet's property in Madina to Ali and Abbas.

We read in Sahih Bukhari, V4, B 53, Number 325 with regards to the claim of Sayyida Fatima :

Narrated 'Ayesha: (mother of the believers) After the death of Allah 's Prophet Fatima the daughter of Allah's Prophet asked Abu Bakr As-Siddiq to give her, her share of inheritance from what Allah's Prophet had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allah had given him. Abu Bakr said to her, "Allah's Prophet said, 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. prophets) leave is Sadaqah (to be used for charity)." Fatima, the daughter of Allah's Prophet got angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died. Fatima remained alive for six months after the death of Allah's Prophet.She used to ask Abu Bakr for her share from the property of Allah's Prophet which he left at Khaibar, and Fadak, and his property at Medina (devoted for charity). Abu Bakr refused to give her that property and said, "I will not leave anything Allah's Prophet used to do, because I am afraid that if I left something from the Prophet's tradition, then I would go astray." (Later on) Umar gave the Prophet's property (of Sadaqa) at Medina to 'Ali and 'Abbas, but he withheld the properties of Khaibar and Fadak in his custody and said, "These two properties are the Sadaqa which Allah's Prophet used to use for his expenditures and urgent needs. Now their management is to be entrusted to the ruler." (Az-Zuhri said, "They have been managed in this way till today.")

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The anger of Sayyida Fatima

Sahih Bukhari, V4, B 53, Number 325, Book of Khums
Sahih Muslim, V3 p72, Hukm al Fay
Izala tul Khifa, Part 2 V3 p109
Sunan al Kabeera, V6 p301 Kitab Fay

We read in Sahih Bukhari V4, B 53, Number 325:

Narrated 'Ayesha: (mother of the believers) After the death of Allah 's Prophet Fatima the daughter of Allah's Prophet asked Abu Bakr As-Siddiq to give her, her share of inheritance from what Allah's Prophet had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allah had given him. Abu Bakr said to her, "Allah's Prophet said, 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. prophets) leave is Sadaqah (to be used for charity)." Fatima, the daughter of Allah's Prophet got angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died. Fatima remained alive for six months after the death of Allah's Prophet.

al-Bukhari under the Chapter of "The battle of Khaibar", Arabic-English,v5, tradition 546, pp 381-383, narrates from Ayesha that:

".. Fatimah became angry with Abu Bakr and kept away from him, and did not talk to him till she died. She remained alive for six months after the death of the Prophet. When she died, her husband 'Ali, her at night without informing Abu Bakr and he said the funeral prayer by himself".

Sunan Kabeera:

"When the Khalifa recited the Hadeeth We the Prophets leave no inheritance, Fatima became angry at Abu Bakr and never spoke to him until she died"

In Sahih Bukhari V5 Hadeeth 61, we read the honour bestowed on Sayyida Fatima , by Rasulullah:

"Allah's Prophet said, "Fatima is a part of me, and he who makes her angry, makes me angry."

--

Sirat-un Nabi V1 p42, by Hanafi scholar Shibli Numani:

"…the following categories of reports are to be discredited without an enquiry into the characters of their narrators:

The traditions that are contrary to reason
The traditions that go against accepted principles
The traditions that belie common observations and physical experience
The traditions that contradict the Qur'an or a Muttawatir Hadeeth…
The tradition that threatens severe punishment for a minor fault
The tradition that sounds absurd and nonsensensical…
The tradition that promises big rewards for trivial acts of piety
A tradition narrated by a single person who has never personally contacted the man from whom he narrates
A tradition that ought to have been known to all and sundry, but has only a single narrator
Any tradition concerning an incident so noteworthy that, if it had actually taken place, it ought to have been related by many, and yet there is but a single narrator to it".


Seerat un-Nabi, P42

--

Tafseer Kabeer V3, p157, verse Yau Sakeem Allah:

Only Ali, Fatima and Abbas were affected by the ruling with regard to Prophetic inheritance, they were amongst the highest ranks of knowledge and honesty. Abu Bakr did not come within this ruling nor could he even contemplate that he was the Waris of Rasulullah, How can it be Rasulullah's rank that those who came within the ruling were not informed whilst those who were not affected were told".

--

A tradition that contradicts the Qur'an is false.

Allah's condemnation on anyone who turns his back on the Qur'an is clear.

We read in Surah as Sajdah 032.022:

And who does more wrong than one to whom are recited the Signs of his Lord, and who then turns away there from? Verily from those who transgress We shall exact (due) Retribution.

Both Sunnis and Shias are in agreement that any Hadeeth that contradicts the Qur'an should be rejected. The Hadeeth advanced by Abu Bakr that Prophet said "Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (prophets) leave is Charity", is contradicted by 10 verses of the Qur'an, hence the Hadeeth could not be advanced as evidence.

The claim of Sayyida Fatima was supported by the Qur'an. Abu Bakr rejected her claim by advancing a Hadeeth which Quran contradicts.

Translation by Yusuf Ali:

Surah Nisa 004.011:

Allah (thus) directs you as regards your Children's (Inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two females: if only daughters, two or more, their share is two-thirds of the inheritance; if only one, her share is a half.

Surah Nisa 004.007:

From what is left by parents and those nearest related there is a share for men and a share for women, whether the property be small or large,-a determinate share.

Surah Nisa 004.033:

To (benefit) every one, We have appointed shares and heirs to property left by parents and relatives. To those, also, to whom your right hand was pledged, give their due portion. For truly Allah is witness to all things.

Surah Ahzab 033.006:

Bloodrelations among each other have closer personal ties, in the Decree of Allah. Than (the Brotherhood of) Believers and Muhajirs

Surah Naml 027.016:

And Solomon was David's heir.

Surah Sad verses 30-31:

To David We gave Solomon (for a son),- How excellent in Our service! Ever did he turn (to Us)! Behold, there were brought before him, at eventide coursers of the highest breeding, and swift of foot;

Surah Maryam 019.004-6:

Praying: "O my Lord! … give me an heir as from Thyself,- (One that) will (truly) represent me, and represent the posterity of Jacob; and make him, O my Lord! one with whom Thou art well-pleased!"

Surah Anbiya verse 89:

And (remember) Zakariya, when he cried to his Lord: "O my Lord! leave me not without offspring, though thou art the best of inheritors."

We read in Surah Aal-e-Imran 003.038:

There did Zakariya pray to his Lord, saying: "O my Lord! Grant unto me from Thee a progeny that is pure: for Thou art He that heareth prayer!

Surah Baqarah 002.248:

And (further) their Prophet said to them: "A Sign of his authority is that there shall come to you the Ark of the covenant, with (an assurance) therein of security from your Lord, and the relics left by the family of Moses and the family of Aaron, carried by angels. In this is a symbol for you if ye indeed have faith."

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Abu Bakr's decision in the Fadak dispute contradicted his own method of ruling on other areas. Indeed Fadak exposes Abu Bakr's double standards!

We read in Izala tul Khifa Part 2, V3 p114:

"Whenever a dispute was brought before Abu Bakr, he would seek to direct him towards the Qur'an, or relevant Hadeeth of Rasulullah, if no evidence could be located from the Qur'an or Sunnah he would ask for the help of the Sahaba, if the Sahaba were agreed on Hadeeth he would take it, if a Hadeeth was not agreed upon he would gather selected people and seek their advice. When all the people agreed on an opinion, Abu Bakr would rule accordingly".

-




Sayyid Abul Hasan Nadwi a leading Imam of the Deobandi's in his book 'The Life of Caliph Ali' heaps glowing admiration on Abu Bakr's action:

There are other reports also which corroborate the determination of Abu Bakr never to deviate, [not] even slightly, from the practice of the Prophet and follow only what he knew to be the Prophet's will.

Excerpted from "The Life of Caliph Ali" by Abul Hasan Nadwi

--

Abu Bakr prevented the recital of Hadeeth.

We read in Tadhkiratul Huffaz V1 p3 by Dhahabi:

"After the death of the Prophet Abu Bakr gathered the people and said 'You recite such Hadeeth from Rasulullah, that you yourselves are at logger heads as to whether it is Sahih, people after you shall differ even more, stop quoting such Hadeeth. If anyone asks you about a matter then say the Book of Allah is between the two of us, whatever the Qur'an deems halaal, you deem halaal, whatever it deems haraam you also deem haraam".

Abu Bakr wanted people to turn to the Qur'an for guidance on what is halaal and haraam, yet he ruled that the no one could inherit the Prophet's possessions, in doing so he contradicted ten verses of the Qur'an.

Abu Bakr banned Sahabas from saying controvercial hadith; but his own Hadeeth 'We the Prophets leave no inheritance' caused such opposition that Ali deemed him a 'liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest'.

--

Abu Bakr's Hadeeth burning campaign

Dhahabi in Tadhkiratul Huffaz V1 p5 Dhikr Abu Bakr states:

"Ayesha narrates 'My father Abu Bakr gathered the Hadeeth of the Prophet, there were 500 in total, but following a difficult night of tossing from side to side, I heard the fear and asked 'Have you seen a nightmare?', or are you changing sides for some other reason? When dawn came Abu Bakr said "Daughter bring the Hadeeth that are in your possession, he then summoned fire, and burnt the Hadeeth. I asked 'Why did you burn them?' He said 'I was worried that they remain after I die, the Hadeeth I narrated from Thiqah narrators are not relayed in the same manner. If they are not reported in the same way I shall be culpable for such a mistake".

These are considered by Sunnis as close friends of Rasulullah. One set alight manuscripts of the Qur'an and some set alight Hadeeth! One threatened to set alight to the house of Sayyida Fatima . We will discuss that at another chapter.

--

Overall analysis of the Hadeeth

When Sayyida Fatima made a claim to her father's inheritance, Abu Bakr replied that he heard the Prophet say 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (prophets) leave is Sadaqah (to be used for charity)'.

This reply:

Contradicted the Qur'an, and anything that contradicts the Qur'an is batil.
Contradicted Muttawatir Sunnah and anything that contradicts Muttawatir Sunnah is batil.
Was rejected by Hadhrat 'Ali - Rasulullah said 'Ali is with the truth and the truth is with 'Ali and 'Ali is with the Qur'an and the Qur'an is with 'Ali. A Hadeeth rejected by Hadhrat 'Ali should likewise be rejected.
Was rejected by the wives of the Prophet in particular Ayesha, who according to Ahl'ul Sunnah had the title Siddiqa, a reply rejected by Siddiqa should likewise be rejected.
Also contradicts logic and anything that rejects logic, will not be accepted by a logical person.
Was not supported by the Qur'an or Sunnah, a reply that has no support of these key sources is to be rejected.

--

Sayyida Fatima's response to the confiscation of Fadak.

The Khutbah of Sayyida Fatima

We read in Sharh ibn al Hadeed, V4 p108, printed Beirut:

"When Sayyida Fatima discovered that Abu Bakr intended on confiscating Fadak, she wrapped a cloth around her head, gathered some women from her tribe and went to Abu Bakr. At that time the Muhajireen and Ansar were summoned, a purdah was made between Fatima and the Sahaba. The daughter of the Prophet sad in a distressed manner, that led to the Sahaba crying. After a short pause she praised Allah, sent Salaam on her father the Prophet and said:
“All things on the earth and sky seeks a Waseela to Allah, the Waseela for the people to reach Allah are us, and Allah's select people amongst creations are us”
And then she introduced herself:
“I am Fatima the daughter of Rasul and said 'That which was bestowed to me has been taken, O Abu Bakr, if you are the inheritor of your father, and I am not my father's inheritor you adopted a wrong means’. Then she said to the Muhajireen and Ansar requesting help, ‘O Bani Queela the inheritance of my father has been annexed from me, before your very eyes. You are listening to my words why are you lax with regards to helping me? Why do you not support my right?’”


--

Abu Bakr's denial of Khums and Fadak incurred the anger of Sayyida Fatima

Sahih Bukhari, V4, B 53, Number 325, Book of Khums
Sahih Muslim, V3 p72, Hukm al Fay
Izalat ul Khifa, Part 2 V3 p109
Sunan al Kabeera, V6 p301 Kitab Fay
Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, V1 p167, Musnad Abi Bakr
Kanz al Ummal, V3 p129 , Kitab Khilafath ma al Imara
Wafa al Wafa, V3 p995 Talib Fatima min Abu Bakr

We read in Sahih Bukhari V4, B 53, Number 325:

Narrated 'Ayesha: (mother of the believers) After the death of Allah 's Prophet Fatima the daughter of Allah's Prophet asked Abu Bakr As-Siddiq to give her, her share of inheritance from what Allah's Prophet had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allah had given him. Abu Bakr said to her, "Allah's Prophet said, 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. prophets) leave is Sadaqah (to be used for charity)." Fatima, the daughter of Allah's Prophet got angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died. Fatima remained alive for six months after the death of Allah's Prophet.

We read in Musnad Ibn Hanbal:

Hadhrat Fatima Zahra became angry at Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died, because she claimed her share in the Prophet's Estate of Fadak, and Abu Bakr rejected her claim"

We read in Kanz:

Sayyida Fatima became upset at Abu Bakr as he denied giving her inheritance rights.

Sunan al Kabeera:

"Fatima became angry at Abu Bakr, and never spoke to Abu Bakr until she died"

Wafa al Wafa:

"Abu Bakr denied Fatima her right and she became angry never speaking to Abu Bakr until she died".

Sayyida Fatima was so angry at Abu Bakr's confiscation that she refused to reply to his Salaams

Ibn Qutaybah in al Imamah wa al Siyasa p13 records that:

"Hadhrat Umar said to Abu Bakr we have angered Fatima let us go to her and seek her forgiveness. They both went to the house and asked permission to enter. Sayyida Fatima did not grant them this permission. They then went to 'Ali and spoke to him, he allowed them to enter the house. When they sat before Fatima she turned her face away from them, they said Salaams to her but she did not deem them worthy enough to merit a reply".

--

Ibn Qutaybah in al Imamah wa al Siyasa p14 records that:

"Fatima said 'When I meet my father the Prophet, then I shall complain about the both of you (Abu Bakr and Umar), and said to Abu Bakr 'By Allah I shall curse you after every Salat".

Al-Imamah wa al-Siyasa, V. 1, P14

--

Tafseer Mazhari V2 p48, Surah Aal-e-Imran:

"The Hadeeth in Bukhari wherein Rasulullah said Fatima is a part of my body proves that Fatima was superior to the men and women of the world, and Imam Malik said 'I don't know of anyone superior to Fatima az-Zahra".


But Ibn Katheer's thinks nothing of Sayyida Fatima

al Bidaya wa al Nihaya V5 p289

"If Sayyida Fatima became angry then so what, she was an ordinary woman, from the children of Adam, her anger is just like the common children of Adam".

--

Sayyida Fatima left a will that Abu Bakr be prevented from attending her funeral

We read in Sharh Ibn al Hadeed V4 p136 Chapter Khutbah Bayan Fadak:

"Hadhrat Fatima's anger was such that she left a will stipulating that Abu Bakr not attend her funeral prayers"

-

Ali prevented Abu Bakr from participating in the funeral prayer

We read in Ahl'ul Sunnah's esteemed work Tabari, v IX p 196 [The Events of the Year 11, English version:

Abu Salih al Dirari- Abd al Razzaq b. Hammam- Mamar- al Zuhri - Urwah- Aishah: Fatimah and al Abbas came to Abu Bakr demanding their [share of] inheritance of the Messenger of God. They were demanding the Messenger of God's land in Fadak and his share of Khaybar ['s tribute]. Abu Bakr replied, "I have heard the Messenger of God say: 'Our [i.e the prophet's property] cannot be inherited and whatever we leave behinds is alms [i.e to be given in charity]. The family of Muhammad will eat from it. ' By God, I will not abandon a course which I saw the Messenger of God practicing, but will continue doing it accordingly." Fatimah shunned him and did not speak to him about it until she died. Ali buried her at night and did not permit Abu Bakr to attend [her burial].

-

Tabaqat of Ibne Sad, v VIII p 29,
Yaqubi History, v II p 117,
Masudi in his Tanbih, p 250

Rauzatul Ahbaab, p434 states that:

"Upon the death of Fatimah, 'Ali read her Funeral prayers. Some narrations state that they were read by Ibn Abbas. The next day Abu Bakr Siddique, Umar ibn al Farooq and other elderly Sahaba issued a complaint to 'Ali that he had not informed them about the funeral, so that they could have been participants. He ['Ali] stated that he had acted in accordance with the wishes of Fatima.

In Wafa al Wafa p94 the author states that Abu Bakr was aware of the death of Fatima:

"…But he desired that the reasons behind 'Ali hiding the matter be fulfilled".

--

Reports which say Abu Bakr took part in funeral are declared false.

Imam Ibn Hajr Asqalani one of Ahl'ul Sunnah's greatest Hadeeth scholars wrote in al-Isaba, V8 p58, Dhikr Fatima Binte Muhammad:

Waqidi narrated from Shu'abi that Abu Bakr prayed on Fatima but that (tradition) is weak and disconnected. And some unreliable narrators narrated from Malik from Jaffar bin Muhammad from his father the same. But Darqutni and Ibn Uday discredited it.

al-Isaba, V8 p58 Translation 11583

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Sayyida Fatima was angry at both Abu Bakr and Ayesha.

Asma binte Umays physically prevented Ayesha from participating in Sayyida Fatima's funeral

al-Istiab, V2 p114, Fatima bint Muhammad
Jadhab al Kaloob al Dayaar al Mehboob p219, Dhikr Kabar Fatima binte Muhammad
Wafa al Wafa ba Khabar Dhar Mustafai V3 p504
Kanz al Ummal, V13 p686 Tradition 37756
Tareekh Khamess V1 p277 Dhikr Fatima bine Rasulullah
Asad'ul Ghaba, V7 p262, The letter 'Fa'
Zakhair al-Uqbah, p53

We read in al Istiab:

"When she (Fatima) died, Ayesha arrived with the intention of coming in, but Asma said to her: ‘Don’t enter’. Ayesha complained to Abu Bakr that: 'This woman has prevented me from entering upon the Prophet's daughter'. Abu Bakr then personally asked Asma: ‘Why do you prevent the wife of the Prophet from, entering?' She replied: 'She (Lady Fatima) had issued a directive prevented any on to enter upon her.”

al-Istiab, V2 p114

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Abu Bakr swore at the Ahl'ul Bayt

We read in Sharh Ibn al Hadeed Khutbah pFadak V4 p110:

Ahmad bin Abdul Aziz narrates that Sayyida Fatima appeared before the Court of Abu Bakr, and after the ruling on Fadak she gave a sermon wherein she made reference to her family lineage, and highlighted the injustice of the Shaykhayn with an one heart, When the Sermon finished and those present were moved by her words, Abu Bakr got on the pulpit immediately and said 'People what is wrong with you! You raise your ears to everything based on Truth and Falsehood [Ali] is like a fox whose witness is his tail [Fatimah] he wishes to reawaken Fitnah (Khilafat), and seeks the support of women, the majority of whom are fornicators'. Abu Bakr said to the Ansar I have heard and refuted and analysed the words of the stupid.
(Ibn al Hadeed) says I asked this from Abu Jafar Yahya bin Abi Zaid Basree and he said 'Abu Bakr was referring to 'Ali by these words.


--

Sahabas hated Ali.

Izalat ul Khifa, V1 p487
Kanz al Ummal, V6 p408 min Qism al Fayl
Riyadh al Nadira, V3 p234
Nur al Absar, p79, Bab Manaqib Ali
Tareekh Baghdad, V12 p398, Dhikr Fayz ibn Wasiq
Tadhkirat Khawwas al Ummah, p27
Musnad Abi Y'ala, V1 p437
Musnad al-Bazar, V1 p422
Mu'ajam al-Kabir, by Tabarani, V11 p61
Al-Kamil, by Ibn Uday, V7 p173
Tarikh Damishq, V42 p322

We read in these books:

Ali bin Abi Talib narrated: 'While I was walking with Allah's messenger through the streets of Madina, we saw a garden and I said: ‘Oh Allah's messenger, what a beautiful garden’. Allah's messenger said: 'A better garden is awaiting for you in Paradise'. Then we passed through another one, thus I said: ‘Oh Allah's messenger, what a beautiful garden’. Allah's messenger said: 'A better garden awaits you in Paradise'. We passed through seven gardens and about each of them I said: ‘What a beautiful garden’ and Allah's messenger said to me 'A better garden awaits you in Paradise'. Then when the streets became empty, Allah's messenger embraced me and began to cry profusely'. I asked: 'O messenger of Allah, why are you crying?' He said: 'The hearts of the people bear hatred towards you that shall open up after my death’. I said: ‘Oh Allah's messenger will my faith be safe?’ He (the prophet) said: ‘Yes your faith will be safe’.

--

Imam of Ahle Sunnah Shah Abdul Haq Muhadith Dehalwi in his famed work Sharh Mishkat, V3 p453:

"The case of Fatima al Zahra is difficult among all the cases. If I say that Fatima was ignorant with regards to the Hadeeth cited by Abu Bakr then it is impossible and if I say that she was not provided the opportunity to hear this Hadeeth then it is also difficult, because after hearing this Hadeeth from Abu Bakr and the testimonies of the Sahaba, she did not accept the Hadeeth which is why she became angry. If she had become angry before hearing the Hadeeth then why didn’t desist from her anger, anger that was so lengthy that she did not talk to Abu Bakr as long as she remained alive”

--

Sunan al-Bayhaqi is as follows:

When Fatimah was ill, Abu Bakr visited her and sought her permission (to see her). So Ali called out, "O Fatimah, Abu Bakr here seeks your permission (to see you)." Fatimah asked, "Would you like that I permit him?" Ali replied, "Yes." Thus, she permitted him and he entered seeking her contentment saying, "By Allah I have not left home, wealth, family and kin other than in pursuit of the pleasure of Allah, the pleasure of His Messenger, and the pleasure of you all, the Ahl al-Bayt. So he continued trying to make her happy until she was well pleased.

[Sunan al-Baihaqi, Hadith 12515]

--

Further injustices perpetrated against Sayyida Fatima:

Sayyida Fatima was angered at Abu Bakr's denial of Khums in the same way she was upset at his confiscating the land of Fadak. She made a claim before Abu Bakr as a needy close relative of Rasulullah and Abu Bakr rejected this.

We read in Kanz al Ummal, V5 p580 Tradition 14108:

"Um Haani bin Abi Talib narrated that Fatima went to Abu Bakr asking him for the share of kinsmen, thus Abu Bakr replied: 'I heard Allah's messenger (pbuh) saying: 'The share of kinsmen is for them only during my life time not after my death''.

Nasiruddin al-Albaani in his 'Sahih Sunnan Abu Dawoud' V2 p576 recorded the following ‘Sahih’ narration:

Jubayr ibn Mut’im narrated that he and Uthman ibn Affan went to the Messenger of Allah to complain about his method of distributing Khums, only between Banu Hashim and Banu Abdul Mutalib. I (Jubayr) said: “O Messenger of Allah, why do you give from the Khums to Banu Hashim and Banu Abdul Mutalib and you give us nothing while we are equal with them in being related to you?” The Messenger of Allah replied “Only the Banu Hashim and Banu AbdulMutalib are equal in relationship with me!” Jubayr said: He never gave any share of the Khums to Banu Abd Shams and Banu Nawfil as he did to Banu Hashim and Banu AbdulMutalib. Abubakr used to distribute Khums in this manner too, except that he did not give the close relatives of the Messenger of Allah what the Messenger of Allah used to give to them. Umar and Uthman used to give him some of it however.

--


Umar also prohibited giving Banu Hashim any Khums

As evidence we shall rely on the following esteemed Sunni works:

Sunan Abu Dawood, Tribute, Spoils, and Rulership (Kitab Al-Kharaj, Wal-Fai' Wal-Imarah) B 19, Number 2976:

Sahih Muslim Bab Ghazwa thal Nisa ma al Rijjal V2 p104

We read in Sunan Abu Dawood:

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:
Yazid ibn Hurmuz said that when Najdah al-Haruri performed hajj during the rule of Ibn az-Zubayr, he sent someone to Ibn Abbas to ask him about the portion of the relatives (in the fifth). He asked: For whom do you think? Ibn Abbas replied: For the relatives of the Prophet of Allah. The Prophet of Allah divided it among them. Umar presented it to us but we found it less than our right. We, therefore returned it to him and refused to accept it.


The comments of Allamah Shibli Numani are indeed worthy of note in this regard. He states in his classical work 'al Farooq' V2 p277:

"It is said of Omar that he did not at all hold the relatives of the Holy Prophet to be entitled to any share in the Fifth and never gave any member of the Prophet's family any share in it. Of the founders of the schools of law, Imam Abu Hanifa too, did not believe that the near of kin had any right to the Fifth".

--

The conduct of Umar outside the home of Sayyida Fatima
The subsequent raid on the home of Sayyida Fatima

Umar and his men threatened to set fire to the home of Sayyida Fatima. He justified his conduct on the basis that Ali and his supporters had failed to give bayya to Abu Bakr.


Musnaf of Imam Ibn Abi Shebah, V7 p432 Tradition 37045

al Imama wa al Siyasa pages 18-30 Dhikr Bayya Abu Bakr

Tareekh Abul Fida V1 p156 Dhikr bayya Abu Bakr

History of al-Tabari, V9 p187

al-Istiab, by Ibn Abd al-Barr V1 p246 Dhikr Abdullah in Abi Quhafa

Sharh ibn al Hadeed V1 p157

Al Mihal wa al Nihal V1 p77, Dhikr Nizameeya

Muruj adh-Dhahab by Abd al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn al Masudi V3 p198

Izalat ul Khifa by Muhaddith Shah Waliyullah Dehlavi V2 p226 (Urdu translation, Qur'an Mehal publishers, Karachi)

Tareekh Kamil by Ibn Atheer V11 p113

Tareekh Ahmadi by Ahmad Husayn Khan pages 111-112

Tauhfa Ithna Ashari, by al Muhaddith Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlavi p292 Dhikr Muthain Umar

Al Murthada by Hafidh Abdul Rahman al Hanafi p45 (Amritsar edition)

Kanz al Ummal, V2 p184 (Egypt).

Tahqeeq Mubashraab Sunni p110 by Maulana Waheedudin Khan al Hanafi

Ansar Ashraf, by al-Baladhuri, v1, pp 582-586

Tareekh Ya'qubi, v2, p116

Qurat al-Aynayn fi Tafdhil al-Shaykhayn by Shah Waliyullah Dehlavi, p88

al Faruq, V1 p92 Dhikr Saqeefa Bani Sa'ada

Ruh al Mustafai V3 p36

Iqd al Fareed, V3 p273


We read in Musnaf of Imam Ibn Abi Shebah, V7 p432 Tradition 37045:

“Narrated Muhammad bin Bashir from Ubaidllah bin Umar from Zaid bin Aslam that his father Aslam said: ‘When the homage (baya) went to Abu Bakr after the Messenger of Allah, Ali and Zubair were entering into the house of Fatima to consult her and revise their issue, so when Umar came to know about that, he went to Fatima and said : ‘Oh daughter of Messenger of Allah, no one is dearest to us more than your father and no one dearest to us after your father than you, I swear by Allah, if these people gathered in your house then nothing will prevent me from giving order to burn the house and those who are inside.’

So when Umar left, they (Ali and Zubair) came , so she (Fatima) said to them: ‘Do you know that Umar came here and swear by Allah to burn the house if you gather here, I swear by God that he (Umar) will execute his oath, so please leave wisely and take a decision and don't gather here again.’ So they left her and didn't gather there till they give baya to Abu Bakr.”


--

Qeraa fi kutub al-Aqaed, by Farhan Hassan al-Maliki, p52

”However Ali's party was smaller (in number) during the reign of Umar than the reign of Abu Bakr al-Sidiq due to his abandoning Ali on account of his breaking into Fatima's home during Abu Bakr's reign, and forcing some sahaba that were with Ali to give bayya to Abu Bakr, thus the memory of this dispute – that is proven via authentic chains – was deemed a painful memory which they did not like to recollect”

What is even more interesting is the commentary of the margin writer who states:

”I thought that the story of breaking into (Fatima's house) was just a lie , until I discovered reliable chains of narrations for it, such as what is been recorded by Ibn Abi Shebah in the Musanaf, anyhow neither is (the story) an exaggeration in the manner that the extremist Shia claim nor can it be denied as is the approach of the extremist Hanbalis.”

--

Abu Muhammad Abdullah bin Muslim bin Qutaybah (d. 276 Hijri) who in his famous book al Imama wa al Siyasa pages 18-28 states as follows:

Abu Bakr was after group of people who failed to give bayya and gathered with Ali, he sent Umar in their direction. He (Umar) called them to come out from the house of Ali, but they refused to come out. Thus (Umar) asked (his men) to bring wood, then he said: 'I swear by He who controls the life of Umar, if you people do not come out of the house I shall set fire to it, and everyone inside shall perish. Some people said: 'O Abu Hafs (Umar), Fatima is also in this house'. Umar replied, 'I do not care' Then the people came out from the house and gave bayya except Ali.

Al-Imama Walsiyasa P12

Just imagine a madman like that in your neighborhood - you would warn your wife and kids not to go anywhere near him. His actions would make the national news headlines "PSYCHO THREATENS TO BURN PREGNANT WOMAN AND HER CHILDREN TO DEATH". Note that even in jihad, it is forbidden to terrorise women and children. So what was this man doing?

--

From these reports the following points are clear:

Sayyida Fatima and Imam 'Ali did NOT deem Abu Bakr to be the rightful khalifa.

Hadhrat Fatima and Imam 'Ali deemed 'Abu Bakr to be a usurper.

Failure to regard Abu Bakr as the rightful khalifa bears no bearing on one's iman, if it did then the Ahl'ul bayt would have never indulged in such a sin.

Abu Bakr was prepared to secure the bayya of Ahl'ul bayt by any means necessary

Sahaba had gathered in the home of Sayyida Fatima plotting to overthrow Abu Bakr.

Ahl'ul Sunnah aqeedah is that ALL the Sahaba are pious and just, hence the conspiracy being hatched to remove Abu Bakr was also a just one.

Rasulullah had told his Ummah to follow the Qur'an and Ahl'ul bayt as two sources of guidance after him. The Ahl'ul bayt had rejected Abu Bakr's khilafat hence their opinion supercedes 'Abu Bakr's concerns.

Abu Bakr deemed every method to secure the allegiance to be lawful.

If we for arguments sake accept that Abu Bakr's coming to power was rightful, then that automatically means those that the Sahaba and Ahl'ul bayt opposing him were wrong. Was their mistake in relation to a worldly or religious matter? In case of religion, it is impossible for Ahle Bait to make a mistake, while Rasool Allah [saww] himself has asked the Ummah to follow the Thaqalain after him, who will always be on Haq. And if it was a political mistake, then we have to accept that since the start of new government, there were differences between the policies of government and of Ahle Bait. Now we have the orders to stick with Ahle Bait , therefore, we come to conclusion that politics was related to Ahle Bait. And their enemies were on Batil.

Even if we consider that the Khilafah of Abu Bakr was legal, still we have to see if the government tried to discuss and ask the problem from Ahle Bait before trying to burn them in their home

--

Sunnis say a conspiracy being hatched against Abu Bakr in the house of Ali.

Shibli Numani suggests that Umar's actions were legitimate since the house of Sayyida Fatima had become a meeting point where discussions were over how to overthrow Abu Bakr: Imam Ali and Banu Hashim and their supporters:

did not deem Abu Bakr to be the legitimate khalifa,

were displeased at his appointment

were angered by the way Abu Bakr came to power.

deemed this position to be someone else's right.

--

Sunnis say Abu Bakr was perfectly within his rights as legitimate khalifa to use whatever means he had at his disposal to quell insurgency. If this is true then this actually proves the other point that:

There was open opposition towards the Ahl'ul bayt and the Sahaba that sided with them.

The planning that was taking case against Abu Bakr in the house of Sayyida Fatima is clear proof as to the illegitimacy of Abu Bakr's khilafat.

Banu Hashim and Sahaba did NOT deem Abu Bakr to be the rightful khalifa of Rasulullah.

Abu Bakr's khilafat was NOT rightful and was in fact secured via political maneuvering and treachery. This can be concluded from the words of Rasulullah declared "'Ali is with the truth and the truth is with 'Ali", "Ali is with the Qur'an and the Qur'an is with 'Ali" "Whoever pains 'Ali, pains me", "Ali's enemies are my enemies". Those that opposed Imam 'Ali and sought to set his home on fire in order to secure his compliance had opposed the truth, the Qur'an and had become enemies of Rasulullah in the process.

There is a famous hadith of Rasulullah "Whoever does not recognise his Imam of the time dies the death of one belonging to the time of jahiliyya”. From the attack on the home of Sayyida Fatima it is clear that Ali and Abu Bakr opposed each other. By failing to recognize Abu Bakr and not just that, by convening meetings to devise a means to oppose him, were the Banu Hashim and supporters lead by 'Ali indulging in Kufr? What is Afriki's reply here?


--

Sunni historian Abul Fida in his discussion on the attack on the house of Fatima recorded the event, in a very low key / cautious tone, but as a scholar of integrity and honesty he has refused to cover up history and has still acknowledged that the event did indeed take place and Umar threatened to burn Fatima alive:

Then Abu Bakr sent Umar bin Khattab to Ali and his companions with the objective that those 'people gathered in the house of Fatima come out, and that if anyone objects to coming out then you should fight them'. Then Umar approached with fire in his hands to set the house ablaze. At this point Fatima approached and said: ' O son of Khattab, would do you dare?’ Do you wish to set my home on fire?' Umar said: 'Yes, unless if you give bayya to Abu Bakr and enter into that which the majority of the Ummah have agreed to.'

Tareekh Abul Fida [Arabic], p235
Tareekh Abul Fida, Urdu translation by Maulana Karrem'ud Deen al Hanafi, pages 177-179

--

Ibn Abd Rabbah in his book Iqd al Fareed, V3 p273 states:

Those who fell behind giving the bayya of Abu Bakr were Abbas, Zubayr and Sa'd bin Ubada, amongst whom Ali, Abbas and Zubayr were sitting in the house of Fatima. At that time Abu Bakr sent Umar ibn al-Khattab with the order 'that you remove those gathered in the house of Fatima, and if they refuse to come out then fight them'. Umar brought fire to the house of Fatima, then Fatima met him and said: 'O Ibn Khattab have you arrived in order to set my home on fire?'. He (Umar) replied: 'Yes, unless if you people give bayya to Abu Bakr as others have done’.

Al Iqd al Fareed, V3 p273

--

The most renowned Sunni historian Ibn Jareer al Tabari also recorded this event. We read in al Tabari (English translation), V9 p187:

Ibn Humayd - Jarir - Mughirah - Ziyad b. Kulayb:Umar Ibn al-Khattab came to the house of Ali. Talha and Zubair and some of the immigrants were also in the house. Umar cried out: "By God, either you come out to render the oath of allegiance, or I will set the house on fire." al-Zubair came out with his sword drawn. As he stumbled (upon something), the sword fell from his hand so they jumped over him and seized him."

History of al-Tabari, V9 p187

--

The academic and authoritative translator Ismail Poonawalla, in the footnotes of this event (same page), provides us with an interesting background to this event:

Although the timing is not clear, it seems that Ali and his group came to know about Saqifa after what had happened there. At this point, his supporters gathered in Fatimah's house. Abu Bakr and Umar, fully aware of Ali's claims and fearing a serious threat from his supporters, summoned him to the mosque to swear the oath of allegiance. Ali refused, and so the house was surrounded by an armed band led by Abu Bakr and Umar, who threatened to set it on fire if Ali and his supporters refused to come out and swear allegiance to Abu Bakr. The scene grew violent and Fatimah was furious.
Ansab Ashraf, by al-Baladhuri in his, v1, pp 582-586;
Tareekh Ya'qubi, v2, p116;
al-Imamah wal-Siyasah, by Ibn Qutaybah, v1, pp 19-20


--

al-Hafiz Diya al-Din Muhammad ibn al-Wahid al-Maqdisi (d. 643 H) in his authority work al-Ahadith al-Mukhtarat, V1 p88 stated:

Abubakr said: ‘I wish I never violated or abandoned the house of Fatima even if she had waged a war against me. I wish that on the day of Saqifah I had placed the affair (i.e. caliphate) on the neck of either Abu Ubaydah or Umar so that such would be the Commander of the believers while I remained his vizier’.

The margin writer of al-Ahadith al-Mukhtarat Abdulmalik bin Abdullah bin Duhaish has declared the tradition as ‘Hasan’.

Ibn Tamiyah also admitted that Abu Bakr broke into Lady Fatima's house:

"He broke into the house to see if there was some thing of Allah's money to distribute it or give it to those who deserved it"

Minhaj al-Sunnah, V8 p291

--

Sunni scholars try to admit this incident while at the same time trying to deny it.
Despite his desire to distance himself from the narration Numani's comment "there is no reason to deny the occurrence of this incident" speaks volumes.

Shams al Hind Allamah Shibli Numani in al-Faruq V1 p92, states as follows:

"The learned Tabari in his Tareekh Kabir has narrated a tradition to the effect that Umar, standing at the door of Fatimah's house, exclaimed 'O daughter of the Prophet! I swear by God that we love you best of all but if your house continues any longer to be a rendezvous for conspiracy I will set fire to it on account of this.

The authority of this tradition is doubtful having not been able to glean particulars regarding its narrators, but there is no reason to deny the occurrence of this incident in the light of rationalisation. Umar was a man of hot and irrational temper and such an act would not have been inconsistent with his nature".

Al-Farooq, V1 p92

--

Abu Bakr's admission of his mistakes on his death bed

As proof we shall cite:

Tareekh Tabari V2 p24

Kanz al Khitab al Khilafath ma al Maar V3 p135

Al Imama wa al Siyasa V1 p18, Dhikr Wafaath Abu Bakr

Murujh al Dhahab V2 p308 Dhikr Khilafath Abu Bakr

Iqd al Fareed, Dhikr Wafaath Abu Bakr V2 p208


We read in Tabari:

Abu Bakr said 'I did three things that I now regret, they are:

That I failed to show respect towards the house of Fatima

I did not burn Fajaf Salmah

At Saqifa I transferred Khilafath to Abu Ubaydah or Umar

There are three things that I wish I had done:

When Asheesh bin Qays was brought before me as prisoner I should have had him killed

When I sent Khalid bin Waleed to the Land of the Kuffar I should have turned him in the direction of Zay Qasa

When sending Khalid to Syria I should have sent Umar to Iraq

I regret that I did not get clarification from Rasulullah on three matters:

Whether the Ansar had a share in the Khilafath

Who would succeed him as Khalifa

The inheritance of an aunt and nephew


--

Allah's verdict on those that usurp inheritance

We read in Sahih Muslim The Book of Transactions (Kitab Al-Buyu`) - 'It is forbidden to seize land and other things without legitimate right'.

B 010, Number 3920:

Sa'id b. Zaid b. 'Amr b. Nufail (Allah be pleased with them) reported Allah's Messenger as saying: He who wrongly took a span of land, Allah shall make him carry around his neck seven earths.

We read in Sunan Tirmidhi Hadeeth 3078:

Allah's Messenger said, "If anyone deprives an heir of his inheritance, Allah will deprive him of his inheritance in Paradise on the Day of Resurrection."

Ibn Majah transmitted it, and Bayhaqi transmitted it in Shu'ab al-Iman on the authority of Abu Hurrayra.

We read in Surah al Fajr verse 19:

And ye devour inheritance all with greed.

--

Tafseer Ruh al Ma'ani Part 30 p127:

"Underage Arab children and women could not inherit from their parents. The people would usurp their share until the Shari'ah of Ibrahim and Ismail made it clear that women and children were heirs to inheritance"

--

Abu Bakr failed to meet the desire of Sayyida Fatima

Sunni scholar Dr Tahir ul Qadri in his book on the virtues of Sayyida Fatima ‘Al Durr’athul Baydh fee Manaqib Fatima al Zahra’ p56 records this Hadeeth.

Miswar narrates that Rasulullah said ‘Verily Fatima is my … I desire whatever she desires, and whatever pains her, pains me’

Qadri narrated this tradition from the following esteemed Sunni works:

al Mustadrak al Hakim V3 p168

Musnad Ahman ibn Hanbal V4 p332

Fadail as Sahaba by Ibn Hanbal V2 p765

Al Had wa’l Mushaanee by Shaybaanee V5 p362

Muhimm al Kabeer by Tabrani V20 p28

Muhimm al Zawaad V9 p203

Hilayathul Awliyaa by Abu Naeem V3 p206

Seera al Alam al Nada bu Dhahabi V2 p132

Fathul Baree bu Ibn Hajr Asqalani V9 p329

Tafseer ibn Katheer V3 p257


On the next p(57-58) Qadri records this narration recorded by Sakhawi in Ishtajlab ir-Taqaa al-Gharf Bahib Aqrabaa ar-Rasool Wadhawi ash-Sharaf, pages 96-97:

Sad bin Abi Qurshee narrates that Hadhrath Abdullah bin Hasan bin Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib who had not yet attained puberty approached Umar bin Abdul Aziz in relation to a matter. Umar suspended his gathering heard the matter and fulfilled his need. He then squeezed his stomach in such a manner that he began to feel pain, with that he said to him ‘Remember this on the Day of Judgement at the time of intercession’. When he left the people asked why he dedicated such time to this child. He replied ‘I heard a Hadeeth from a Thiqah narrator who said ‘I heard the Prophet sayd ‘Fatima is a part of my body I desire whatever she desires’.

He then said ‘If Fatima was here then this would have been what she desired, in the way that I had treated her son. They then asked ‘Why did you embrace him in such a manner and say what you did?’. Umar bin Abdul Aziz replied ‘There is not even one person amongst the Banu Hashim who hasn’t been given the rights of intercession, I desire to attain intercession through this boy.


Al Duratul Baydha fi Manaqib Fatima al-Zahra, P57


Sahih al Bukhari V5 Hadeeth 61 the verdict of Rasulullah:

"Allah's Prophet said, "Fatima is a part of me, and he who makes her angry, makes me angry."

Modern day Sunni scholar Dr Tahir al Qadri in ‘Al Durr’athul Baydh fee Manaqib Fatima al Zahra’ p60-61:

Hadhrath ‘Ali [r] narrated that Rasulullah said to Fatima ‘Verily Allah is displeased at your displeasure, and is pleased at your pleasure”

Qadri relied on the following esteemed Sunni works for this Hadeeth:

al Mustadrak al Hakim V3 p167

al Muhajjim by Qadhi Abu Ya’ala p190

A’la Jaudhoo al Mushanee by Shaybani V5 p363

al Muhajjim al Kabeer by Tabrani V1 p108

al Muhajjim al Kabeer by Tabrani V22 p401

Al Zurryath al Tahir by Dholaby p120

Al Tadhween fee Akhbar Kadhween V3 p11

Majmaa al Zawaad V9 p309

Tadhkirathul Khawaas by Ibn Jauzi p279

Asadal Ghaba V7 p219

Tadheeb al Tadheeb by Ibn Jajr Asqalani V12 p428

Al Isaba V8 p56-57

Dhukhair al Akba p82

--

Allah says in Surah Ahzab verse 57:

Those who annoy Allah and his Prophet Allah has cursed them in this world and in the Hereafter and has prepared for them a humiliating Punishment.

Surah Munafiqoon, 63:6:

It is equal to them whether thou pray for their forgiveness or not. Allah will not forgive them. Truly Allah guides not rebellious transgressors.

--

Those who will be taken away from the Cistern will be those Sahaba that perpetuated injustice against the daughter of the Prophet by preventing her from inheriting her father's property.

Imam Ali deeming Abu Bakr 'a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest' for coining a fabricated tradition 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (prophets) leave is Sadaqah (charity)'.

--

Allamah Sadr'adeen al Hanafi in Riwaya al Mustafa p36-37, published Ahmad Kanpur despite his being Sunni uttered the truth when he exposed the ruthless motive of Abu Bakr:

"We have proven that Abu Bakr took Fadak from Fatima without any basis. The grounds was a mere excuse based on political consideration that had the objective of lowering the esteem of Banu Hashim in people's eyes, make them dependent on others so that the people's hearts can focus towards us"


--

Malik's Muwatta, B 21: Jihad B 21, Number 21.14.32:

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'n-Nadr, the mawla of Umar ibn Ubaydullah that he had heard that the Messenger of Allah said over the martyrs of Uhud, "I testify for them." Abu Bakr as-Siddiq said, "Messenger of Allah! Are we not their brothers? We entered Islam as they entered Islam and we did jihad as they did jihad." The Messenger of Allah said, "Yes, but I do not know what you will do after me." Abu Bakr wept profusely and said, "Are we really going to out-live you!"


Allah does not forgive those that pain Sayyida Fatima and as evidence we shall cite the following esteemed Sunni works:

Sahih al Bukhari V8 Hadeeth 578 Bab al Haud

Sahih al Muslim V2 p282 Bab al Haud

Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal V3 p351 Dhikr Abdullah ibn Abbas

Sunan Nasai V4 p114 (Delhi); Dhikr al Bas

Mishkaat al Masabih pages 487-488 (Delhi);

Tafseer Kazaan V7 p451 (Beirut);

Tafseer Fathul Qadeer V6 p490 (Egypt);

Tafseer Durre Manthur V6 p400 (Egypt);

Tafseer Ruh al Maani p244 (Egypt).


Sahih Bukhari, Hadeeth: 8.578:

Narrated 'Abdullah:
The Prophet said, "I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount". 'Abdullah added: The Prophet said, "I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount, and some of you will be brought in front of me till I will see them and then they will be taken away from me and I will say, 'O Lord, my companions!' It will be said, 'you do not know what they did after you had left.'


Ummul Momineen Umm Salma narrates in al Istiab V3 p390 and Kanz al Ummal V6 p67 that:

"Amongst my Sahaba are some that I do no wish to look at, and after my death they shall not see me".

Commenting on this Hadeeth Deobandi scholar Shaykh ul Hadeeth Hadhrat Sarfaraz Khan Safdar states in Izalath al Rahab p398;

"These are those individuals that recited the Shahada before Rasulullah and after him became murtad (apostates), this includes later generations that became murtad and the people of Bidah"

For further details one can consult Sharh Nawawi V1 p129.

We read in Musnad and Nasai:

"Rasulullah said some people from my Ummah will be brought before me and sent to Hell, I will state 'O Allah! These are my Sahaba' The reply will be 'You do not know of the innovations they introduced after you, since you left them they became apostates"

To get a clearer understanding of the words 'Zaat al Shamil' in this tradition we shall cite the comments from "Hasheeya Imam al Sindhi bhar Nasai V4 p118:

"Zaath al Shamil' means they shall be thrown into Hell"

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