Wednesday, 25 February 2009

Ashura 10 Muharram



1. Ashura, the 10th of Muharram
2. The Martyrs of Karbala and Kufah
3. Our Hussain, Mourning him and his Karbala
4. A brief look at the Life of Imam Hussain
5. Imam Hussain's Role in Reviving Islam


# Ashura, the 10th of Muharram

The Religion of Islam was presented to the world and human society Forthrightly; no problem, or issue, which was necessary for of society in order to prosper, was left unsolved by the time the Prophet passed away. All issues were made clear to people whether outspokenly, or contained within the folds of decrees that were enunciated. One of the issues of significance which the Prophet made most clear during his lifetime of prophethood and which the mentioned repeatedly was that of leadership and the question of the person who would assume the role of leader after his death.

Islam was not a religion that merely confined itself to matters concerning morality, or set forth advice on matters related to living. The Prophet was not a man who abstained from the world and relegated himself to delivering a few sermons. If it had been so, his cry and call would have been lost amidst the clamours of history, as have the voices of several other pious sages. If so, then this profound revolution would never have reached fruition, nor could we have learned from this perfect religion of a range of issues such as the regulation of society, the relationship of this world of ours with the next, the duties of individuals in society, the moral and material affairs, legal and cultural matters, penal codes, political issues, all issues of the moment and matters relating to philosophy and logic.

What the Prophet mainly directed his preaching to during chiefly 13-year stay in Mecca focussed on one aspect the oneness of God, the advent of his messengers, the essence and finality of prophethood and lastly the final return to God and the resurrection the prevailing milieu, the very atmosphere and circumstances then prevailing did not make it possible or convenient given the difficulties he had to cope with at the time to elaborate on and explicate on divine decrees to any full extent the prophet actually was unable to give practical cohesive form to a society based on the concept of the Quranic unity in God but this he was able to do only after 10 years after his migration to Medina. Here he was able to lay the groundwork for an edifice, which he buttressed with his proclamations. It was there in Medina that he enlarged the number of his followers and warriors many issues relating to politics, military and social affairs were expounded and put into practice.

It was during this Medina period that the prophet was able to organize Islamic society, a thing which was not practicable to do in Mecca and for which there was no groundwork even the very first fundamentals of belief and the initial commands of Islam they, the Meccans, were not inclined to accept, but they were ready to carp against and quarrel with the prophet. Hence to institute a new organization, to create an entirely different and changed atmosphere, to promulgate a new set of laws and establish a new society based on them was simply out of the question.

Therefore, the Prophet, restricted himself when at Mecca to preaching and propagating on the concept of the Oneness of God in order to that this may form a background and take a hold on the hearts of the people until the time was ripe for further advances to be made. If, however the Prophet deemed it sufficient to preach alone Islam would never have taken the revolutionary turn it did take, nor would a nation within Islam have taken shape. Today we see a religion spread from one end of the world to the other by the name of Islam.

This would hardly have been attained through preaching alone. To establish and consummate and complete a religion it is necessary to have a political and legal structure and beyond that a nation. Likewise, the Prophet who had both a divine office -that of prophethood- as well as a worldly one had necessarily to look to political and governmental organization.

The positions and offices he held were bestowed upon him by God as he was the seal of the prophets. He was a paragon of virtue from whom all could learn and a beacon of prosperity.

The Prophet created institution basing them on the high pedestal of Quranic standards. Then again he placed a great deal of stress on leadership that he viewed as essential to the existence of Islam and a system based on it. He named Ah as the leader of the nation and a guide to the interpretation of the Quran.

The Prophet, in addition to being a spiritual teacher was also a political leader, the standard bearer of a revolution. He had a Divine mission to invite people to God and demolish wrong beliefs, wrong deeds and deviated systems then prevalent in human society he replaced all these obsolete systems with those rooted in the Oneness of God and in divine policy, which in effect was the law of logic and reason. His mission was far reaching and aimed at embracing human beings all over the world and welding them into a single nation with belief in the unity of God, riveted to and directing their vision god ward endeavouring to perfection and eternity and ultimately basing their day-to-day material lives on a grid of moral injunctions founded on a principles derived from the Quran.

Indeed it is no simple matter to change an entire society. To speak, or write, is perhaps easier than it is to practice. A prophet has to be careful not to trespass on that which is considered to be universal sanctities, or those having their origins in nature or the very matrix of society. Long established traditions cannot be torn away at once.

Hence the prophet was at first obliged to tread the path of preaching in order to gather the people around him and draw their hearts towards him.

When attracted to him, he could then set out his proposals before them and acquaint them with his mission.

The next stage would then be easier when he would be able to mould their lives according to law, organize them into a society and regulate society in terms of a system that system being Islam. This is indeed what the Prophet did in Mecca and later in Medina.

What is most remarkable in all this is the fact that right from the very inception the Prophet concentrated on one thing and that was the Oneness of God (Tawhid) and this idea of Tawhid (Oneness of God) surpassed everything else one that embraced all things.

Here was the foundation of a revolution paving the way for a new religion and one that was so perfect that it had no need to borrow from any other religion and stood in all things.

As such Islam covered every aspect of society and proved to be an ideal system through which social organization and political life were ordered and so Islam turned out to be more than just a religion.

Islam in its vastness took within the folds of its soaring outspread wings every social and political form as to be considered a thing of such vast wonder and greatness by scholars.

A Frances scholar Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) [in The Social Contract] has this to say of Islam: "The holy religion (Christianity) has always been separated from the ruling class. There was no compulsory link between it and the government. But Muhammad in this regard had a very prudential and salutary approach since he used his political wing to good effect in ordering his affairs."

George Saiten, historian, has [ in Introduction to historical science] this to say: "For the first time a religion was to become a real motor for a system of great imperial power. The worldly rulers may be changed but the religion will have to remain a thing everlasting. The Muhammadan religion or Islam is the third and last of the monotheistic religions".

The prophet did not neglect paying attention and of the people.

He never failed to appoint a leader capable of guiding society in accordance with Quranic standards. Yet, the issue of leadership was distorted and embroiled in controversy after his demise. Those making decisions strayed away from the direction given by the Prophet. Whatever recommendation the Prophet made in this regard were conveniently forgotten, or ignored. The commandments set forth in the Quran and the entire body of philosophical and social thought, which were the keys to solution of such problems were never availed of.

And besides all this the person at the helm of affairs was not one appointed by the Prophet although he had himself nurtured the Prophet in his childhood and was well aware of the Quranic instructions and Islam is regulations. The absence of a responsible person at the top had a negative impact and adversely affected later developments. Events kept on moving and moving and the currents kept flowing until the third one (Caliph) Othmam, came to power.

In his time the mistakes became so apparent and so glaring that they could not possibly be overlooked, nor did they escape any ones notice.

Muslims in the end gathered. Together and decided to dismiss the Caliph (Othman) and to kill him.

Now it came to the turn of Ali bin Abi Talib to assume the seat of the Caliphate.

The Bani Ummayud group whose leader was then Muawiya was not happy with this development.

They disliked the idea of Ali assuming power. There were 3 reasons for their resentment:

1) Envy and rivalry. They had hoped to take power after Othman and allow affairs to continue as they were before.

2) Enemity. They had not forgotten the blows dealt on them by the sword of Ali and Hamza in the early days of Islam. These dark, angry thoughts still rankled in their breasts since their ancestors were killed by Ali’s sword a thing that caused them a great deal of agony and pain of mind. Hamza, they had already killed at the Battle of Badr and his body was torn to pieces. Now Ali was within range of their evil hands and so he became the target of their revenge.

3) Betrayal. They did not wish to see Islam making progress. But here was a man in the person of Ah very serious, very strong very straightforward and one very eagerly bent on doing everything he possibly could to invigorate Islam.

What they hoped for and what actually was happening ran counter to all they the desired. Hope? To them there could have been no hope as long as Ali adhered to the Quran and the traditions of the Prophet. They knew and dreaded Ali’s qualities since he was honest humble a servant of the poor and pious, contented brave a warrior and an adept at Quranic science. What they had spoiled this man could restore afresh.

Under the rule of such a man none that broke the law would escape, or go unaccounted.

They foresaw that Islam would regain its original effulgence and assert its authority. A return of this sort they hardly desired. The rule of Ali was a source of constant dread to the hypocrites at Damascus - - the pagans who took on the guise of Islam so that they could take shelter under it. They concocted plot after plot and finally contrived a very deep one. If it was not possible to stop the progress of Islam it was possible to stop Ali by creating hindrances in his way, causing setbacks and obstacles for him and such like. They created battles and battles draped Ali on to plain plateaus and deserts. Time which was precious to him, he had to spend in conflict. A conflict is one of the best means for consuming a person 5 time, the time of a man they wanted out of their way.

This is exactly what happened to men like Abuzar, Ammar Yaser, Hujaz bin Addi, Malik Ashtar, Mohammed bin Abi Bakr, who were all killed.

And finally they plotted and planned a plan that went all too well. They assassinated Ali as he was offering his prayers to God at the mosque. Even as they succeeded in this wicked scheme of theirs, they stored it up as part of their experience which they later used in the identical way to get rid of the Second Imam, Imam Hasan. They went step by step - - from betrayal to battle and continuous conflict alongside a propaganda campaign in order to darken the facts and obfuscate the reality and make nebulous the truth. Muawiya used every wicked stratagem available to him.

He was the man who fought Ali and now he could not bear to see Hasan occupying his seat.

He resorted to every trick every cunning he used to act out his treachery.

Things became very difficult for Imam Hasan.

Finally, the outcome was a peace. Imam Hasan saw himself deserted by his army generals and the other commanders had no way left to them but to stop Muawiya by coming to terms in a peace accord with him, which terms he was obliged to be bound by.

Imam Hasan took the view that such a peace would be in the interests of his people.

Peace appeared to him as the only way in which to prevent the blood of Muslims from being shed and best to preserve the newly established order from being shattered.

He, therefore, suggested and wrote down the conditions for a peace, which could have ensured the safety of the religion, and of the Muslims and of the future itself. All he foresaw and embodied in this peace treaty. Muawiya accepted its condition.

But after he signed the treaty Muawiya picked and reneged on what he had agreed too earlier.

Muawiya did not honour a single condition of the peace treaty. He transformed Islamic society into almost a farcical and evil one and spread a reign of terror everywhere.

A great need of the time became the need to set things in order again.

But the worst happened.

Yazid became the Caliph; he now sat on the seat of the Prophet. It was Muawiyas intention that his son, Yazid, should come to power. Yazid was s villain of the worst dye and a drunkard. He came to power through the use of force, terror, bribes and every wicked means at his command.

All and any obstacles on his way he cleared with the sword or using poison.

Imam Hasan was poisoned because had he lived he would never have allowed Yazid to come to power.

Yazid was a mere youth, easygoing and a debauchee, born to a Christian mother and brought up by her. He was from his young days addicted to drink and the rearing of dogs. It was such a youth who took control of the government in an Islamic domain where the Quran and the mosques were predominant and where from the minarets was sounded the call of “Allaho-akbar” and witness was borne in the recital which said: “I gave evidence that God is One and that Muhammad is His servant and messenger.” It was in this milieu that the youth Yazid reigned supreme as the Caliph of the Muslims.

However little by little he is seen being entangled in the knot of great problem - - that knot which he had to unravel at any cost was none other than Imam Husayn.

When a ruler happens to be a loose character, wanton, villain, cunning, nefarious and unprincipled it obvious that the entire country would be suffused and imbued with the very qualities of such a ruler. Sin became common. Wrong ceased to be wrong because it was so widely prevalent.

Crime was no more wicked since it was the order of the day.

Every conceivable practice that was prohibited in Islam took hold of nearly all the youth.

All sense of values was in confusion and the distinction between what was good and bad became blurred. In short all Islamic lands were engulfed in all forms of sin and crime.

A fetid smell emanating from sin pervaded the air everywhere and the people were so immured to such repellent odours that anything fragrant came to be abhorred.

In such an environment as this Truth was hidden and suppressed, the Quran was abandoned as no one appeared to have anything to do with it. Religion was in recession. Christians and Jews gained the upper hand over Muslims.

A great shadow of gloom spread over all things. Society came to be covered over by a thick, murky mist, which was nothing if dreadful. A saviour was the need and sacrifice and flame of faith was the call that rent the air in such an atmosphere.

A leader of a nation was required to revolt against and uproot what was rotten in society and put to right the things that had gone wrong. Real and true Islam was the hidden call.

One was needed who could rescue mankind. One who would be prepared to give of his own blood to wash clean the land of all the murk and foul filth, which encrusted it. Blood, only blood could do that.

And it was none other than Husayn task.

And that one was Husayn the grandson of the Prophet.

It was for him to come to the rescue. Qualities that distinguished the members of the Prophet’s house were patience, fortitude, tolerance and endurance.

They refrained from bloodshed and held back from violence directing their efforts to the guidance of the people.

This was very evident during the rule of Ali bin Abi Talib.

Three battles known by the names Jamal, Siffin and Nehrawan took place during his time but he did not initiate any of them. He always tried to solve the problems by talking to his enemies. Like Imam Hasan, he preferred peace to war.

But then, after the martyrdom of Imam Hasan the people of Mecca and Medina, the companions of the Prophet who were still alive and above them all Imam Husayn became seriously concerned and apprehensive at the unchecked influence of the Bani Ummayds who were becoming a fearful threat to Islam and to the healthy society that the Prophet had laboured so hard to establish.

After giving the most serious thought to this state of affairs they concluded that there was no and no solution to take up the sword.

A bloody uprising was the key to the problem.

Yazid on the other hand was intent on cornering Imam Husayn in order to have him acknowledge his authority.

Imam Husayn was in Medina at the time.

Yazid wrote to the governor of Medina, Walid bin Otaba, asking him to obtain Imam Husayn’s acceptance of his authority.

This, if done, was tantamount to Legitimizing Yazid’s.

To confer such legitimacy on a person such as Yazid was impossible to the Imam.

When Walid relayed Yazid’s request to him, this was his reply: “When you inform the people of Muawiya’s death and ask them to acknowledge Yazid’s authority, then call me too.

I will come to the mosque and address the people as to what I should do.”

In fact Yazid’s agents were busy hounding the Imam and he did not feel at all easy at this in the prevailing circumstances. Often he used to awaken the people from their deep slumber at nights and worshipped God near the grave of his grandfather, the Prophet.

It was the 3rd of Sha’ban in the year 60 of Hijra.

Imam Husayn left for Mecca and stayed there till the month of Dhul-Hijja in the same year. As the pilgrimage season approached he too readied himself to perform the Hajj ceremonies.

He put on the Hajj garb (Ihram) and stayed on till the 8th of that month engaged in prayer and worship.

From time to time he used to come amidst the people and talk to them.

He headed for Iraq even while his Hajj remained yet incomplete and unfinished. His journey to Iraq shows that there were matters of moment that were drawing him that way. He had received several invitations from Iraq, which he felt impelled to respond to by going over there.

The caravan of the revolution was on its way. Imam Husayn was its captain. The route was long and the journey arduous. Whenever and wherever he stopped he explained to people the reason for his mission at every stopping place, at every point where people thronged to welcome him the Imam enlightened them on the purpose of his journey and on the parlous state of events unfolding under Yazid’s dispensation. All along the route as he went by villages, dwellers both high and low, vagabonds and wanderers in the desert and even humble shepherds began to know of Yazid’s nefarious character and deeds.

But since the Imam could not enter the larger cities and towns on the way due to the presence of Yazid’s armed men, he chose to skirt them going through villages and plains.

Although there were many open-minded and well informed people in these cities and towns who were very much against Yazid’s atrocities and cursed, they were reluctant to come openly out on the Imam’s side for several reasons.

For one, they were not fully aware of the far-reaching implications if the Imam’s uprising. Secondly, many of them had reconciled themselves to living and adopting their lives within Yazid iniquitous rule.

And lastly it was sheer mental apathy and an unwillingness to take up something new, preferring to be content with what they were familiar with. But inspite of all this, there were still those, although a very few, who were prepared to leave all behind and join Husayn’s caravan of revolution.

As the caravan proceeded on its way distressing news kept reaching the Imam.

One of these had to do with the martyrdom of that great personality of Islam - - the brave, pious and straight forward one, Muslim bin Aqil of the house of Thalaiba. Muslim who was a cousin of the Imam was earlier sent by him to kufa as his deputy. He was martyred by the agents of Ibn Ziad, the governor of Kufa. Muslim stood out against the traitors with great courage up to the time of his martyrdom.

At long last the caravan kept moving closer to its destination, when it come to Halt on the west plain of Karbala on the first day of the month of Muharram in the year 61 of Hijra.

Imam Husayn ordered that tents be set up close to the banks of the river Furat (Euphrates). Days passed quickly by until it came to the ninth day (Tasu’a) when as evening set in soldiers sent by Yazid grouped in large numbers attacked the Imam’s camp.

The Imam sent Abbas, his brother and a few others to talk to those who commanded the enemy army.

It ended with Abbas proclaiming loudly to them the following: “We want from you the time tonight that Imam Husayn has asked me to request of you so that it may be offered up in prayer and worship of God. Tomorrow we shall meet again under an umbrella of swords.”

Night fell, embracing the desert in its spell.

All was silent, calm and eerily wonderful with full moon lighting up the scene like a premonition of what was to follow.

The Imam looked around seeing himself surrounded by his friends and relatives and spoke to them thus: “The covenant I overlook and now ignore, the oath of allegiance to me you have taken and yokes you to me I lift from you and leave you to yourselves. You are free, there is no obligation to bind you and I shall hold you no longer. You can go and leave me to myself. Leave this land availing yourself of the veil of night, which can act as cover for you taking any direction in which you wish to go.

I leave you to this night and to the tracks of the desert.

These soldiers of Yazid’s army have business with me, not with you.”

Death lay ahead, waiting. There was no victory. This was the meaning of the Imam’s words and they fell heavily indeed on those still captivated by the world and its several attractions. To die in the way of belief was not easy for one without belief. Where there was nothing to gain, there was no temptation. Sadly, there were several among the Imam’s entourage who were too weak and did not have the mettle to stay on. So they left betaking themselves and leaving the Imam.

But there were the few, and they stayed behind solid, unflinching and ardent in their faith, to which the greatest temptation was the very person of the Imam, himself. Death in a cause and for the sake of their religion was no cheap commodity - - it was far too precious and it was harder indeed to desert the Imam.

The fateful day dawned. The Imam mustered his small force, which was in stark contrast to the thousands arrayed on the enemy side, and readied them to do battle.

And then it began in earnest. It was the force of faith on one side against the forces of tyranny on the other.

The Imam’s was a small force but they were fighting a holy war and defending a cause. Hence this gave them an unimagined and extraordinary burst of strength helping them to fight bravely.

Each warrior killed several of the enemies with ease. There were 72 men on the Imam’s side as against the thousands of Yazid’s men.

It was not here a question of numbers - - it was that of belief, faith and a cause.

Faith shone out fully among that small group - - it was bright and brilliant. The enemy lacking any kind of belief and lacking in the strength that only faith can give were confused by the astounding courage of that small force confronting them and were overtaken by a nameless dread.

This was why the Imam’s men were able to penetrate deep into the heart of Yazid’s army.

Wherever they thrust, they caused a rout and consternation among the enemy, many of which the Imam’s men killed until they were martyred.

It will be in point to digress hereto see what it was that made such a battle possible unequal though the forces were, what it was in the environment and upbringing of the Imam’s followers that made such singular and indomitable courage possible. One knows all too well that Islam has restricted such lax sports as gambling but encouraged others like horse riding and archery. The purpose, of course, was to encourage skill in such sports, but beyond this Islam finds a deeper purpose, which is to develop such noble qualities as fearlessness, strength and courage under all circumstances and in particular to stand opposed to the enemy and to tyranny in every form.

There is a well-known saying of the Imam wherein he says, “you should take care of the health of your bodies as long as you are alive.” The idea was to be able to live pure, clean lives and build up strength against abominations and the evil of what is inimical to such a life, as is tyranny.

Those present on that Ashur’a day with Imam Husayn were trained under his father Ali bin Talib and dyed in these manly virtues.

They had seen and been with the best of soldiers and generals of Islam.

In their hearts there still shone forth the flame of a burning love and affection for the Prophet and his family made them desire death in preference to a life without them.

Sincerity was their currency and faith that which moved in their very veins.

They were in fact the heroes of history and its pride.

That night was a time of waiting which they spent in polishing their swords even as they kept reciting verses from the holy Book and saying their prayers.

They were those who were enchanted by truth, as if the very taste of truth were always upon their tongues.

All was action to them and they waited the moment of great action. They waited awake till dawn for the moment they looked forward keenly to. A blood - red dawn broke forth with the rising of the sun in the East and enfolded the earth with its red-shot colour and Husayn took his small brave force out into the field of battle to confront the forces the dark forces of evil. Abes bin Abi Shabib Shakery one of the companions asked his friend Shozab, a scholar, what his feelings were at the time and he said he was proud to be in the company of the Prophet grandson and more to be among those who were going into martyrdom.

Abes then said this was just what he felt too about him. Both then took the Imam’s permission and leave before proceeding into the battle and martyrdom. It was the custom then to first take leave of the Imam before battle and Abes addressed him thus: “O Husayn, there is none more dear to me in all the world than you.

Had I the power I would have rescued you from the clutches of these tyrants.

I have nothing now but the breath of this life, which stirs within my body and this I offer in sacrifice to you and your father’s religion.”

With these stirring words he bade farewell to the Imam and rode out into the field. Rabee bin Tameem one of Yazid’s men had this to say of him: “When I saw Abes I recognized him as I had know him before. I have not known anyone to be more courageous.

So, I shouted, “This is the lion,” in order to alert my colleagues.”

Abes as he strode in stood out alone as none among Yazid’s men dared confront him. Omar Sa’ad, Yazid’s commander was furious at this and ordered a group of his men to surround and attack him with another group throwing stones at him.

Abes seeing that there was no one prepared to combat him singly with the sword but that he was being got at in this cowardly way with stones flung at him, removed his coat of armor and walked into the thick of the enemy with nothing else but his sword and fought bravely on.

Of this scene Rabee bin Tamim narrates: “By God, I saw that in whatever direction Abes went there were hundreds of men scattering in a mad stampede.

The enemy saw that he could not be overcome and so they surrounded him from every side.

As he had received great many wounds from the stones flung at him and with sword cuts, he fell.

A little later I saw a group with one holding his severed head and each claiming to have killed him.”

To this their commander Omar Sa’ad said: “None of you singly has killed him. All of you together alone were able to kill him.”

Another of the brave ones was Abu Thamameh Saidari. As noon approached he went to the Imam and said: “O Husayn, these men will kill you. As long as I am alive I will not allow them to do this.

I should be killed first.

I want to pray my last noon prayers behind you.”

The Imam thanked him and blessed him then saying: “Go and ask these people to give us time to pray.”

Then there was Jaber bin Orawa Ghaffari.

He was an old man. He had seen the Prophet and had taken part in many a battle including that of Badr and Siffin. This old man who had the courage and determination of a youth tying a cloth around his waist and a scarf over his head so that his eyebrows would at no time cover his eyes went forward to battle killing sixty of the enemy before he was martyred.

Imam Husayn is reported to have said when he saw the old man fighting: “God thanks you for your efforts old man.”

Next came Muslim bin Aousaj’an Asadi, a brave man whose bravery had won him a great deal of fame. When Muslim bin Aqil was appointed the Imam’s representative in Kufa, Aousaj’a acted as his deputy in charge of procuring arms, collecting funds and making known of the Imam’s authority to the people of the area.

On that night before when Imam Husayn urged those who wish to go to leave him Muslim bin Aousaj’a had this to say in reply: “O, son of the Prophet of God, we leave you here and go to save ourselves? How then do we answer God? By God, I shall not depart from you until I have thrust my lance into the very heart of the enemy.

As long as I have strength to hold up my sword I shall fight the enemy.

If not with a sword, I shall fight them with stones.

I shall never leave you and may God be witness that we have not deserted the Prophet. If I am killed and brought back to life and killed yet again and my body burnt to ashes, and this is repeated again and again seventy times, I shall not desert you. Now there is only this one martyrdom for me and then eternity.

This I shall not give up.”

Muslim went out into the battlefield killing his enemies until he was himself martyred. Imam Husayn came to him as he lay fallen followed by Habib ibn Mazaher who was a friend of his. Habib telling him it was hard for him to see him in such a condition nevertheless congratulated him for gaining Heaven to which Muslim rejoined saying, “May God bless you with good tidings.” Habib then said: “I hoped to be of service to you, but I know this cannot be because I too will soon be killed.” Muslim his voice feeble said once more, “My only will is to see that Imam be not left alone. Stay by his side at any cost.”

Next comes Omar bin Junada Ansari, a youth whose father Junada bin Ka’ab Ansari was killed early in the battle. His mother had this to say to him: “O, my son, get up an go into the battlefield and let the Imam see how you kill the enemy and how you get killed.” The boy approached the Imam to seek his permission but the Imam seeing he was but a youth and considering the fact that his death might fall too heavily on his mother since her husband too was lost to her, hesitated. But the boy assured him that it was his mother herself who had sent him along and so was given leave to fight. He went along with the following poetry from his lips: “My chief is Husayn There is none better to gain Bringing gladness to the Prophet’s Heart’s domain, His parentage are Ali a chain, Do you know of any obtain?

His face effulgent like the sun, His forehead like moonlight shone.”

The boy went into the battle, killing the enemy until he was finally killed. His head was cut off and thrown across to the Imam’s camp. His mother took it in her hands, embraced it saying “God bless you my son” and then threw it back into the enemy camp saying: “What we give in the way of God, we and Fatimah in of his like to do not take back.”

One by one the companions of the Imam went forward and each in turn were martyred until none were left Now it came to the turn of the Bani Hashim, the Imam’s relatives - - the sons of Aqil Imam Hasan, his own son and the sons of Muslim and Abdullah bin Ja’far.

His brother who was popularly known as the moon of Bani Hashim, a handsome youth with a fine personality and wonderful features was yet another.

He was possessed of burning faith and love for his brother and what he stood for.

Dreaded by the enemy he stood out as a hope for the Imam and his children. But alas, he too went out and was martyred relieving the enemy of their anxiety but plunging the Imam’s came in despair. One by one they had all gone into battle and attained martyrdom.

First his companions, then his relatives, his brother and his own sons.

He stood alone with none to come to his aid.

It was now his turn to enter battle. He did shattering the enemy forces the blood running strong in his veins that was his mother Fatima’s, his father Ali’s, his brother Imam Hasan’s and that of redoubtable relatives Hamza and Ja’far. His blood, which was shed that they were the bloods of the Prophets and apostles Abraham Moses, Ismayl, Jesus and many others because they were from the divine and this cause was indeed divine.

As the day went by the sun began gradually to set, the desert of Karbala was suffuse with the blood of the martyrs and then the unthinkable happened - - Imam Husayn’s head was in the hands of the enemies.

God is great; The air became dark, the earth shook and the sun was eclipsed.

But it was the dawning of the son of truth.

The blood of Imam Husayn and that of his companions, relatives and of the loved of his family was shed to nourish the tree of human liberty and dignity. It was history’s greatest sacrifice and one that shaped its future course.

It was the uprising that nourished many other uprisings. It was the fount from which many other springs flowed.

It was the uprising from which the uprisings of Mukthar Thaqafi, that of Zayd and many others took their roots. Even unto this day Ashura’ of Husayn blazing forth as the paradigm supreme of the fight against tyranny and its eventual defeat and overthrow. []


#The Martyrs of Karbala and Kufah

1 Abu-Bakr ibne Ali ibne Abi Taleb: He was called 'Muhammad-e-Azghar' or Abdullah from Laila daughter of Masu'ud, son of Hanzala, son of Manath, son of Tameem.
2 Abi Bakr: Son of the Second Imam Hassan, son of Ali.
3. Abdul Hatoof Ansari: Accompanied by his brother.
4. Sa'ad: Both sons of Hur. Both from Kufa who joined the Holy Imam at Kerbala.
5. Adhan: Son of Omayya-al Abdi. From Basra son of Abi Obaida, whose father had been the companion of the Holy Prophet.
6. Aslam: The slave who was purchased and liberated by the Holy Imam- was the scribe engaged to write communications from the Holy Imam.
7. Anas bin Hars-e-Kahili: Son of Baniah, son of Kahli who was one of the companions of the Holy Prophet.
8. Borair Zibe Khozair-e- Hamdani: A very old, pious, and devoted companion of Amirul-Momineen, Ali ibne Abi Taleb, one of the prominent noblemen of Kufa. He was the one who came to the Holy Imam begging most humbly to permit him to get martyred for he wanted to die in the way of the Lord and show his face to the Holy Prophet on the Day of Judgment.
9. Omayyabib Sa'd at Taie; He was one of the companions of Amirul-Momineen.
10. Bushr bin Amrual Hazrami: From the famous ones among the faithful ones among the faithful devotees of the Holy Prophet.
11. Bakr bib Hai at Taimi: Of the Bani Taimi tribe who came to the Holy Imam and volunteered to be martyred in the way of the Lord.
12. Jabib ibne Hajjaj al Taimi: He was the follower of Muslim-bin-Aqeel in Kufa. Since Muslim was arrested, he hid himself until Husayn arrived in Kerbala, and submitted himself until Husayn arrived in Kerbala, and submitted himself to the Holy Imam.
13. Jibilath ibne Ali-e-Shaibani: The one who was attending to Amirul-Momineen in the battle of Siffin.
14. Jafar ibne Aqeel ibne Abi Taleb: The third brother of Abbas the Standard Bearer of the Holy Imam.
15. Jafar ibne Aqeel ibne Abi Taleb: Brother of Muslim ibne Aqeel the Deputy of the Holy Imam to Kufa.
16. Jinadat ibne Ka'b Ansari Al-Khazraji: Along with his son-martyred at Kerbala- one of the greatest devotees of the Holy Imam.
17. Jundab bin Mujee al Khaulani: One of the companions of Ameerul-Momineen who came to the Holy Imam, fell down on his feet and prayed to be permitted to be martyred.
18. Jaun: The liberated slave of Abi-Zar, joined the Second Holy Imam and thereafter he remained with Husayn and had come to Kerbala with Husayn. He was trained under Abi-Zar and was a very pious devotee of the Holy Imam.
19. Jaun bin Malike Tameemi: Of the tribe of Bani Tameem. One who was in Yazid's army. Seeing the Devil's forces decision to attack the Holy Imam, which he never thought would happen, left the ranks of the Devil's forces and joined the Holy Imam.
20. Hars: The liberated slave of hazrat Hamza, the uncle of the Holy Prophet-had come from Madina along with Husayn.
21. Habshi bin Qais-e-Nahmi: Of a group from the tribe of Hamdan. His grandfather was one of the faithful companions of the Holy Prophet.
22. Hars bin Amarul Qais-e-Kandi: A very brave nobleman of Arabia. He went into the armies of the Devil, and found his own uncle there. His uncle asked him: "Have you come to kill your uncle?" He replied Yes! you are my uncle, no doubt, but God is my Lord and you have come here against him." He killed his uncle. Along with him three others from the enemy's ranks joined the Holy Imam. All were martyred.
23. Habib bin Amir-e-Taimi: One who had already paid allegiance to the Holy Imam at the hands of Muslim, was martyred in Kufa. Habib left Kufa and joined the Holy Imam on his way to Kerbala.
24. Habib bin Muzahir al-Asadi: He was known as Habib ibne Mazahir bin Re'aab bin Al-Ashtar from the lineage of Asad Abdul Qasim Al-Asadi - aged 70 years. He was one of the faithful companions of the Holy Prophet, who after the Holy Prophet always remained with Ameerul-Momineen Ali and migrated toe Kufa when the Capital was shifted from Madina to Kufa, and accompanied Ali in all battles he fought against the rebels and traitors. His ideal faithfulness and sincere devotion to he Holy Imam has many glorious details.
25. Hajjaji bin Masrooq al-Jaufi: One of the faithful companions of Ameerul-Momineen Ali in Kufa.
26. Hajjaji bin Badr as Sa'di: Of Basra from the tribe Bani Sa'd, famous nobleman in Kufa. He was the one who carried the communications of the Holy Imam to the pious ones of the devotees of the House of the Holy Prophet in Kufa.
27. Hur ibne Yazdi ar Riyah: He was the son of Yazid ibne Najiyah bin Qa'nab bin Yitab bin Hur in the lineage of Al'Tarbo'ir Riyahi. A famous nobleman of Kufa, and experienced warrior specially selected by Ibne Ziad to command a contingent against Husayn. He was the one who obstructed Husayn's way near Kufa, but he never believed that the venture of Ibne Ziad was to end in the martyrdom of the Holy Imam. When at Kerbala he found that the decision was to martyr the Holy Imam, Hur left the Devil's forces and joined the Holy Imam, seeking pardon for his previous conduct. The Holy Imam received him with special grace. Hur was among the foremost martyrs in the way of God.
28. Hallas bin Amro' ar Rasibi: He was the son of Amru ar Rasibi who was one of the faithful companions of Ameerul-Momineen Ali.
29. Hanzala bin As'adus-Shabami: He was the one who carried the message of exhortation from the Holy Imam to ibne Sa'd in Kerbala.
30. Rafe' -the liberated slave of Muslim Azdi: He came from Kufa and volunteered to be martyred in the way of the Lord.
31. Zavir bin Amro al Kandi: A sincere devotee of the Ahlu Bait and a devoted companion of the Holy Imam. He was a noble personality very much revered and respected by the people.
32. Zohair al Qaine Bijilly: He was a noble chieftain of his tribe, a man of great influence in Kufa. In the beginning he was attached to the Third Caliph Othman. Once returning from Haj he met the Holy Imam and became a staunch devotee of Husayn. He is the one who bade goodbye to his wife Dalham daughter of Amru, liberating her with a divorce to go to her relatives, and he joined the Holy Imam.
33. Ziad bin Areeb al Sa'idi: Son of Areeb one of the faithful companions of the Holy Prophet. A very pious and brave noble personality enjoying the trust and the confidence of the people.
34. Salim the liberated slave of Amire Abdi: A staunch devotee of Amirul-Momineen Ali, from Basra.
35. Salim the liberated slave of Bani Madinatul Kalbi: Of the tribe Kalb one of the devotees of Amirul-Momineen Ali in Kufa.
36. Sa'd bin Hars and Abul hatoof bin Harse Ansari: These twin brothers had come from Kufa employed in the forces of the Devil to fight Husayn. Later they left the ranks of the Devil's forces and joined the Holy Imam and got martyred.
37. Sa'd the liberated slave of Amirul-Momineen Ali: After the martyrdom of Amirul-Momineen, he remained attached to Imam Hassan and later after the martyrdom of Imam Hassan, he remained devoted to Husayn.
38. Sa'd - the liberated slave of Amro bin Khalid: He volunteered to be martyred for the Truth. A noble personality with a high degree of fidelity and valance.
39. Sayeed bin Abdullah Hanafi: A noble and very influential personality in Kufa uniquely brave. He was the gentleman who carried Muslim's letter form Kufa to Husayn and remained with the Holy Imam until he was martyred. He was the man who, while the Holy Imam offered his prayers in the field of action (Kerbala) stood in front of the Holy Imam and received the arrows from the Devil's forces, on his breast, and protecting the Imam in prayers.
40. Salman bin Mazarib bin Qais al Anmari al Bijilli: A cousin of Zohair al Qain. He went to Mecca with Zohair and when on his return form Mecca Zohair decided to join the Holy Imam, he accompanied him and got martyred at Kerbala. A man of very noble conduct and character endowed with strong will and prowess. A very pious personality fearing none but God.
41. Suleiman bin Razeen-A liberated slave of the Holy Imam: A truthful and a very reliable gentlemen. A staunch devotee of the Holy Imam. He carried Husayn's letters to the devotees of the Ahlul-Bait in Basra. Ibne Ziad, the Devil's governor of Basra caught him and this faithful servant of the Holy Imam became a martyr.
42. Sawar bin Manyim-e-Nahmi: A highly respected noble veteran of Iraq, travelled all the way to Kerbala to join the Holy Imam to get martyred with him.
43. Suwaid bin Amro bin Abil Mataa al Anmari al Khash'mi: A noble, highly respected, God-fearing and a brave personality. He fought and fell seriously wounded, and was lying unconscious, the enemy thinking him dead had left him but when he returned to consciousness and heard the rejoicing of the Devil's forces shouting that the Holy Imam had been killed, he got up, and fought, and was martyred.
44. Saif bin Hars al Jabiri and Malik: These two cousins from Kufa joined the Holy Imam.
45. Saif bin Malid al Abdi a Basri: A leading devotee of the Holy Ahlul-Bait.
46. Shabeeb a liberated slave of Hars-e-Jabiri-e-Hamadani: A very brave man who got martyred in the very first attack from the enemy.
47. Shaneb-e-Shakiri: Well-known in Kufa for his nobility of character, courage, and a revered noble veteran of the town.
48. Zarghaman abin Milik-e-Taghlabi: A lion-hearted, brave who was faithful to Muslim bin Aqeel in Kufa. After Muslim's martyrdom, he joined the Holy Imam.
49. Aaiz bin Majama'al Aazi: One of those six, who along with Hur ibne Yazid-e-Riyahi had joined the Holy Imam.
50. Aabis ibne Abi Shabeeb-e-Shakiri: One of the most pious devotees of Amirul-Momineen, and one of the noblemaen of Kufa. He was one of those who helped Muslim ibne Aqeel in Kufa.
51. Amir bin Muslim at Badi Basri: With his liberated slave Salim, both the devotees of Amirul-Momineen in Basra, joined the Holy Imam.
52. Abbas Ibne Ali ibne Abi Taleb, Qamare Bani Hashim: This is the great son of the First Holy Imam Ali ibne Abi Taleb, from the noble lady Hazrat Ummul-Baeen, who was brought into this world to fulfill the desire of Amirul-Momineen to have his own representative, on his behalf to be martyred with Husayn in Kerbala. Abbas is well-known to the Muslim World for the unique divine qualities he was endowed with.
This great lion-hearted son of the Lion of God in his qualities and position in Kerbala, is next only to the Holy Imam Husayn.
The 'Alam' or the Banner which he held on behalf of the Holy Imam, was the Standard of Islam or the Truth, which is hoisted by the Shias, popularly during the mourning season of Muharram, and is revered as do the faithful subjects of good Kings as a token of their loyalty to him. The Banner being the Standard of Truth is only revered and respected and never worshipped as wrongly imagined and depicted by some ignorant ones. Worship in Islam is due to none but the One, the Only True God.
53. Abdullah ibne Husayn, known as Ali-e-Asghar: The 6-month old baby son of the Holy Imam, martyred in the very lap of his father whose martyrdom no human heart can bear without shedding tears.
54. Abdullah bin Hassan ibne Ali: The son of the Second Holy Imam Hassan, a young boy who ran out of the tent to save Husayn when he was being martyred, and was martyred before the Holy Imam.
55. Abdullah bin Bushr Khash'ami tribe: A well known noble personality in Kufa. He came out of Kufa with ibne Sa'd but joined the Holy Imam.
56. Abduallah bin Omair Kalbi: He had come to Kufa from Madina, and joined the Holy Imam. His wife also accompanied him to serve the Holy ladies. When Abdullah was martyred, his wife sitting at the dead body of her husband said "O Abdullah Thou hath entered Paradise, take me along with thee." The good lady had not finished her lamentations when a slave of Shimar delivered a blow on her head with an axe and she was martyred.
57. Abdul Rahman and Abdullah sons of Orawah bin Harraq al Ghaffari: These two brothers were noblemen of Kufa. Their grandfather Harraq, was one of the faithful companions of Ameerul-Momineen. They came to the Holy Imam and joined the noble cause.
58. Abdullah bin Muslim bin Aqeel: Son of Muslim bin Aqeel ibne Abi Taleb. His mother was Roqiah, daughter of Ali through his wife Sahba, from Yamamah was martyred when he went to save the Holy Imam.
59. Abdullah bin Yaqtar-e-Himyart: He was the son of the good lady who had served the Holy Imam as his nurse in his babyhood.
60. Abde Qais Basri-e-Abdi: Along with Abdullah bin Zaid-e-Abdi. Obaidullah bin Zaide Abdi, Yazid bin sabeet al Abdi.
These great men well-known and highly respected ones of their tribe came and requested the Imam to permit them to drink the cup of martyrdom along with him.
61. Abdul A'la bin Yazeed al Kalbi al Aleemi: The famous and respected nobleman from Kufa.
62. Abdul Rahman bin Abdul Rab-e-Ansar Khazrji: One of the faithful companions of the Holy Prophet and a Traditionist and a faithful devotee of Ameerul-Momineen.
63. Abdul Rahman bin Aqeel ibne Abi Taleb: Son of Aqeel from his wife Omme Walad.
64. Abdul Rahman-e-Arhabi: One of those who carried the letters of the devotees to the Holy Imam.
65. Abdul Rahman bin Mas'ood at Taimi: Came out of Kufa along with Ibne Sa'd but later joined the Holy Imam.
66. Othman bin Ali ibne Abi Taleb: One of the brothers of Hazrate Abbas, the third son of Ommul Baneen. Joined the Holy Imam on his way to Kerbala.
67. Omar bin Janada-e-Ansari: This is the son of the godly lady who came to the Holy Imam and implored for his permission for her son Omar to be martyred and somehow succeeded in getting it.
68. Ali -e-Akbar son of the Holy Imam: The 18-year old son of the Holy Imam who resembled the Holy Prophet the most, was martyred by a lance pierced through his breast.
69. Omer bin Zabi'ah Az Zabiyee: Son of Zabiya at Taimi. Came out of Kufa with Ibne Sa'd but later joined the Holy Imam and was martyred.
70. Amro bin Khalid-e- Saidavi and three others: When these four person marched towards the camp of the Holy Imam, Hur asked the Holy Imam for permission to stop them from getting near the camp for they were coming from the enemy's ranks. The Holy Imam miraculously said "Oh struck them not, they are coming to me with a good hears. They are my devotees."
71. Amru bin Abdullah-e-Jundayi: Of the tribe of Hamden.
72. Arm bin Quart al Ansari: One of the faithful companions of the Holy Prophet and also of Amirul-Momineen.
73. Amru bin Ha'b Abu Thamama al Sa'idi: One of the faithful devotees and companions of Amirul-Momineen.
74. Amru bin Hassan Talee: One of the staunch devotees of the Ahlul-Bait.
75. Ammara ibne Salama al Daaalani: One of the companions of Amirul-Momineen.
76. Aun and Muhammad sons of Jafar-e-Tayyar: Two sons of Hazrat Zainab the sister of the Holy Imam. Aun was her own son and Muhammad was from the deceased wife (Khausa), of her husband Abdullah bin Jaffar Tayyar. These two were only young boys of about nine and ten years of age. The Holy Lady Zainab, the daughter of Amirul-Momineen and Lady Fatimah, brought these two young boys and implored her brother, the Holy Imam, to permit them to free the enemy. At the persistent implorings from his sister the Holy Imam permitted, and these two young souls were martyred before the very eyes of their mother. This godly daughter of Ali and Fatima, the grand daughter of the Holy Prophet, stood quietly at the dead bodies of her children and said "I will not lament for you have gone in the way of the Lord." The whole camp wept but Zainab stopped them from crying, saying: "Let no my brother feel that I am sorry for losing them in the way of the Lord. Today I am pleased with my children."
77. Qarib: The son of a liberated slave girl of Husayn This lady, after having been liberated by the holy Imam, was married to a gentlemen and brought her son Qarib and presented him to the Holy Imam and Qarib was brought up by the Holy Imam. He was martyred along with the other devotees, offering himself in the way of the Lord.
78. Qasim bin Hassan bin Ali: Son of the Second Holy Imam.
79. Qasim bin: A well-known noble of Kufa.
80. Qasith, Kardoos, Musqit-Sons of Zohair al Taghlabi: These three brothers were the devoted companions of Amirul Momineen who were with him in all his expeditions against the infidels and traitors. They came form Kufa and offered themselves for noble cause and achieve martyrdom.
81. Qan'ab an Namri: One of the devotees of Amirul-Momineen who came for Basra.
82. Qais bin Mushir as Saidavi: A very pious personality from a group of the Asadi tribe, extra-ordinarily brave, faithful and one of the sincere and faithful companions of the Holy Prophet. He reported himself to the Holy Imam, from Kufa, and was martyred.
83. Kannah at Taghlabi: A very noble personality known for his piety in Kufa. A good reciter of the Holy Qu'ran and a very brave, God fearing, influential and powerful noble of Kufa.
84. Majma'ul Jahni: Son of Zian bin Omar Jahni, one of the aged companions of the Holy Imam. When people began deserting the Holy Imam on the night of Ashura, this old devotee of the Holy Imam remained and achieved martyrdom.
85. Muslim bin Aqeel: The Deputy of the Holy Imam to Kufa, where he was martyred.
86. Muslim Ibne Ausaja al Asadi: One of the faithful companions of the Holy Prophet. An aged veteran who had earned a glorious name and fame for his valor and prowess in the expeditions against the infidels. On the night of Ashoora when the Holy Imam told his companions to find their own ways and save themselves from the wholescale massacre of his supporters which was in store for them the following day, Muslim addressing the Holy Imam said: "O son of the Holy Prophet! Where am I to go before myself getting martyred here"?
Muslim was one of the most prominent supporters of the Holy Imam in Kerbala, and was martyred there.
87. Muslim bin Katheer al A'waj al Azdi: One of the devotees of Amirul-Momineen in Kufa.
88. Mas'ood bin Hajjaj Taimy and his son Abdur Rahman bin Mas'ood: The devotees of Amirul-Momineen from Kufa. These two were known for their piety and righteousness.
89. Muhammad bin Abdullah ibne Jafar: A young son of Abdullah son of Hazrat Jafar-e-Tayyar, his mother was Khausa, daughter of Hafsa bin Rabi'a.
90. Muhammad bin Muslim Aqeel: One of the two young sons of Muslim bin Aqeel the Deputy of the Holy Imam who was martyred in Kufa.
91. Muhammad bin Muslim bin Aqeel: The grandson of Muslim bin Aqeel the Deputy of the Holy Imam to Kufa.
92. Munjeh: the liberated slave of the Second Holy Imam Hassan: He accompanied Qasim bin Hasan from Medina.
93. Mauq' bin Thamamah Asadi Saidavi Abu Musa: One of the devotees of the Ahlul Bait in Kufa who escaped from the town at night and joined the Holy Imam at Kerbala.
94. Nafe' bin Hilale Jamali: A companion of Ameerul-Momineen. Reciter of the Holy Qu'ran and Traditionalist. A noble personality known in Kufa for his piety, who escaped from Kufa and joined the Holy Imam in Kerbala. A great devotee of Holy Imam who always remained by the side of Abbas the Standard Bearer of Husayn. He could not bear the least disregard for the Holy Imam, from anyone in the Devil's forces.
95. Nasr bin Naizar: A liberated slave of Amirul-Momineen (The Leader of the faithful). He was presented to the Holy Prophet by the King of Persia and the Holy Prophet presented him to Amirul-Momineen, who freed him. He came to Kerbala.
96. Wazeh the Turk: The Turkish liberated slave of Harse Madhaji. A pious gentlemen, a good reciter of the Holy Qu'ran, who came to Kerbala, and presented himself to the Holy Imam.
97. Hani bin Orwah: Martyred at Kufa with Muslim ibne Aqeel.
98. Yazid bin Ziad bin Mohasir-e-Kandi-Behdile Abush-Sha'sa: One of the nobles in Kufa. A staunch devotee of Ahlul-Bait. A very pious personality who joined Husayn from Kufa.
99. Yazid bin Maghfal Ja'fi: A very pious devotee of Ameerul Momineen. A learned poet. His father and grandfather were faithful companions of the Holy Prophet. (s.a.w).
100. Husayn ibne Ali, the King of Martyrs: The divinely promised and prophesised Martyr of the Zibhe Azeem (The Great Sacrifice) in the seed of Abraham through his son Ishmael, in the lineage of Ishmael through Muhammad the Last Apostle of God, Ali the Ameerul Momineen, the First of the Holy Imams and Lady Fatima, the Lady of light.

(Quran 19:154)
"And say not of those who are slain in the way of Allah: "They are dead." Nay they are living though ye perceive (it) not."

(Jeremiah 46:10)

"For this is the day of the Lord GOD of hosts, a day of vengeance, that he may avenge him of his adversaries: and the sword shall devour, and it shall be satiate and made drunk with their blood: for the Lord GOD of hosts hath a great sacrifice in the north country by the river {Euphrates}."

The Martyrdom of Imam Husayn and his companions, foretold in the Old Testament, for. no other sacrifice has ever been made on the banks of the Euphrates until the sacrifice in Kerbala.

Imam Hussein message to the Ummah is:

"Indeed, I do not see death (for freedom) as but happiness, and living with unjust people as nothing but grief."

Imam Hussein last advice to his son, Ali:

"My son stand for truth even if it bitter."

And the Glorious Quran says:

"Assuredly you will be tried in your property and in your Persons." (Quran, 3:186)



#Our Hussain, Mourning him and his Karbala

It is accepted to the Islamic nation, due to the finality of the Prophethood and its particular concerns, that the holy prophet had the knowledge about the wars, trials and that which happened to his family-house hold, their progeny, and relatives, more or less, of the enormous tragedies, of the dark surprises of time, of the hard events, wide killings, and to whatever else that has entered on them from torture, trickery, ill-treatment, capture and imprisonment.

This knowledge of his is from among the wide, unconditional, and fully general (master) leadership on every creation. As not acting on this information, using it for forgiveness and patience (instead), as if nothing was going to occur, all while he could have taken these men without any consequence. These unjust men of tyranny, men of corruption, he (could have taken them) using his knowledge of that he knew of them. To uphold legal punishment before they attack, punish before the crime, to sever the ties with the offending clan, not to have good relation with the aggressors; and to send away those whom he knew of aggression bad fortune and animosity to his family from his field, away from his person. All of this is also from the concerns of the leadership. No human, ever, can carry this heavy burden. While this knowledge and this forgiveness is not combined in any of the sons of Adam. This cannot be conceived in any human except in one who has the leadership (Wilayah).

This is an important subject, very wide, form the sciences of religion, and if we were to go into its details we would end up with a heavy book.

This condition caused the Messenger of Allah to look to all of these events and tragedies which were to inflict his household, as long as he lived, the essence of his kidneys (Hassan & Hussain), his love and a part of himself (Fatimah) and her cousin his greatest supporter in truth (Ali) and from their good progeny; as if he was viewing the events from behind a thin screen. Whenever he looked to one of them, up close, his knowledge, as a matter of fact, would play the scenes before his eyes. Therefore, for the length of his life, he displayed his sorrow and depression among those close to him, naturally. His sorrow does not separate from him; he lived with it, crying secretly, hiding the longing and swallows the pain.

Whenever he found the appropriate environment he would attempt to cure the pain of his heart, put off the heat in his heart and the fire of sorrow by hugging one of his family close to his chest, he would smell and kiss pouring his tears, with crying eyes and his tong carries what amuses his feelings.

You would see him holding on to Ali, the master of his progeny, his cousin and father of his "sons", in the middle of the road he would kiss him and repeat his saying: "My father is your ransom. (You) The lonely the martyr." As reported by Aisha, the mother of believers,

Sunni references:

* al-Hafidh abu-Yaala al-Mousilly, in his Musnad, and many scholars took from him.
Many of the narrators reported the correct hadeeth of Ibn-Abbas: "I went out with the prophet and Ali by the walls of Madinah, we passed by a garden. Ali said: What a beautiful garden this is Oh prophet of Allah? He (the prophet) said: Your garden in Paradise is more beautiful than this. Then he pointed with his hand to his (Ali's) head and beard and cried till he was loudly crying. We said: What makes you cry? He said: Hatred in the hearts of a people, they do not display till they loose me."
In a narration according to Anas bin Malik: "Then the prophet put his head on one of Ali's shoulders and cried. He said to him: What makes you cry, Oh, messenger of Allah? He said: Hatred in the chests of peoples, they don't display until I depart from this world."

Also, according to Ameerul Moemineen (Ali): "When the road was clear for me, he hugged me and cried loudly. I said: Oh messenger of Allah, what makes you cry? He said: Hatred in the chests of peoples, they don't display to you until after me."

Sunni Ref. where all three narrations are recorded:

* Musnad al-Bazzaz;
* al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, al-Tabarani
* Musnad abu-Ya'la
* Tareekh al-Sham, Ibn’Asakir
* Majma' al-Haithami
* More references can be found in "Al-Ghadeer", by al-Ameeni.

The prophet (sa.w) used to attend to his (Ali's) patience and solidarity and say to him : "How is your patience if that was dyed (colored) from this? Pointing with his hand to his beard and head. Ali said: Wasn't I tested when I was tested, so this is not from among the things of patience, but it is from those of good tidings and dignity." So the prophet is pleased with such beautiful expressions, which describes the greatness of Ali's self and his love in the way of Allah, Almighty.

Sunni Ref:

* al-Mu'jam al-Kabeer, al-Tabarani.

You see him (sa.w) embrace abu-Mohammad รข€“ al-Hassan, the son, to his chest and kiss him on his mouth and navel, because of what he knew that his contents from his mouth to his navel would be cut by the poison.

Then he would embrace Hussain, the son, towards him to smell and kiss. To kiss the spots where swords, arrows and stabs are to fall. He would concentrate on his lips, knowing that they will be hit by the rod.

He mourns his Hussain, his flower (as he used to call them), time after time, in the houses of the Mothers of the Believers (his wives). Whenever his sorrow is hard on him, he would take the Hussain in his lap and brings him along to the mosque, to the gathering of Sahaba while crying. His tears falling, he would display to them the infant Hussain with the sand of Karbala in his hand and say: "My nation (Ummah) will kill him, and this is the dirt of Karbala." Or he would take the dirt smell it and cry, with the mention of his murder and death, saying: "The smell of Karb wa Balaa (sorrow and trial)." Or would say: "By The One who owns my soul, it saddens me: Who is this who kills Hussain after me?" Or would say: "Wow to’Karb and Balaa'", or "Karbalaa: the land of Karb (deep sorrow) and Balaa (painful trial)." Or puts Hussain on his lap, with his red dirt in his hand, while crying and say: "I wish I could express my self! Who kills you after me?"

You would see Fatima (as), when her father (s) tells her that she is to catch up with him fast from among his family, it pleases her to hear this news [*see references below]. He is but telling her that the life of the family of Mohammed is surrounded by treachery and sad surprises. If it were not for such fears, from those enormous tragedies pouring into their field, why would Fatimah al-Zahraa dislike her life? Her happy life ought to be the best life, most pleasant and greatest of pride: Having a husband alike to her father in his virtues; having sons like Hussan and Hussain, the flowers of the messenger of Allah, the masters of the youth of Paradise - none equal, any beautiful description falls short; and from among the girls such as Zainab, the jewel of completeness and honor.

* Sunni Ref:
* Musnad Ahmad, Ahmad bin Hanbal
* Musnad abu-Ya'la, abu-Ya'la al-Mousulli
* Musannaf Ibn Abi Sheiba
* al-Khasaes, al-Nisaei
* Saheeh al-Tirmithi
* Mushkil al-Athar, al-Tahawi
* al-'Ilal, al-Darqutni
* Huliat al-Abrar, abu-Naeem
* al-Dalael, al-Bayhaqi
* and many others via Umul Moemineen Aisha

So why is Fatimah, at that time, displeased with life, when she is still in the beginning of her youth, has not reached her aims and has not gotten what she hopes out of life?

Why would she ask her God to hasten her death, when she has not attained what mothers wish to see in their sons? For such hopes ease (mothers') pains and sweeten the bitterness of this world. They sacrifice all to see these hopes come true. Why would she remove her hand from her infants, clears her lap from them and accept orphaning them when they have reach their beautiful youth?

Why would she be’pleased' to wither her flowers, the flowers of the family of Mohammed, while they are in their most beautiful stage, and she has not attained their blossom? Why would she leave her garden and the flowers have not opened?
Why would she like to separate from her spouse and leave her love to accompany sorrow, pain and emptiness? His sorrow after her is everlasting and his nights in her separation are insomnia?

Why is this happiness and pleasure in becoming close to death?

All of this is nothing more than escaping from the gravity of these tragedies that she knew well, taken from her father the truthful. For Fatimah (as) did not imagine for herself or hope for a savior or shelter which she could trust could give her peace and protection, except to be near her Generous God and declining this life, inclusive of its bitterness and sweetness.

What can Fatimah do with life and she sees her father (s), for the duration of his life, allied to sorrow? He spent his life with a teary eye, a sorrowful heart and grief within him because of distress over his family. He mourns for his son Hussain from the start of his birth and on and on, when a baby, an infant, and a boy. Allah had taken the houses of his prophet places of sorrow and crying since the birth of dear Hussain. The angels of his god arrive to him in groups and singular, time after time, every now and then, announcing (the future death) of Hussain, they bring him his red dirt (earth) symbolizing in that his upcoming murder and death.

These are important Islamic historic events, a slice of which history did recorded for us, even though, due to the past circumstances only little reached us. Here is a brief list for you.

A rite (maatam) in the house of the Messenger of Allah

"Ahmed and Ibn al-Dhahhak narrated from Ali (ra), said: I entered on the prophet and his eyes a flooded, I said: Oh! Prophet of Allah, anyone made you angry? Why are your eyes flooded? He said: Gabriel just left me telling me that Hussain will be killed by the river Euphrates. He (prophet) said: So he (Gabriel) said: Do you want me to let you smell his dirt (from his burial pot)? I said: yes! He reached with his hand and grabbed and handful of dirt and gave it to me. So I could not help it and my eyes were flooded."

Sunni Ref:

* Thakhaer al-Uqba, Muhibbuldeen al-Tabari, p148.

A rite of infancy

"Abu Abdullah Mohammed bin Ali al-Jawhari, in Baghdad, told us: Abul Ahwas Mohammed bin al-Haitham al-Qadhi, from Mohammed bin Musaab, from al-Awzaei, from abi Ammar Shaddad bin Abdullah, from Ummul Fadhl the daughter of al-Harith. That she entered on the Messenger of Allah and she said: Oh! Messenger of Allah, I saw a strange dream last night. He said: And what is it? She said: It is difficult. He said: And what is it? She said: I saw, as if, a piece of your body was severed and was put in my lap! The Messenger of Allah said: You saw good - Fatima will give birth, God willing, a boy so he will be in your lap. Then Fatima gave birth to al-Hussain and he was in my lap - just as the Messenger of Allah said. So I entered one day on the Messenger of Allah and put his in his lap, but I noticed that the eyes of the Messenger of Allah pouring tears! She said: So I said: Oh! Prophet of Allah, my parents are your ransom, what is with you? He said: Gabriel (pbuh) came to me and informed me that my nation (ummah) will kill this son of mine. I said: This one? He said: Yes, and he brought me dirt from his red dirt."

al-Hakim said: This is a correct hadeeth (Saheeh) on the conditions of (Bukhari and Muslim) but they did not print it. He produced it in page 179, he said: Narrated abu al-Abbas Muhammad bin Ya'qoob, Muhammad bin Is-haq al-Sana'ni, Muhammad bin Isma'eel bin abi Summaiya, Muhammad bin Mus'ab, al-Awza'ei, abi Ammar that Ummul Fadhl said: The messenger of Allah said - while Hussain in his lap - that "Gabriel informed me that my nation (ummati) kills al-Hussain."

He (al-Hakim) said: Ibn abi Summaiya has summarized this hadeeth. Other than Muhammad bin Mus'ab have narrated it in full.

Sunni Ref:

* al-Mustadrak al-Saheeh, al-Hafidh al-Hakim al-Nisapouri, v3, p176.
* Dalael al-Nubouwa, al-Hafidh al-Baihaqi.

It was produced by al-Hafidh al-Baihaqi in "Dalael al-Nubouwa" under the subject of Hussain . He said: Muhammad bin Abdullah al-Haifdh (al-Hakim al Nisapouri), abu Abdullah Mohammed bin Ali al-Jawhari in Baghdad, with the same narrators and text, as mentioned.

Al-Hafidh bin’Asakir in Tareekh al-Shamm (History of Shamm) said: abu’Abdullah al-Gharawi, abu-Bakr al-Baihaqi, Muhammad bin’Abdullah al-Hafidh, the same as above.
Also said: Informed us abu al-Qasim bin al-Samarqandi, abu al-Hussain bin al-Naqoor, abu al-Hassan Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Umran (known as ibnul Jundi) abu Rawq Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Bakr al-Harati, al-'Abbas bin al-Faraj al-Raqqashi, Muhammad bin Ismaeel abu Summaiya, Muhammad bin Mus'ab supported as follows:

"I saw, Oh Messenger of Allah, a sighting I find too great to describe to you. He said: Tell it. She said: I saw as if a piece of you was cut and put in my lap! He said: Fatima is pregnant, she will give birth to a boy whom I will name Hussain and she will put him in your lap. She said: So Fatimah gave birth to Hussain and he was in my lap, to take care of him, so he entered on me one day and Hussain was with me and started playing with him for a while. Then his eyes filled with tears, so I said: what makes you cry? He said: This is Gabriel informing me that my nation (ummati) kills this son of mine!"

All the narrators are trusted and the hadeeth is "saheeh".

A rite in the house of al-Sayyidah Ummu Salamah, Ummul Moemineen

Narration by Ya'la bin’Ubaid, Musa al-Jahani, Salih bin Arbad al-Nakhei, Ummu Salamah said: "al-Hussain entered on the prophet, while I was sitting at the door, so I saw in the hand of the prophet something he turned over while (Hussain) sleeping on his stomach. I said: Oh messenger of Allah, I looked and saw you turning something over in your hand when the kid was sleeping on your stomach and your tears were pouring? He said: Jibraeel came to me with the sand upon which he will be killed. And he informed me that my nation (umma) will kill him."

Sunni Ref:

* al-Musannaf, by al-Hafidh abu Bakr bin abi Shaibah, v 12

Narrated al-Hussain bin Is-haq al-Tustury, Ali bin Bahr, Issa bin Younis. And’Ubaid bin Ghannam, abu-Bakr bin abi Sheibah, Ya'la bin’Ubaid, the both said: Mousa bin Salih al Juhani, Salih bin Arbad, from Ummu Salama (ra) said: "The messenger of Allah said: Sit at the door, and don't let anyone enter on me. So I sat at the door, then Hussain came by so I went to take him, but he raced me and entered on his grandfather. When that took long, I peaked from the door and saw you turning something in your hands and your tears running, and the kid on your stomach? He said: Yes, Gabriel came to me and informed me that my nation (umma) will kill him. He brought me the sand on which he will be killed, which I was turning in my hands."

Sunni Ref:

* al-Moejam al-Kabeer, al-Hafidh al-Tabarani, Subject of the martyr al-Hussain

A rite in the house of al-Sayyidah Aisha, Ummul Moemineen

Narrated Ali bin Mohammad,’Uthman bin Muqsim, al-Muqbari, from Aisha said: "While the messenger of Allah was laying down, al-Hussain came crawling towards him so I moved him away from him and I got up to do something. So he got close to him and he woke up crying. So I said: What makes you cry? He said that: Gabriel showed me the sand on which Hussain will be killed. The anger of Allah is great on whomever sheds his blood. He opened his hands, in which a grab of sand. He said: Oh, Aisha, by the One whom my soul is in His hands, it saddens me! Who is this from my nation (umma) who kills Hussain after I am gone?!"

All the men of the narration are documented as trusted.

Sunni Ref:

* al-Taba'qat al-Kubra, Ibn Saad

A rite in a gathering of the companions

Mu'awiya bin Husham, Ali bin Salih, Yazeed bin abi Ziad, Ibraheem (bin Yazeed al-Nakhei),’Alqama (bin Qays al-Nakhei),’Abdullah bin Masoud said: "While we were at the (house of) messenger of Allah, a group from Bani Hashim approached. When the prophet saw them his eyes overflowed and his color changed. I said to him: We see something you hate in your face? He said: We are the people of the household (Ahlul Bayt) Allah has chosen for us the thereafter over this world and that the family of my household will encounter after me trials, dispersement and expulsion. Until a people come forward from the east, along with them black flags, they ask for justice but it is not offered. So they fight and strike and are then given what they asked for. They don't accept it until they push it forward to a man from my Ahlul Bayt. Then he fills it with justice as they filled it with injustice. Therefore, whomever lives to see that from among you should come to them, even if crawling on the snow."
All the men of narration are trustworthy, as recorded.

Sunni Ref:

* al-Musannaf, al-Hafidh abu-Bakr bin abi Shaibah, v 12
* al-Sunan al-Saheeh, Ibn Majeh, v 2, p 518, section of appearance of the Mahdi
* al-Hafidh abu-Jaafar al-'Uqayli (with the addition: "We said: Oh, messenger of Allah - We are not happy to see in your face something you hate." )
* al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v 4, p 464.
* Akhbar Asbahan, by al-Hafidh abu Naeem al-Asbahani, v 2, p 12.
* al-Moejam al-Kabeer, al-Tabarani, v 3.

A rite in Karbala by the father of the martyr, the Commander of Believers Ali (as)
Muhammad bin’Ubaid, Sharhabeel bin Mudrik, Abdullah bin Naji: "his father walked with Ali, when they reached Nainawa, the departure point to Siffien, Ali called: Be patient aba’Abdullah! Be patient aba’Abdullah at the river al-Furat (Euphrates)! I said: And what? He said: I entered on the messenger of Allah one day and his eyes overflowing. I said: Oh, prophet of Allah! Anybody angered you? Why are your eyes overflowing (with tears)? He said: But Gabriel just left me and informed me: That al-Hussain will be killed at the river al-Furat (Shattul Furat). He said: Do you want me to show you from his sand? He said: I said yes. He extended his hand and grabbed and handful of dirt and gave it to me. So I could not help it, my eyes overflowed."

Sunni Ref:

* al-Masnad, Ahmad bin Hanbal, v 2, pp 60-61.

Ibn Saad, Ali bin Muhammad, Yahya bin Zakariya, a man heard it from’Amir al-Sha'bi say: "When Ali passed by Karbalaa in his march to Siffien and lined up with Nainawa - a village on the Euphrates - he stopped and called one of them men: Tell aba’Abdullah (al-Hussain ) what this land is called? He said: Karbalaa. Then he cried until the earth was wet from his tears. He then said: I entered on the messenger of Allah and he was crying. So I said: What makes you cry? He said: Gabriel was with me, just now, and informed me: that my son al-Hussain will be killed at the banks of Furat in a location called Karbala. Then Gabriel grabbed a handful of dirt and let me smell it. So I could not help it, my eyes overflowed."

Sunni Ref:

* al-Tabaqat, Ibn Saad
* al-Musannaf, Ibn Abi Shaibeh, v12 (with "Patience aba’Abdullah, patience aba’Abdullah."
* al-Moejam al-Kabeer, al-Tabarani, v 1
* Tareekh al-Shamm, Ibn’Asakir



#A brief look at the Life of Imam Hussain

(This is) an account of the Imam after al-Hasan b. Ali, peace be on him, (giving) the date of his birth, the evidence of his Imamate, the age he reached, the period of his succession (khalifa), the time and cause of his death, and the place of his grave. (It also provides) a selection from the (historical) reports about him.

The Imam after al-Hasan b. Ali was his brother, al-Husayn b. Ali (who was) the son of Fatima, daughter of the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, through the designation (nass) of his father and grandfather, peace be on them, and the testamentary bequest (wasiyya) of his brother, al-Hasan, peace be on him. His kunya was Abu Abd Allah (glory be to Him).

He was born in Medina, on the fifth of Shaban in the year 4 A.H. (626). His mother, Fatima, peace be on her, brought him to the Apostle of God. The latter was delighted with him and named him Husayn. He sacrificed a ram on his behalf in the rite of aqiqa. On the testament of the Apostle of God, he and his brother are the two lords of the youth of Heaven, and by unanimous agreement, they were the grandsons of the Prophet of Mercy.

Al-Hasan b. Ali, peace be on them, was like the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, from his head to his chest, while al-Husayn was like him from his chest to his feet. They were the two dear ones of the Apostle of God among all his family and children. [Zadhan reported on the authority of Salman, may God be pleased with him:]

I heard the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, say concerning al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them: O God, I love both of them. Therefore love them and love whoever loves them Then he said: Whoever loves al-Hasan and al-Husayn, is one whom I love. Whomever I love, God loves, and whomever God loves, He will cause to enter Heaven. Whoever hates them, I hate and God hates. Whomever God hates, He will cause to enter the Fire. Then he said: These two sons of mine are my two plants of sweet basil (to sweeten) the world.

[Zirr b. Hubaysh reported on the authority of Ibn Mas'ud: ]

While the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, was praying, al-Hasan and al-Husayn came and stood behind him. When he raised his head, he took them tenderly (into his arms). When he resumed (his prayers), they resumed (theirs). Then when he had finished, he sat one on his right knee and the other on his left knee and said: Whoever loves me, should love these two. They, peace be on them, are the two proofs (hujjatay Allah) of God of His Prophet in the contest of prayer (mubahala). After their father, the Commander of the faithful, they were the two proofs of God (hujjatay Allah) to the community concerning religion (din) and belief (milla).

[Muhammad b. Umayr has reported on the authority of his teachers (rijal) that Abu Abd Allah (i.e. Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq), peace be on him, said:]

Al-Hasan, peace be on him, said to his companions: God has two cities - one in the east and the other in the west - in which Gods creatures are never interested in disobeying Him. Yet, by God, God's proof to His creatures, both in those two and between them, is no other than myself and my brother, al-Husayn.

A narration of the same kind is reported from al-Husayn b. Ali peace be on them, when he said to the followers of Ibn Ziyad on the day of deprivation:

What is the matter with you that makes you help each other against me or (don't you see) if you kill me, you kill God's proof to yourselves? No, by God, there is not between Jabilqa and Jabirsa a son of a prophet through whom God provides proof to you other than myself.

He meant by Jabilqa and Jabirsa, the two cities which al-Hasan, peace be on him, had mentioned.

One of the conclusive pieces of evidence (burhan) of the perfection of both of them, peace be on them, and the proof of God's special regard for them both, after what we have mentioned of the contest of prayer of the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, (in which he used) them both, is the pledge (bay'a) which the Apostle of God made to them, when he never made any (other) pledge to a child. The Qur'an also brings down the positive statement of the reward of Heaven to them both because of their works, despite the outward state of childhood in which they were. It did not bring down that to any other like them. God said in Surat Hal ata (known also as Surat al Dahr)

"And they give foods out of love for him, to the poor, orphans and prisoners We only feed you for the sake of God; we do not want reward or thanks from you. Indeed we fear from our Lord a hard depressing day. Therefore, God will guard them from the evil of that day, and make them meet with ease and joy, and reward them with gardens and silk because they were patient." [Ch 76: Vr 8-12]

This statement is general to them, peace be on them, with their father and their mother. The tradition contains their assertion of that and their awareness of it; both of which indicate that the illustrious verse was about the two of them and (that) the greatest proof (hujja) to creatures was through them both. In the same way the report about the Messiah, peace be on him, speaking in the cradle was a proof of his prophethood and God's special regard for him through miraculous acts (karama) which indicated his place and position with God with regard to merit (fadl) The Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, had made clear his Imamate and the Imamate of his brother before him through designation (nass) when he said:

These two sons of mine are Imams who will experience difficulties. The testamentary bequest (wasiyya) of al-Hasan, peace be on him, to him indicated his Imamate,just as the testamentary bequest of the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, to al-Hasan, peace be on him, indicated his Imamate just as the testamentary bequest of the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, to the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, indicated his Imamate after himself.

According to what we have (just) mentioned the Imamate of al- Husayn, peace be on him, was confirmed after the death of his brother al-Hasan, peace be on him, and the obedience of all creatures to him was binding, although he did not summon them to (follow) him because of precautionary dissimulation (taqiyya) which he was following and because of the truce which existed between him and Mueawiya b. Abl Sufyan and the need to fulfil it. In that he followed the same course as his father, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, in terms of the establishment of his Imamate after the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, despite (his own) silence (about it), and also of the Imamate of his brother after the truce despite (his) abstention (from politics) and (his) silence. In that they were acting according to the practices (sunan) of the Prophet of God, may God bless him and his family, when he was blockaded in al-Shi'b and when he escaped Mecca as an emigrant by hiding in a cave and he was hidden from his enemies.

When Muawiya died, the period of the truce came to an end. (It was this) which had prevented al-Husayn, peace he on him, from calling (people) to (follow) him. Then he made public his (claim to) authority as far as was possible. Time after time he explained his right (to authority) to those who were ignorant of it until followers gathered around him. Then he, peace be on him, urged (them) to take up the struggle (jihad) and prepared for battle.

Then with his children and the people of his house (ahl baytihi), he set out from the sanctury of God (Mecca) and the sanctury of his Apostle (Medina) towards Iraq because of the help that was sought from him by the members of his Shia who had urged him (to come) against the enemies. His paternal cousin, Muslim b. Aqil, may God be pleased with him, had preceded him and had satisfied him of the (sincerity of their) call to God and of (their) pledge of allegiance to him to take part in the struggle. For the people of Kufa had pledged their allegiance to him (Muslim) to (do) that, and had promised (to do) it and had guaranteed help and advice to him and had given their trust and contract to him. However it was not long before they broke their pledge, deserted him and handed him over. Then he was killed in their midst without them (trying) to stop it.

(Furthermore) they went out to (make) war against al-Husayn. They besieged him, peace be on him, prevented him from returning to God's land (i.e. Mecca) and they used force against him in such a way that he could find no one to help him, and no place of refuge from them. They prevented him from getting water from the Euphrates so that they might gain power over him. Then they killed him. He, peace be on him, died, (a man desperately) thirsty, yet still striving and showing fortitude, (a man) forced to be detained, (a man) oppressed. The pledge of allegiance to him was revoked. The respect due to him was ignored. The covenant to him was not fulfilled nor the responsibility of the agreement made with him honoured. (He died) a martyr as his father and brother, peace be on them, had done before him.

A Sample of the Outstanding Virtues of al-Husayn b. 'Ali Peace be on Him, the Merit in Visiting (His Grave) and Mention of His Tragedy [Said b. Rashid reported on the authority of Yala b. Murra, who said:] I heard the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, say: Husayn is from me and I am from Husayn. God loves whoever loves him. Husayn is indeed an (outstanding) grandson among grandsons.

[Ibn Lahia reported on the authority of Abu 'Awana (with an interrupted chain of authorities) (rafa'ahu) back to the Prophet, may God bless him and his family:]

The Apostle of God said: Al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them, are the ornaments of the throne (of Heaven). Indeed Heaven, itself, said, 'O my Lord, You have filled me with weak and poor inhabitants.' God, the Exalted, replied to it: 'Are you not content that I have adorned your corners with al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on him?' Then it swaggered as a bride swaggers with happiness.

[Abd Allah b. Maymun al-Qaddah reported on the authority of Jafar b. Muhammad al-Sadiq, peace be on them, who said:]

Al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them, were wrestling in front of the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. Hasan, catch hold of Husayn, said the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. Apostle of God, are you encouraging the big one against the little one? said Fatima, peace be on her. It is Gabriel, peace be on him, who is saying to al-Husayn: Husayn, catch hold of al-Hasan, replied the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family.

[Ibrahim b. al-Rafi'i reported on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grandfather, who said:]

I saw al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them, walking to the pilgrimage. They did not pass a rider who did not dismount and walk too. It became arduous for some of them. They said to Sad b. Abi Waqqas Walking is arduous for us. We would prefer to ride but these two young lords (sayyid) are walking. Abu Muhammad, said Sad to al-Hasan, peace be on him, Walking is hard on a group of those with you, yet the people cannot make themselves feel better by riding when they see you two walking. If you rode, (it would be easier for them). We will not ride, replied al- ,Hasan, peace be on him. We have pledged ourselves to walk to the Sacred House of God on our feet. However, we will turn aside from the road. They both went aside from the people.

[Al-Awza'i has reported on the authority of 'Abd Allah b. Shaddad, on the authority of Umm al-Fadl, daughter of al-Harith: ]

She visited the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family and said: Apostle of God, I have had a strange dream during the night. What was it?, he asked. It was terrible, she said. What was it?, he repeated. I saw (something) like a piece of your body cut up and put in my lap, she answered. You have seen well said the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. Fatima will give birth to a boy when she is sitting on your lap (to give birth). [She reported:] Fatima did give birth to al-Husayn, peace be on him, and he was in my lap just as the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, had said. One day I took him to the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, and I put him in his lap. His gaze turned away from me. Behold, both the eyes of the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, were flowing with tears. I said: (May I ransom you) with my father and mother Apostle of God, what is the matter with you? "Gabriel, peace be on him, came to me," he said. "He told me that my community will seek to kill this son of mine and he brought me dust made red by his (blood)."

[Simak reported on the authority of Ibn al-Mukhariq on the authority of Umm Salama, may God be pleased with her, who said:]

One day while the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, was sitting down, and al- Husayn was sitting on his knee, his eyes suddenly filled with tears. I said to him: Apostle of God, why do I see you weeping, may I be your ransom? Gabriel, peace be on him, came to me, he said. She consoled me for the death of my son, al-Husayn, and he told me that a group of my community will kill him. May God never let them have intercession from me.

[It is reported with another chain of authorities on the authority of Umm Salama, may God be pleased with hey that she said:]

One evening the Apostle of God left us and was away for a long time. He came back, he was dishevelled and dusty and his hand was holding (something). I said to him: Apostle of God, why do I see you dishevelled and dusty? He said: I have just been on a night journey to a place in Iraq, called Karbala. There I saw the death of my son, al-Husayn, and a group of my children and the members of my family (ahl al-bayt). I could not stop (myself) from gathering (some of) their blood and here it is in my hand. He opened his hand and said: Take it and look after it. I took it. It was like red soil. I put it in a phial, fastened its top and kept it. When al-Husayn, peace be on him, left Mecca on his way to Iraq, I took out that phial every day and night. I used to smell it and look at it. Then I would weep for his fate. On the 10th of (the month of) al-Muharram, the day on which al-Husayn, peace be on him was killed, I took it out. At the beginning of the day it was in its usual condition, but at the end of the day, behold, it was fresh blood. I shrieked (with grief) and wept. Then I restrained my anger out of fear that the enemies of the family of the Prophet) in Medina would heae and would hurry to rejoice at their misfortune. I have kept it secret up to the present time, even to the day when the messenger bringing the news of his death came to announce it. Then what I had seen was proved.

It is reported that one day the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, was sitting down. Around him were Ali, Fatima, al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them. He asked them: How would you feel if when you were killed, your tombs were scattered around (the country)? Will we die an (ordinary) death or will we be killed? al-Husayn, peace be on him, asked, Rather you will be killed unjustly, my little son, and your brother will be killed unjustly," he answered. "Your offspring will be scattered over the land. Apostle of God, who will kill us? asked al-Husayn, peace be on him. The evil men among the people, he said. Will anyone visit (our graves) after we are killed?, he asked. Yes, my little son, he told him, a group (taifa) of my community will gain my benificence and favour through visiting (your graves). On the Day of Resurrection, I will bring them to the place so that I may take them by the arms and save them from its terrors and sorrows.

[Abd Allah b. Sharik al-Amiri reported:]

I heard the followers of Ali say when 'Umar b. Sed went through the gate of the mosque: There is the killer of al-Husayn b. 'Ali, peace be on him. That was some time before he was killed.

[Salim b. Abi Hafsa reported:]

Umar b. Sa'd said to al-Husayn: Abu Abd Allah, stupid people have come to me claiming that I will kill you. They are not stupid, al Husayn, peace be on him told him. They are men who dream (of the future). Yet it pleases me that you will not enjoy the land of Iraq for long after me.

[Yusuf b. Abida reported: I heard Muhammad b. Sirin say:]

Such a redness which was in thc sky was never seen except after the killing of al-Husayn b. Al, peace be on him.

[Said al-Iskaf reported: Abu-Ja'far, peace be on him, said:]

The killer of Yahya b. Zakariyya (John the Baptist) was a son born out of wedlock. The killer of al-Husayn b. Ali was a son born out of wedlock. The sky only went red for those two.

[Sufyan b. Uyayna reported on the authority of Ali b. Zayd, on the authority of Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on them, who said:]

We set out with al-Husayn, peace be on him. We did not stop at any halting-place without him setting off from there by (first) mentioning Yahya b. Zakariyya and his death. He would say: There was a day and it was a day of the humiliation of the world before God, when the head of Yahya b. Zakariyya was given to one of the prostitutes of the Banu Israil.

Reports have already been presented (which show) that none of the killers of al-Husayn, peace be on him, and his followers, may God be pleased with them, managed to avoid being killed or suffering tribulation in such a way as put them to shame before their death.

Al-Husayn, peace be on him, came to his death on Saturday, the 10th of (the month of) al-Muharram in the year 61 A.H. after the (time for) the mid-day prayer. (He was) killed wrongfully, while thirsty, always showing fortitude but forced to be detained, as we have already explained. His age on that day was fifty-eight years. Of these, he spent seven with his grandfather, the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, thirty-seven with his father, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, and forty-seven with his brother, al- Hasan, peace be on him. The period of his succession (to the Imamate) after his brother was eleven years. He, peace be on him, used to use henna and a black dye (katam). When he, peace be on him, was killed, the dye came off (the beard on) his two cheeks.

Many reports have come down about the great merit (to be acquired) by visiting his (grave) indeed of it being necessary for everyone who accepts the Imamate of al-Husayn, peace be on him, (as being bestowed on him) by God, the Mighty and High. It is reported from al-Sadiq Jafer b. Muhammad, peace be on him, that he said: Visiting the grave of al-Husayn, peace be on him, is equal to a hundred acceptable pilgrimages and a hundred acceptable lesser pilgrimages ('umra). The Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, said: Whoever visits the grave of al-Husayn, peace be on him, after the latter's death, will have heaven (as his reward).

Imam Hussein had married five times. The names of his wives are:

1. Janabe Shahr Banu the daughter of Yazd Gurd, the last emperor of Iran. Imam Zaynul Abedin a.s. our fourth Imam was her son. She died within ten days of our fourth Imam's birth.

2. Janabe Rabab was the daughter of Imra'u Al Qays the chief of the tribe of Kinda.Janabe Rabab was the mother of Sakinah and the baby Abdallah (also called Ali Asghar). She was present in Kerbala with Imam Hussein a.s. and died after one year of return to Medinah after the tragedy of Kerbala.

3. Janabe Laila was the daughter of Abu Murra, the son of Urwah bin Mas'ud Al Thaqafi. Her mother was Maymunah, the daughter of Abu Sufyan and thus she was the cousin of Yazid. Her aunt Umm Sa'id, daughter of Urwah was a wife of Imam Ali a.s.. Janabe Laila was the mother of Ali Akbar. According to scholars she was not alive at the time of the Tragedy of Kerbala. Her name has not been mentioned in the old books written about Kerbala. Nor was her name mentioned in the court of Yazid and there is no account of anyone blaming Yazid for imprisoning his own cousin.

4. Janabe Umm Ishaq was the daughter of Talhah bin Ubaydallah Taimi and she is the mother of Fatema Kubra.

5. Janabe Quda'iyah was from the the tribe of Quda'ah. She gave birth to one child Jaffer who died in Childhood.



#Imam Hussain's Role in Reviving Islam

On the third day of the blessed month of Sha'ban, the fourth year after Hijrah and a year after the birth of Imam Hasan, the Messenger of Allah was given the news of the birth of Imam Husain. He hurried to the house of Imam Ali and Fatima al-Zahra '.
"O Asma '. " he ordered Asma ', the daughter of Umays , "bring me my son."
She took the newborn to him. The infant was wrapped in a piece of cloth. The face of the Messenger of Allah lit up upon seeing his grandson. He took him in his arms. He recited the call to prayer (azan) into his right ear, and read the shorter version (iqama) in his left ear. He, then, placed the baby in his lap and wept.
" May my father and mother be your sacrifice, " Asma' asked him, " why are you crying?"
"Because of my son," he replied.
He is a newborn baby," she said.
"O Asma'," he said, " After me, the transgressing party will kill him. May Allah never grant them my intercession."
Then he said: "Asma', do not tell Fatima about this, for she has just given birth to him."
At that moment, the revelation descended on the beloved Messenger, Muhammad, with the name of the infant. Having received the divine order, the Messenger looked at Imam Ali and said:
"Name him Husain."

The Status of Imam Husain:

Imam Husain (Abu Abdulla) had a lofty position in the Qur'anic verses which mentioned his high position with the position of Ahlul-Bait. next to the verses of the Glorious Qur'an like the verse of Purification, Malediction, Affection and others, we quote statements, from the Messenger of Allah as additional evidence expressing the lofty position occupied by Imam Husain in the world of Islam and the Muslim Ummah. Some of them are:

1. In the Sahih of Tirmidi, The Messenger of Allah said:
"Husain is from me and I am from Husain, Allah loves whoever loves Husain."
2. Salman Farsi is reported to have said: I heard the Prophet of Allah saying: "Hasan and Husain are my two sons. Whoever loves them, then he loves me and whoever loves them then Allah loves him. And whomsoever Allah loves, He will make him enter Paradise. And whoever dislikes them then dislikes me. And whoever Allah dislikes, He will throw him into hell face downward."
3. Ali bin Husain said, on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grandfather, "The Messenger of Allah took the arms of Hasan and Husain and said, 'Whoever loves me and loves these two and their father, he will certainly be with me on the Day of Judgement."
Aspects of His Character:
Under the supervision of his grandfather, his father, and his mother, al-Zahra' ( peace be upon them all), the aspects of his characters fused together personifying the Message of Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, in thought, action and conduct. Here, we cite some examples regarding him:
Shu'aid bin Abdul-Rahman is reported to have said: "On the way to Taf (Battle of Karbala'), wherein he was martyred) a mark was seen on the back of Husain bin Ali. Imam Zainul-Abideen (his eldest son, and the son who survived the battle) was asked about it. "It is the trace," he replied, "of the bag, which he puts on his back (carrying food) to the house of the widows, orphans and the poor."
Another example, reflecting his humble nature is that of his acceptance of an invitation to having food with the poor. He encountered a number of poor men. Having had their food they hastened to ask him to share with them. He dismounted from his horse saying: "Surely, Allah does not like the haughty." He partook of their food and said: "I have accepted your invitation won't you accept mine?"
"Certainly, we will," said they. He took them to his house and said to al-Rabab, his wife, "Bring us what you have been storing."
2. One day he was asked, "How great is your fear of your lord?"
"No one would be secure on the Day of Judgement except those who feared Allah" he replied."
The night before the tenth of the month of Muharram, Imam Husain asked the Ummayad army to delay the battle till the following morning. He said: "This night we want to offer our prayers to our Lord, and we want to ask His forgiveness. He knows that I love to offer my prayers to Him, recite His Book, and pray much asking for His forgiveness."

Imam Husain Revived Islam:

Whoever follows the life of Imam Husain bin Ali will deeply realize that his role in Islamic life started very early. While still a young man, he contributed, effectively, to the rising movement of Islam. Eminent was his role during the Imamat of father, the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali and side by side with his brother Imam Hasan.
In the wake of Imam Husain's departure to his Exalted Lord, Imam Husain's role entered a new phase due to the complications which sprung up in the midst of the Ummah, since the role of any Imam from the house of Prophet Muhammad, is defined by the nature of the social, ideological and political developments of his time.
Indeed, Imam Husain faced the deviated Ummayad plot in the Islam and, also, the difficult conditions which the Ummah lived in. He also lived its danger proportions after the signing of the peace document between Mu'awiya and Imam Hasan. The following goals figure in Mu'awiya's notorious plan:

1.Unleashing a wave of terror, and embarking on elimination of all opposition forces, particularly the followers of Imam Ali. They were hunted down, and every means of oppression and terror was employed to silence every free voice.
Mu'awiya wrote to his governors:
"Whoever is accused of being loyal to these people severely punish him and tear down his house."
In short and expressive words Imam Muhammad al-Baqir depicts this bloody tragedy. He says:
"Our true followers were killed in every city. Hands and legs were cut off at the slightest suspicion. Whoever was reported to love us or had any contact with us would either be imprisoned or robbed of his property or his house destroyed. Oppression increased in volume and became unduly harsh, till the time of Ubaidulla bin Ziyad, the murderer of Husain."
Ibn Atheer, a historian, recorded the bloody account of events that took place during the time of Mu'awiya. He said:
"After Ziyad appointed Sumre, temporarily, as a governor of Basra, the latter killed great numbers of people. Ibn Sirin said: 'During the absence of Ziyad, Sumra put to the sword eight thousand men'. 'Don't you fear you have killed an innocent person?', Ziyad asked Sumra. 'Had I killed a double number I would never have feared',replied Sumra.
Sawari Adwi said: 'Sumra had killed, during a single day, forty-seven of my companions. All of them had memorized the Qur'an."
2. Dispersing money for the sake of buying-out men, and weakening their Islamic character, and helping the deviant policy of Mu'awiya to fulfill its devilish objectives. In reality, two kinds of men were exposed:
A. A number of preachers and traditionists whose role was outrageous in working in favor of Mu'awiya. They forged traditions and falsely attributed them to the Prophet of Allah in order to deprecate Imam Ali and all members of his family.
B. Leading social men who might act against the Ummayad rule. It was a policy practiced by Mu'awiya and the other rulers of the Ummayad dynasty.
War of starvation. It was the most effective weapon used by the Ummayads. The Muslim Ummah felt humiliated and unable to change the rulers. His (Mu'awiya) recorded directive, which he sent to his governors in this respect said: "See to it that whoever is proven, by irrefutable evidence, to love Ali and his household, his name should be erased from the public register, and his pay and food allotment should be dropped."
The economic structure during that period was thoroughly recorded by the historians. They wrote about the disturbed scales of economic distribution. Individuals were the possessors of great wealth. Certain ones took advantage of the Ummayad influence from the outset, during the latter years of the rightly guided caliphs, at which time they literally piled up money. For example:
"Amru bin Aas the governor of Egypt under Mu'awiya, left a wealth amounting to 325,000 Dinars (gold), 1000 dirhams (silver), crops worth 200,000 dinar in Egypt and the well-known estate in Egypt, which was worth 10,000 (gold) Dinars."
4.Breaking the bonds holding the Muslim Ummah as one entity by stirring up the nationalist, tribal and regional spirit among the different groups and reviving the spirit of sectarianism of the Arabs against the non-Arab Muslims.
5. Assassination of Imam Hasan bin Ali as he was the legitimate symbol of original Islam.
6. Crowning Yazid, a corrupt wine-drinker and gambler, as the new ruler after Mu'awiya.
The mandate given to Yazid to lead the Muslim Ummah, plan its future, and define its course of action meant in reality, the liquidation of the Islamic existence. It was an actual regression from it shrouded in another attire.
Yazid, as history testifies, was overwhelmed by deviation in his thought, practices and feelings. It is on wonder that our history brims over with stories about Yazid's daily practices which were immersed in deviation, under the noses of the majority of the Muslims in Syria. He plunged himself into debauchery, vain entertainment, alcohol-drinking, womanizing and singing. He was so careless and morally corrupt that he used to put gold bangles on his dogs.
The historian, Baladuri said:
"Yazid had a monkey named Abi Qais... that he would bring along with him to where he and his associates would drink wine. He would place a pillow for his monkey which was very vile. He would carry it on a wild she-ass, which had been tamed, with a saddle and reign. Abi Qais would take part in competitions against horses on a fixed day."
Another historian, Ibn Atheer, said:
"It is narrated that Yazid was well-known for playing stringed instruments, drinking wine, singing, hunting, occupying himself with lads, female singers and dogs. He used to make rams, bears and monkeys to fight each other. No day passed unless he was drunkard. He also used to strap a monkey to a horse having a saddle and make it ride it and make the monkey wear caps of gold and, likewise, the lads he associated with. When a monkey died, he expressed his sorrow for it. It was said that the reason for his death was that once he carried a young monkey and made it dance and it bit him."
If the caliph behaves like this, what about the others. In this respect, an historian, Mas'oodi said:
"Yazid's governors and officials were influenced by his corruption. During his rule singing spread throughout Madinah. Musical instruments were used. People began to drink wine in public."
Since Mu'awiya decided to appoint his son, Yazid as the caliph of the Muslims after him and which is opposite to the principles of Islam and its regulations, this decision stimulated the Islamic public opinion, particularly the well-known Islamic personalities in the society. And, so, the Ummah stood at the threshold of a new stage in its history. Ahead of it there were two choices:

1. Either to develop a strong rejection of the type of life being imposed on it, whatever the price.
2 .Or to accept the de facto life, wherein it had to give up its message, the source of its greatness and symbol of its pride among other nations.

The Uprising: Why?

If we study the life of Imam Husain, the events he witnessed, and the circumstances which beset him, we will easily detect the fact that he had no chance whatsoever of scoring, materialistically speaking, a victory over the oppressive authorities of the Ummayads.
Though he was quite sure that he would be killed, he was insisting on starting his uprising and standing his ground till the tragically inevitable end.

Why did he insist so? Rather, why was the uprising?

Without Imam Husain's revolution, the way represented by the Ummayad being in all its deviations, oppression and corruption, was the one which represented Islam in the minds of mankind till the present time Imam Husain, the second son of Imam Ali, and the grandson of the holy Prophet Muhammad, was a pure page of the book of Islam, and a vivid translation of its goals and concepts. That is why he first one who responded to the call of faith in his time. In order to honor his commitments to the Shar'ia, he had no other way before him other that of uprising. Without it there would be no reforms. The first communique of his uprising incarnated this fact with all its positive implication:
"And I am not taking up arms in order to make merry, or be ecstatic over what I possess. I am not making mischief, nor exercising oppression. But, I am ready to fight for the sole goal of seeking reform of the Ummah of my grandfather, the Prophet of Allah. I want to enjoin good and forbid evil and guide the affairs of the people as my grandfather, and my father, Ali bin Abi Talib were doing."
These are the basic justifications which gave Imam Husain and his followers the right to start their uprising. An uprising which still echoes in the minds of the people today. It is the revolution that immortalized Islam and inspired the revolutionaries throughout the ages, to defend Islam and fight heroically in the battle of sacred jihad against the unjust and oppressors.

Wind of the Uprising:

Shortly after the death of Mu'awiya, his son, Yazid, took over. He ordered his governors to take the pledge of allegiance to him from the pepole. He focused on Imam Husain, in particular, due to the Ummayad conviction that he was the unshakable resisting force among the opposition. Once they subjugated him, all dams before them would collapse.The opposition, minus Imam Husain, would be easily subdued.
Instantly, Yazid wrote to the governor of the city of Madinah, Walid bin Utba, to take the pledge of allegiance from the people of Madinah, in general, and from Imam Husain, in particular. Indeed, Imam Husain explained his refusal of giving the pledge of allegiance to Yazid. He said to Yazid's governor in Madinah, Walid:
"Yazid is a corrupt man, who imbibes wine, puts to death the soul which Allah forbids to be harmed and declares his debauchery in public. A man like me would never give pledge of allegiance to him."
In return, Imam Husain explained the qualifications of the leader to whom the pledge of allegiance should be given, in his letter addressed to the inhabitant of Kufa:
"By my life, what is the Imam except one who judged by the Book of Allah, one who upholds justice, one who professes the religion of truth, and one who dedicates himself to the essence of Allah."
That was the starting point of the rejection of the policy of treachery and oppression. Imam Husain made up his mind to shoulder his responsibility to challenge the oppressors, as he was the legitimate Imam of the Ummah and the righteous with the faith.
He went to the tomb of the Messenger of Allah, his grandfather and offered prayer beside it. Then, he raised his hands in prayer:
"O Allah! This is the grave of Your Prophet Muhammad, and I am the son of the daughter of Your Prophet. You know what I am going through. O Allah! I love good and detest evil. I beseech you, O! The Lord of glory and honor, and adjure You by this grave and its contents, to choose for me whatever pleases You and Your Prophet."
Imam Husain hastened to gather the members of his family and the loyal among his companions. He told them about his decision to move to Makkah, the sanctuary of Allah.
The objectors increased in number. They beseeched him to yield. They were helpless and thought he would be killed in vain.
Imam Husain was too determined to back down.
The caravan of Imam Husain marched towards Makkah. The name of Allah was on his tongue, and his heart was filled with love of Allah. Upon entering Makkah, he recited the glorious verse:
"And when he turned his face towards Madyna, he said: Maybe my Lord will guide me in the right path."
He stayed at the house of Abbas bin Abdul-Muttalib. Throngs of the faithful gathered to welcome him.
The news of the Imam's departure form Madinah and his refusal of giving the pledge of allegiance to Yazid spread. Thus, different delegations and letters of support for him began to reach him from diverse lands. As a result, he began to send books and letters of answer in which he called them to revolt and overthrow the power of Yazid and deposit his allegiance which was brought through force, terror, bribery and tricks. A result of this movement was that the spirit of revolution began to spread in lraq.
Imam Husain monitored the reactions of the Muslims throughout the Islamic provinces towards the ascension of Yazid to the office of caliphate. Kufa, the capital of lraq, was witnessing a revolutionary movement and a remarkable political shake-up. After long periods of terror and suppression the opposition forces stirred seeing it the golden chance to free themselves from the yoke of the tyrants. At the head of these revolutionaries were the followers of the Ahlul-Bait. They held an emergency meeting to discuss the mounting tension in Kufa and the responsibility they should take, ie the change in the government, after Yazid bin Mu'awiya had taken the affairs of the Ummah into his own hands.
After reaching a consensus on this point, the leading men of Kufa wrote a letter in which they declared their total and final rejection of the Ummayad rule and they knew no substitute for Imam Husain. Then letters poured in from Kufa carrying the urgent call of the Kufans for Imam Husain to join them, to take office as the caliphate and Imam of the Muslims. The wave of support for Imam Husain was so massive that a list of the tribes waiting for his arrival, totaling 100,000 fighters, was prepared.
With him, Imam Husain dispatched a special letter to the people there, and particularly their chiefs. He explained the qualifications of his envoy, and the nature of his mission. He was to closely examine the situation and describe precisely what was going on there.
Kufa welcomed Muslim bin Aqil as any loyal and dutiful following would. The pledge of allegiance was taken from Imam Husain. Muslim, by now, was convinced that the change was on behalf of Ahlul-Bait and the message of Allah, the Exalted. It was by no means something common and could not be ignored. It was a truth, tangible and subjective. They should quickly deal with the situation before something happens and spoils the opportunity.
And so Muslim, may Allah be please with him, saw it fit to dispatch an account to Imam Husain about the direction of the de facto situation. In his account he called him to come to Kufa. He wrote:
"Certainly, the man sent by a caravan in a desert to explore the way ahead of it will never lie to those who had sent him. All the people of Kufa are with you. Eighteen thousand of them have given their pledge of allegiance to me. So make haste and come to us as soon as you read this letter of mine. And peace and the blessings of Allah be on you."
In the meantime, Imam Hussen thought it would be wise to contact the chiefs of Basra and discuss with them his decision to oppose deviation and injustice. He wrote to them. Yazid bin Mas'ood sent a letter in which people spoke much about the loyalty of the tribes of Tamim and Bani Sa'd to Ahlul-Bait. Quite painfully and regrettably, his letter arrived too late.
Thus, Nahshali's troops were late to arrive. The man was so shocked at the news of the martyrdom of Imam Husain that he died. He had missed the opportunity to help the grandson of Prophet Muhammad.

Kufans's Regression:

At first, the authorities of the Ummayad party were panic stricken at the great success achieved by the faith and its real representative, Imam Husain bin Ali. The top leaders of the Ummayad party held a meeting, and discussed what would their next step be. They decided to provide Yazid bin Mu'awiya with the latest news, and the actual situation in the city of Makkah. They wrote a letter to their master in Syria telling him of all successive developments in Kufa.
Yazid was flustered at the news. His special advisor suggested that Ubaidulla bin Ziyad should be the governor of Kufa. Ibn Ziyad was murderous, the emptiness of his hears of such human emotions as mercy or compassion and his black hatred for the household of the Messenger of Allah made him a prime candidate for the job.
Ibn Ziyad received the decree issued by Yazid appointing him the new governor of Kufa. Installing his brother in his place in Basra, he hurriedly headed for Kufa leading a 500-strong division from the Ummayad army.
Accompanying him were also certain eminent chiefs of Basra who had influence over the Kufans due to their blood relations.
In Kufa, Ibn Ziyad gathered the people, and addressed them. He promised those who sided with the Ummayad's handsome rewards. He threatened the opponents of the Ummayad dynasty with harsh punishments, i.e. death. Under coercion, he ordered the tribal chiefs to present lists of the names of those who overstepped the Ummayad redline. Otherwise, they would be crucified at the door of their houses.
Thus, an atmosphere of heavy gloom set in on the city. The scales of power tipped in favor of the Ummayad house, represented by Yazid. The Shi'ite leaders and the loyalists to the movement of Islam represented by Imam Husain were rounded up.
Fear spread its wings, and despair descended on the hearts of the people. Events took so vicious a turn that the tribes began to prevent their chiefs from opposing the Ummayads in any form. Mothers locked up their children lest they help Muslim bin Aqeel. Those who were after wealth hastened to the governor's mansion, happy with the abundant money Ibn Ziyad lavished on them. Practically, the society of Kufa was torn into shreds.
The loyalists to the call of Islam, who were still free, adopted secrecy in their contacts with Muslim. He ordered them so, under the pressure of the new conditions.
The spies of the Ummayad's local terrorist lost no time in spreading throughout the city and Ibn Ziyad had made use of every possible means of trickery to get out of the crises. He floated rumors, by his spies and followers, that a tremendous Ummayad army was at the threshhold of Kufa. Rumors were soon on every lip. Gossip increased and terror ruled. Women prevented their sons from joining Muslim, and those who already were with him were forced to quit. Men discouraged their sons and brothers from taking part in the military actions.
The situation further deteriorated. Many people left Muslim's army, and panic prevailed. Inducement and discouragement of the opponents succeeded. Muslim, eventually, was left with a few loyalists who engaged the Ummayads in street fighting. They made the neighborhood of 'Kinda' their base. Muslim fought in a rarely seen reckless and courageous way.
After all had deserted him or been killed he fought the Ummayad police alone. Finally he was overcome and promised safety. When he was brought before Ziyad he refused to honor the promise of safety given by the police and ordered Muslim to be executed. After dictating his last will, Muslim was taken to the torrents of the palace and thrown down. Later he was beheaded. His head, along with the head of Hani were sent to Yazid in Syria.
Thus, the two pillars of the Islamic movement in Kufa were torn down. The movement of Muslim and Hani, two of its greatest field leaders in Iraq. Kufa was humiliated with defeat and the darkness of terror descended on it. The tyrants seized control of lives of the people.

En Route to Iraq:

The Ummayad were extremely worried at the news of the success of Husain in Makkah. He had won over nearly the whole city. Fearing the spread of the opposition movement, Yazid dispatched an army from Syria. He appointed Umar bin Sa'id as its commander-in-chief.
Imam Hussen received word that the Ummayad army was on its way to Makkah. Given the Ummayads disrespect of the Sacred House of Allah, he had decided to leave the city. It was impossible for him to allow the sacredness of the city to be violated because of him. In advance, he knew of his inevitable fate in Iraq. He expressed it in the speech he delivered in Makkah before he left. He said:
"Praise be to Allah. What Allah desires is certainly done. There is no power but in Allah. Blessings of Allah be on His Messenger. Death had been decreed on man, as the necklace encircles a girl's neck. How great is my desire to see my predecessors. It is as strong as Ya'qoob's (Jacob) desire to see (his son) Yusuf (Joseph).
"It is better for me to face my death. It is as if I am seeing now my members being torn to pieces by by the wolves of the desert, in a place between Nawawees and Karbala'. They will fill their empty stomachs and their hungry bellies. There is no escape from a day decreed by the divine pen."
On the eighth day of the month of Dhul-Hijja (the day the pilgrims get ready to perform hajj), in the year of 60 A.H., Imam Husain caravan set out.
En route to Iraq he would ask the travelers he met about Iraq and the current situation there. The only reply was: "The people were with the Ummayad, but their hearts were with him!"
He was sure that the faith would be revived after his death and there was no defender of the faith next to him. It is because of these considerations that he went on to achieve the real, historical victory. Only with shedding his blood and sacrificing his soul and those who were with him from the descendants of the Messenger of Allah, Islam would be immortalized.
In Karbala':
It was Thursday, the 2nd of Moharram 61 A.H. Imam Husain and his companions and his righteous family dismounted and camped at the deserts of Karbala' in order to be a symbol for free men, and a slogan for the revolutionaries throughout the ages and generations.
On the other hand, the Ummayad authorities, at the helm of which stood Ubaidulla Ziyad in Kufa, started sending reinforcements and mobilizing more forces for Karbala'. Ibn Ziyad replaced Umar bin Sa'd as the new commander of the army.
Umar later yield to Ubaidulla's desire when the latter threatened to deprive him of the ruler ship of Ray. Umar had been struggling with two question: Submission to the life of this world or refusing worldly temptations and refraining from warring with Imam Husain. Finally, the first question triumphed and he decided to take part in the battle against him.
He expressed that struggle in two lines of verse:
"Could I decline the governor ship of Ray, while it is my dread, or should I return blamed for killing Husain? Should I kill him, then I wind up in the fire, which has no veil, while the governor ship of Ray is the refreshment of my eye."
Umar is not but a model for those men who fought Imam Husain, and what they bear of villainous intentions and mean goals.
Thus, he decided to carry out that task and advanced to Nainawa (Karbala') at the head of an army of about 4,000 soldiers. Upon his arrival, Umar bin Sa'd surrounded Imam Husain's camp. Imam Husain began negotiations with him, and they had several meetings. As a result, he wrote to Ubaidulla bin Ziyad suggesting lifting the siege on Husain's camp and allowing him to return from where he had come, thus, halting the impending shedding of blood. Ubaidulla received the letter. Even he at first appreciated the idea and wanted to put it into effect. But then, Shimr bin Dil-Jawshan-one of the blood enemies of Ahlul-Bait - warned him of the consequences. Ubaidullah accepted the suggestion of Shimr and handed him a threatening letter to be delivered to Umar bin Sa'd. The letter read in part:
"Therefore, see to it that if Husain and his followers submit to my authority and surrender, you send them to me in peace. If they refuse, then march against them to fight them and to punish them; for they deserve that. If Husain is killed, make the horses trample on his body; both front and back."
Thus, the logic of lbn Ziayd insists on shedding blood and mutilating the martyrs as his forefathers did during the pre-ignorance of Quraish who mutilated Hamza, the Prophet's uncle, before.
There was no alternative except war. Husain could under no circumstance surrender to Ibn Ziyad:
"One like me can never give a pledge of allegiance to Yazid".
He continued: "I do not wish a death for myself other than martyrdom, while life among the unjust would be unbearable".
He recited the words he took from the Messenger of Allah, which he conveyed to the Ummayad army a few days earlier. He told them:
"O people, the Messenger of Allah had said:
"Whoever witnesses an unjust ruler considering the prohibitions of Allah, the Almighty, as permissible, breaking the covenant of Allah, opposing the practices of the Messenger of Allah, treating his servants sinfully and cruelly and had seen all these misdeeds but did not oppose him by words or actions, Allah surely will punish him as He wills."
Imam Husain saw that he could not negotiate with this herd of weak-willed men who dedicated themselves to win booty and wealth. He asked his brother, Abbas, once again, to talk to the army and demand a delay of only one night. Umar bin Sa'd and his officers agreed to grant Imam Husain the delay he asked. On the morrow, history would turn a new page in the life of Islam. Men would fight one anther in a great and glorious battle in Karbala'.
The Night of Ashura':
It was not to rethink his decision concerning the military choice that Husain asked Ibn Sa'd to grant him the extra time. The path was crystal clear in his mind, but Husain eagerly wanted to stay up that night in worship. He desired that it be the last night during which he would talk to his family, companions and loved ones. He knew what lay ahead. Thus he said to his brother Abbas, the second time he sent to Ibn Sa'd:
"Go back to them. If you can delay them until morning and persuade them to keep away from us during the evening, then perhaps we may be able to pray to our Lord during the night, to supplicate to Him loved prayer, the recitation of His Book, invocating Him at length and seeking his forgiveness."
Darkness fell. The household of the Prophet and their supporters did not close their eyes. Some of them were praying, invocating Allah for his mercy, and reciting the Qur'an. Others were preparing wills and saying last words to their families. Voices were like the buzz of the bees. They were preparing themselves to meet their Lord. Swords and spears were being readied. That night they were guests on the land of Karbala'. History awaited the event that would take place on the morning. The swords and spears were pens that would inscribe the most glorious chapter on the continuing drama being written by man.
During that night, Husain bid farewell to his family and loved ones. He paid visits to al-Sajjad, Sukaina, Layla, Rabab and al-Baqir al-Saghir his nephew. He made his last will, as he decided to water the orchared of Islam with his own blood.

The Day of Ashura':

Imam Husain together with his pious companions, passed the night before the tenth of Moharram in prayers, supplications and getting ready for the following day.
That night came to an end. It was as if a long history had elapsed. The tenth of Moharram, the day of blood, jihad, and martyrdom, the day of the decisive battle, was already born.
Umar bin Sa'd was arranging his troops in line, and mobilizing his soldiers to fight the fifth member of the purified family of Prophet Muhammad, whose love was decreed by Allah on the Ummah through the explicit words of the Holy Qur'an.
Imam Husain went out of his tent completely ready to engage the enemy. The battle was inescapable. So, he started fortifying his camp where the children and women were waiting for what would happen next. He ordered the digging of a trench at the rear of the camp. This was to prevent the army from attacking the camp from that point. He set the trench ablaze. Secure as the back of the camp was, the battle would be fought in the front only.
Once again, Imam Husain delivered a speech. He reminded the Kufans of their letters and envoys, combined with their pledge of allegiance, but to no vail. His call fell on deaf ears.
He mounted his horse, and galloped to a place before the hostile army, in his hand he grasped the Qur'an. He opened it, raising it above his hand, and said:
"O people! Let us have the Book of Allah and the Sunna of my grandfather, the Prophet of Allah, to arbitrate between us."
No one seemed to be influenced by the words of Imam Husain.
Rather, Umar bin Sa'd ordered the standard-bearer of his army to advance and gave the go-ahead for the war to start. He, himself, fired the first arrow toward the camp of Imam Husain, shouting,
"All of you be witness that I am the first to shoot."
Imam Husain stared unperturbed and strong hearted at the great army which was equipped to the teeth. Like a towering mountain, determined and unshakable, Imam Husain did not show the smallest sign of weakness. Never did he think of reconsidering his decision. There was no one but Allah to look to. He raised his hands in prayer:
"O Allah! It is You in Whom I trust amid all grief. You are my hope amid all violence. You are my refuge and provision in everything that happens to me. How many grievances that weaken the heart, leaving me with not means to handle them, during which friends desert me, and the enemy rejoices in it. I lay it before You and complain of it to You, because of my desire in You, You alone. You relieve me of it and remove to from me. You are the Master of all graces, and the possessor of all goodness, and the Ultimate Resort of all desires."
That was the outset of a catastrophe and tragedy which victimized the scion of prophethood and the leader of the Muslims, the grandson of the noble Messenger of Allah, Husain bin Ali bin Abi-Talib.
The men lunged at one another, first in single battles, then in a full war. It was only natural that strength would help the army of Yazid bin Mu'awiya massacre this small group of warriors whose number were not more than 72.
The whole tragedy of the Ahlul-Bait, and their painful suffering at the hands of their enemies was crystal incarnated in the battle of Karbala'.
The battle continued at Karbala'. The cascade of exalted blood was flowing, making its way to immortality. The companions of Imam Husain were falling to the ground, one after the other. Those matchless heroes from the household of Aqeel and of Ali bin Abi-Talib were now decapitated bodies scattered on the plains of war like the stars on an autumn sky, or lotus petals on the surface of a pond.
Now the attack intensified. They were most almost encircled by the Ummayad army. Some of the soldiers went into the tents looting property. Ibn sa'd ordered, "Set the tents ablaze". The children cried and the woman also wept, as they saw the tents burning.
Imam Husain stood there amid them, sure of joining them shortly, but deeply stirred by the cries of the children and lamentations of the women. He looked for a helper. He called out:
"Is there and defender of the womenfolk of the Apostle of Allah? Is there a monotheist who fears Allah and so helps us? Is there any supporter seeking Allah's reward and so aids us?"
There was no answer except the wailing of women and children. Imam Husain had no option except fighting the enemy. His heart was flooded with fatherly compassion and love and being afraid for his family, sanctity, the sanctity, the sanctity of the Ansar and the orphans of the martyrs.
Certain that he would never return alive from the battlefield, he went to the tent of his sister Zainab, asking her to bring him his baby so as to kiss his lips and see him for the last time.
Imam Husain repeated the phrase:
"O Allah! I complain to You about what is being done to the son of the daughter of your Prophet".
He looked around and there was no one to help him. His companions were strewn lifeless around him, they had done their duty raising the famous watchword.
Imam Husain was all alone. He was carrying the sword of the Messenger of Allah in his hand and the heart of Ali in his depths. On his tongue there was word of piety. This was the very day the Messenger of Allah promised him and this was the place he told him would be his last abode. He called the enemy to fight him in single combat. One after the other they came forward and were dispatched to the other world.
Imam Husain was still very worried about his camp, which continued to burn.
When the forces of Ibn Sa'd cut him off from the camp, he called to the Ummayads:
"I am fighting you. Women have no blame. I will prevent your villains from harassing my womenfolk as long as I am alive".
The ears and hearts of those ill-mannered ones were deaf to the speech of the son of the daughter of the Messenger of Allah, Shimr bin Dil Jawshan with ten of his men moved towards the tent of Imam Husain in which his family were, then, Imam Husain cried out at them:
"Woe unto you. If you do not have faith nor fear the Day of Judgement, be free in (your world), and noble, and forbid my possessions and family from your tyrants and your ignorant ones."
The attack continued violently, while Imam Husain debated with them, until an arrow directed at Imam Husain lodged in his throat. Spears and swords were eating into his body. He was weak from profuse bleeding while his body became a metaphor for a book, on which every sword blow and arrow had written the most majestic lines of an epic tale.
They were sixty-seven wounds' silently reciting the story of struggle and jihad and indelibly inscribing the tragic chapters of oppression and injustice.
The enemies were not yet satisfied. Shimr approached Imam Husain carrying his sword and struck him several time, Then he cut his head off. He carried the head proudly, to be placed in front of Ibn Ziyad as a bounty waiting its rewards.
The head that never said 'yes' to the oppressors, that was repeating:
"By Allah! Will never give you my hand like a man who has been humiliated, nor will flee like a slave".
Ibn Sa'd ordered horsemen to trample over the holy body of Imam Husain.
The head of Imam Husain, along with the heads of his companions (and even the tiny head of Ali Asghar) were distributed among the criminals, as gifts, carrying them to the Ummayad governor of Kufa.
For three days the pure, holy bodies of the martyrs were left lying on the desert of Karbala' before men from the tribe of Bani Asad who were living not far away from the battlefield buried them. The criminals, not yet satisfied with all this, carried the children and women, in addition to the sick son of Imam Husain, Imam Zainul-Abideen, as prisoners from Kufa to Syria. At the front of the sad procession were the head of Imam Husain and his followers



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