[Full Text originally published in 1977]
"THE LIFE OF HUSAIN"
Research and Analysis
By: Allamah Baqir Sharif al-Qarashi [IRAN 2007]
To you…who spread knowledge and faith on the earth
To you…the leading light who liberated the humanity
To you…O Messenger of Allah
This humble research is presented to your exalted position regarding your second beloved son, His Eminence, Imam Husain whom you fed the perfections of your prophethood and bestowed him with your love and sincerity. And your clear statement in this regard: “Husain is from me and I am from Husain”, which you gave to him. He became the reviver of your religion and liberator of your nation. He was martyred in the path of your aims and eternal values. We present this to you, as none besides you is worthy of it and none shall ever be worthy of it. Then please accept this humble presentation and bestow me your pleasure and acceptance so that it may suffice me on the day I meet my Lord.
And We made them Imams who guided (people) by Our command, and We revealed to them the doing of good and the keeping up of prayer and the giving of the alms, and Us (alone) did they serve…
Surely Allah has bought of the believers their persons and their property for this, that they shall have the garden; they fight in Allah’s way, so they slay and are slain; a promise which is binding on Him in the Taurat and the Injeel and the Quran; and who is more faithful to his covenant than Allah? Rejoice therefore in the pledge, which you have made; and that is the mighty achievement.
 Surah Anbiya 21:73
Surah Taubah 9:111
# At your service, O chief of the Noble ones!
I recall your day in Kerbala when you were presenting the sacrifice of your Ahle Bayt and companions. A sacrifice, purely for the sake of Allah and with pure faith; when Islam would never have succeeded in its confrontation with oppression and apostasy without your exemplary sacrifice. Such a sacrifice that none but you were capable of offering.
You are the greatest conqueror! You were able to fill the pages of existence with your determination and you solved the most difficult problems in a way that it was its only solution. But this could not be accomplished except by giving your blood, which was imbued with the fragrance of prophethood and revelation. You annihilated the degraded tyrannical rulers of Bani Umayyads who had destroyed the social system and pushed people to a political mirage. They bought over the pillars of nation and historians, put them in degraded deviations and in the lowest rank of debasement. So much so that the flame lit by the Holy Prophet was put out and its place was taken up by the idol-worship of Quraish. They installed idols in all gatherings and pulpits in the nation of Islam so that the flame of guidance, faith and the lofty examples and elements of ethics of the nation could be destroyed. It was the reason that the ways of guidance may disappear and become concealed so that Islam, with its true value may disappear and its foundations may be destroyed.
But we beseech to you! O great Victor! That you rose up and took up all the sides of the Islamic world in your hands by a call that announced the coming of the new dawn so that Muslims may understand your messengership. You heralded a new historical period and kept its greatness preserved and to consider its manners good that it may remove from them the filth of slavery and release them to the fields of liberation so that they may participate in building of civilization and join the caravan of history.
Chief of the noble men! By your great revolution you have changed the nature of humanity that had been mired in lowly filth and had become absolutely helpless even for themselves. So he stood up at once, with an astonishing spirit and led it on the path of everlasting life. He establishes miracles and announced the statements of Allah with unlimited faith.
Yes! That is the faith that percolated to depths of his being and personal qualities that made it easy for him to face such terrible circumstances. Such a tragedy that melts the hearts of humanity and defies logic… when he saw his companions side-by-side moving towards death at great speed. They were such that history has not seen people more truthful, orthodox and loyal. He saw the stars of Ahle Bayt and his sons; that in the spring of their youths they were becoming morsels of the swords and spears.
He saw the harem ladies of the family of prophethood wailing due to impending calamities and tragedies and the killing thirst that made them call out for help to him while there was nothing he could do to solve their problems. At that time, when every living person was losing self-control, the grandson of the Prophet stood up and spoke up the truths from the depths of his heart and faith: “This has become easy for me to bear because I know that Allah is seeing all this…”
Yes! Allah indeed saw your tribulations and calamities you suffered in that tragedy were on the way of Islam.
My chief! O father of noble men! In recompense of the different tortures you bore and various calamities you suffered, the Almighty Allah bestowed you numerous blessings in the Hereafter. He created the High Garden for you and appointed you at the highest level so that you may take whatever you may desire. He made you the chief of the Youths of Paradise, the intercessor whose intercession is accepted.
However in this mortal world, your remembrance remains fresh and it continuously makes people humble before your exalted position and your remembrance is so closely attached to the world as the days and nights are connected.
While your enemies are routed and scattered and their history has been buried with the unknown, degraded and humiliated people.
You are the only one who remained in the lyric of freedom of every generation and your flag shall continue to fly so that reformers may gain lesson from you to benefit the humanity.
Imam Husain is the greatest personality who has made all historical events of humanity everlasting. He is among those great personages who gave shape to social civilization and principles that form the basis of a life of culture.
The Imam and the leader of nobles, he is the most prominent individual to have shown miracles in the field of life and led the caravan of humanity to destination and gave movement to their aspirations. He guided them towards a moderate society. A society where equality is given an important position so that all the people, low and high, may benefit from it.
The Imam struggled more than any other reformer. He bestowed and offered sacrifice because he took along with himself the people of his family and his companions so that he may sacrifice himself and them also so that in every place in the east, the command of Quran and heavenly justice is established. Because he had no other aim except the removal of oppression, destruction of injustice and establishment of a just government. A government in which man could bring out peace, greatness and prosperity according to the justice that the Almighty Allah wants in the earth…and after that the life of the Holy Imam became an ideal exemplar for all ages and all generations and an example of human Values.
The life history of most of the reformers, who laid down their lives for communities and in generations, remained illuminated and their fruits and results served as signs for the people. But it was only for a particular period and limited duration. Then not after a long time its effect wears off just as light disperses in the atmosphere.
However the life of Imam Husain has split the horizon of history in such a way that he had light of guidance for all the people just as the signs of death and destruction for the destroyers and oppressors given as a souvenir to all generations.
The life of Imam Husain merged with the souls of the people and became united with their feelings and emotions, because he was such a fresh one that fragrance of honor and greatness issued from him. He was the one to take the society to the field of contest so that their aims may be realized and that their fate may be appointed.
The life of His Eminence is a great school that bestows goodness and blessings to individuals and to the society as a whole. Because it inculcates in them loyalty and patience and takes them to faith in God and the best of destination accompanied with honor and righteousness. Just as it endeavors to impart good manners to consciences and increase in knowledge. Thus he is more deserving to have an everlasting life than all the living creatures living on this earth for he is such a structure to mould human values.
The life of the beloved one of the Prophet and his example shall endure forever because the designer of all fates has kept in view all the generations, as the Imam’s revolution had no political ambitions or material aims. Rather his aim was the reformation of society and he had the thought for all the people that he may provide political and social justice to all of them. His Eminence, peace of Allah be upon him, declared his lofty aims in his own words as follows:
“I did not come out to spread mischief, aimless things or oppression. Indeed I have come out to reform the nation of my grandfather, the Messenger of Allah. I wish to enjoin good and forbid evil…”
It was due to these lofty principles that the tale of Husain became immortal and it entered all the languages of the world. And people in the remembrance of his sacrifice initiated the rituals of mourning (Azadari) so that through it they may obtain faith in God and gain such lessons from it as may serve them in all aspects of their life. There is no doubt that this would continue till the end of the world. While it issues the call of justice, truth and greatness and illuminate the paths for every reformer who aims to reform the humanity.
In the history of Islam, there was no one more than Imam Husain who has benefited Islam and bestowed it kindness and merits, because His Eminence is the Savior and revivalist of this great religion whom the Umayyad politics attacked and injured and on the other hand put obstacles in his path. Their internal and external discords were of such a level that there was no one who could save the people from destruction. They were absolutely helpless and nothing remained in their society to oppose or resist or protest against the oppressions of the tyrannical rulers. In other words the ruler has clearly announced to his subjects that there was no religion, no Islam, no revelation and no scripture (Quran):
Yazid bin Muawiyah said:
“The Hashimites played a in the reign; neither any news arrived nor any revelation descended from the heavens.”
Walid bin Yazid says:
“A Hashemite played with the post of caliphate without any revelation or book having revealed on him.”
Whatever has reached us, if we study it clearly we find nothing but disbelief and apostasy and very few people remained having faith in Allah and the Last Day or considered Islam to have any value.
Without any doubt, not a single portion of the light of Islam had entered their heart. Rather their souls were already full of bigotry and ignorance and not a single quality of disbelief was removed by the force of Islam. They harbored malice and animosity towards the Holy Prophet and they denied everything that the Messenger had brought as a mercy for all the worlds.
 Muruj az-Zahab 3/ 216
The Holy Imam realized how the attacks of disbelief had rendered Islam an easy prey and all the forces of infidelity were targeting the beliefs and principles of the religion of God. Hence he considered it as his duty to warn the people about it. He had seen that the Umayyad powers were trying by all means to uproot and destroy the foundations of Islam while the common people were living a life of fear and terror that had scattered among them that the Umayyads had infused into them. Thus they had become absolutely inert due to it. Neither talks of reformation reached their ears nor were the drums of war heard by them. They did not impose any sort of obstacle in the working of the oppressive rule nor did they raise any protest against it that was ruling the common Muslims with oppression.
The Holy Imam saw that he was the only one responsible in the view of Allah and it was solely his responsibility to bring about a revolution. And if he did not take any steps against the wrong being continued by the ruling tyrants who else could? Hence he expressed his aims that he wanted to remove oppressions and mischief and revive the enjoining of good and restraining from evil. So that he could lead the people to truth and justice. All these aims of the Holy Imam were mentioned in his illuminated sermons that he issued to the enemy forces comprised of Hurr, and soldiers of Ibn Ziyad.
“O people! The Messenger of Allah has said: One who sees a tyrant ruler making the unlawful of Allah as lawful and ignoring the commands of Allah and opposing the practice of the Messenger of Allah, committing before the very eyes of the people, sins and transgressions; and he does not object against him by words or actions, it becomes incumbent on Allah to make him enter the same place that he (the tyrant) shall go (in Hell). All of them have obeyed the Shaitan and they have become distant from the obedience of the Beneficent. They have made corruption open and general, trespassed the limits and took over public property in their sole control and made the unlawful things lawful and the lawful things unlawful…”
These are the dangerous causes that motivated the Imam to rise up against the tyrannical rulership of the Umayyads and a system, which considered every act, opposed to the Book of Allah and the practice of His Prophet as lawful.
The Umayyad rulers concentrated all their efforts to oppress and weaken the people and misappropriated public wealth to fulfill their lustful desires and finance their vices. They used to control their fates and forced them to a life of penury and spent public wealth in evil vices. This was the reason that the Holy Imam arose against them to save the nation and manifest their greatness and honor.
It was the most important period of the political history of Islam in which the Imam lived. It was a time when terrible events took place due to which the Islamic life was shaken up and the Muslims were subjected to severe trials and tribulations. Calamities after calamities descended upon them weakening them badly. They were in terrible circumstances.
 Tabari, Tarikh, 5/403
The most terrible event of that period was the carnage of Kerbala in the history of humanity that awoke the consciousness of the people and shook them from their slumber.
This great event was not a sudden and chance happening. Rather it was a certain consequence for those terrible events that had silenced the Islamic awareness and killed the feeling of responsibility and made the people completely numb to all types of emotions and feelings. The effects of the spirit of Islam and its guidance no longer remained on them. The most significant proof upon this is that the beloved grandson of the Prophet was mercilessly martyred openly before their very eyes and his severed head aloft spear points was taken around the cities and town accompanied with the women and children of the family of the Holy Prophet as prisoners. Their veils were snatched away and they were forced to reveal their faces that were visible from near and far. But this atrocity did not rouse the manliness of the people so that they may attack the rule of Yazid and seek vengeance for killing the son of the daughter of their Prophet. Dibil (May Allah have mercy on him) says regarding such circumstances:
“The head of the son of Muhammad’s daughter and his Successor and O people, it is being raised aloft the spears.
And the people are witnessing it with their eyes and ears. No one is being angered by it and none is distraught.
The tragedy of Kerbala did not occur but for the fact that the Muslim community was stupefied and their paths had deviated. Many diseases of the manners and calamities had rendered their lives to become absolutely debased. They had seen such terrible events such as the Saqifah, the Shura and the battle of Siffeen.
In any case, the historical events surrounding Imam Husain are worth scholarly research and deep study, without having any bias and completely refraining from the well-established practice that necessitates the concealment of truth. There were many circumstances that compelled them to make the general deviated views in many aspects of life to be made opinionated. This should be made a subject of research because the history of Islam by way of its subject and comprehensiveness has not been properly researched. Rather most of the researches have followed the well-established practice that is not beneficial to the society. It is of no use. And also the way those events and historical facts should have been studied and explained has also been stopped from being shown in the light of reality.
That in which there is no doubt, there are some hidden aspects in the history of these events that historians have purposely concealed. It therefore becomes necessary for those researchers to mix the facts with doubtful reports and half-truths, so that in this way they may help the Kingdoms that were powerful at that time. Now it is incumbent for a researcher to find out the facts and reach to the truth.
 Dibil Ibne Ali Khuzai, Diwan, Pg. 225
We are compelled to present those events and describe the actual matters because they are the means to fully realize the truth behind the life and martyrdom of Imam Husain. These things are such that by their study we would be able to clearly present the prevailing conditions and social thinking of that period in a new method of research.
We believe that it is not possible for us to perfectly explain and understand the story of Imam Husain and the horrifying events he had to undergo without conducting sufficient research into the social, political and economic life of his period, because these things served as a preface to that tragic event.
The history of Islam is needful that it should be released from its sanctity and like other topics are researched, objected and doubted in such a way that the matter is fully surrounded to the vigorous tests of the scholars so that this imparts firmness to the history, and it blooms and bears useful fruits.
The political rulers of that time had compelled the historians of that time to record history according to their favor and they were not supposed to pen anything against the ruling powers. Therefore the histories of those times became full of those things that their writers had fabricated and presented as historical truths. Due to this, its factuality was destroyed and many topics became distant from reality.
The pens taken up to write Islamic history first of all were not completely free of bias and vested interests, because religious bigotry and proximity of the dominance of the ruler was weighing heavy upon it. Therefore it is necessary that history should be subjected to close research and critical examination.
I don’t think there is anything more beneficial for the people of community than the propagation of the virtues of the Imams of Ahle Bayt their biographies and their greatness because this would present goodness and guidance to all the people. And they contain practical lessons and effective moral advices that create steadfastness and balance in their behavior. It is of the most valuable powers alive that the Muslims possess so that they may benefit from the valuable things and their personal merits that are the source of this religion.
The life of Imam Husain is the most-prominent example among the Purified Imams, because it is beyond the limits of time and space and it manifested the highest human values that inculcate in every human heart a sign of greatness and illuminates their path of action. In fact the biography and martyrdom of His Eminence contains such astonishing topics in whole history of Islam that came into being and the Muslims and other communities have not seen anything else presenting human values in such a clear way as the Holy Imam had done on the plains of Kerbala. On the basis of which faith in God, contentment and submission to His command have never been explained such beautifully anywhere else. And this unbounded faith is the special quality of the Ahle Bayt and their followers through which they obtained precedence over all the martyrs of the world. They were absolutely sincere in their defense and in the confrontation for
the sake of truth. And none of them had any material motive. For example, His Eminence, Abbas who was the closest person to Imam Husain and the one who was very closely related to him. In this incomparable loyalty he did not have any motive due to brotherhood and relationship to the Imam. Rather he took steps for the sake of faith and defense of Islam. And His Eminence, peace of Allah be upon him, has introduced these aims in epical poetry well known for its eloquence in the following way:
“By Allah! Even if you cut off my right hand I would continue to defend my religion and my faith is in the truthful Imam, scion of the pure and trustworthy Prophet.”
The meaning is clear that his sacrifice is not having any motive connected with his relationship or friendship of the Imam, which would have nullified the sincerity of this act. It was solely for the defense for the sake of Allah and the Imam of the Muslims, whose obedience is made incumbent on all the Muslims.
Examples like this abound from Imam Husain his Ahle Bayt and his companions in the history of humanity which are the most valuable lessons regarding faith, loyalty and sacrifice on the path of God. And every step from the steps of the day of Kerbala imparts honor to truth and justice in the world.
Imam Husain spread and waved the standard of Islam and freed the aspirations of the Arabs and Islamic community because before the incident of Kerbala they were slothful, silent, stagnant and ignorant. The bonds of the Umayyad rulership imprisoned them and they had laid obstacles in their path of freedom and progress. The Holy Imam through his revolution broke those chains and released the community from the heavy yokes that had kept them down. He destroyed the fear and awe of the rulers from their captivated minds.
The revolution of the Imam endeavored to create a social feeling and shaped the social structure so that the people also in the same way become valiant and powerful. That also after release from stupefaction they demanded their rights from the oppressive rulers and seriously took steps to dethrone the tyrannical government of the Umayyads that had tried its best to humiliate them and take them towards slavery. Sacrifices continued to be offered one after the other till the tyrannical rule was destroyed and their oppressions and rebellions dissipated.
The revolution of the Father of the noble ones is the greatest of revolutionaries of the nobles of the world that spread the light of knowledge and awakening in the world and accorded a respectful status to Islam and humanity. He provided such glorious lessons for the belief that is not weakened and a faith that is never defeated. It is a continuous source of respect and dignity of the Muslims, which shall remain forever in their generations.
Allah knows best that our heart’s desire was to conduct such a research into the life history of the chief of the Martyrs that it should be considered a masterpiece among researches on the same subject. My respected friend and mentor, Haj
Muhammad Rishad Ajine encouraged me in this aim and time and again assured me that I could be successful in my endeavor. He is such a righteous personality and so keen to serve the cause of Allah and Ahle Bayt that he volunteered to bear the total cost of the research and publication of this work and also our book on the life of Imam Musa Kazim. May the Almighty Allah bestow him with exceeding rewards and may He accord success to each of his great virtues.
He wanted that the expenses of printing this book be paid from the charitable trust in the name of his respected father, Haj Muhammad Jawwad Ajina (q.s.). I pray to Allah that He may reward him for this venture. And it is also necessary for me to acknowledge the encouragement of His Eminence, Hujjatul Islam Mujahid Sayyid Muhammad Kalantari (q.s.) that enabled me to take this project to completion. I am especially thankful to him and also my respected brother, His Eminence, Hujjatul Islam Shaykh Hadi Qarashi for providing access to many sources in course of this research.
In the conclusion of his preface we announce with absolute faith and conviction that I do not find anything more worthy of gaining divine satisfaction and His forgiveness except through the Chief of the Martyrs. Therefore, I have entrusted myself to that Ark of Salvation that can accommodate many deficient people like us, and we hold fast to the support of Wilayat (Guardianship) and repose hope in them on the day when I face my Creator.
O my God! Do not make my efforts go in vain and fulfill my desires. Do not let our hopes be dashed as you are the guardian for it and you are the most powerful.
3rd Rajab/1394 Hijri
21st July/1974 A.H.
The terrible events in Islam that were contemporary to the time of Imam Husain, had a deep impact on the changing of manners of intellectual and social life and also had an important imprint in the political life throughout history. The most prominent consequences of those events were confrontations against the ruling despot, rivalry with the tyrant ruler and struggle for obtaining the produce of the lands.
It was natural that political conflict occurred with the most difficult condition and most terrible way and battles began to take place with all intensity and ferocity. Because the eyes of many companions and companions of companions had been enchanted with the sight of different types of luxuries and a comfortable life without any hassles. The opulent kingdom of Iran and the land of Byzantine that had fallen into their hands, completely mesmerized them and the victories that the Islamic armies had achieved and whatever the Almighty Allah had given them and those slaves they obtained from the conquered lands; the wealth they hadn’t even dreamt about astonished them. Now their sole preoccupation was fighting battles and the struggle for life and death and they had completely forsaken religion.
The great Prophet through the unseen had known what dominions his community would obtain and what lands they would conquer through their glory and greatness and had in view along with it the holy movement of Islam and he informed the Muslims of this matter. Whatever they were doing was due to their personal beliefs. Just as the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had through the knowledge of unseen known about the mischiefs and turmoils that his community shall fall into. Therefore he observed extreme precaution in this matter and he arranged for a treasure for his community that has cure for every pain and which removes every conflict. And it was that he entrusted the Imamate of his Purified Progeny to the community. Who were such that the Almighty Allah had protected them from every abomination and filth and kept them pure? These steps were not the consequences of his personal affection and attachment because the position of prophethood was higher than that it should be affected by factors of love and other material grounds.
Sayings of the Prophet reached to the limits of Tawatur (widely related so that there is no doubt about their authenticity) and none from the Muslims had any doubt or misunderstanding about them because His Eminence had made the Ahle Bayt equal to the Holy Quran, which is such that falsehood can neither come to it from the front nor from behind and he described them as the Ark of Salvation and the security for the people, especially the chief of the Progeny, His Eminence, Amirul Momineen on the basis of the emphatic sayings of the Prophet – his brother, the self of His Eminence, gate of the city of knowledge and the most equitable of the people of the community and Ali was in relation to the
Prophet like Harun was to Musa. And he said:
“Of whomsoever I am the master; this Ali is also his master…”
However those people did not like to see prophethood and caliphate together in the same family and these people explained away the texts and kept away the caliphate from the family of prophethood, the mines of wisdom and the place of descent of revelations and they deprived the community from benefit of the shade of their kingdom whose aim was to spread divine justice on the earth.
This separation became the cause of confrontation for taking over the rulership which spread in the prominent families in Islam and after that the community became involved in the most terrible difficulties, such that life in those days became hellish and was unbearable and the reign of Nata’ And the sword became established among the people.
Political conflict developed in the most severe manner during the period of caliphate of Imam Amirul Momineen because the powers greedy for rulership began to move; they initiated an armed attack for this purpose and began to try to dislodge the government, which stood for the benefit of Muslims, was based on the foundation of human rights and trying to establish the principles of truth and justice and to destroy the castles of oppression and demolish the forts of falsehood and kindle the torch of human greatness and to eradicate all the factors of backwardness and corruption that has been left as heritage by the previous regimes.
Imam brought into existence a revolution with a strong foundation and a social transformation in the political, intellectual and economic fields from which was expected equitable distribution and removal of disparities that the government of Uthman and the families of Bani Umayyah and Abi Muit had created. It also confiscated the monetary sources that had been usurped unlawfully and dismissed the governors and other government officials who had made rulership a medium for obtaining wealth and domination over the people wrongly.
These social changes that were brought about by the Imam’s government increased the psychological crisis in the hearts of Quraishites and others who were opposed to social reforms and were certain that the Imam’s government shall put an end to all their economic and non-economic advantages. Therefore they joined hands to announce their opposition and it is a matter of great regret that some of the senior companions like Talha and Zubair were also among them. And that Ayesha, the Prophet’s widow was a prominent part of them. It is also noteworthy that the opponents had no sort of social or reformative aim. Rather they had become prepared for this due to their greed and selfish desires as they have expressed on some occasions. The foremost of these was the Umayyad party which came out in opposition to the Imam and they put at the disposal of the Imam’s opponents the
 Nata’: It is like a leather carpet upon which is put the person who is to be beheaded/executed so that the blood does not spill out.
wealth they had obtained during Uthman’s tenure and they in turn purchased weapons and paid the mercenaries whatever they demanded as remuneration. And the fire of war erupted which the historians have named as the Battle of Camel. The Imam rushed to them and put out the fire and eradicated its signs. However that battle caused untold loss to the Muslims because it opened the doors of war on the Muslims and prepared the ground for Muawiyah to announce his rebellion against the Imam so that he may confront the Imam in the most severe and terrible battles.
One after another, horrible events took place and in such a way that each was the result of another till it culminated in the martyrdom of Imam Amirul Momineen and the absence of the obedience of his son, Hasan and the victory of the powers inimical to Islam. We shall discuss them topic-wise in a detailed way and with an unbiased manner.
In a deceitful manner and a diplomatic way the Umayyads succeeded in coming to power and the Umayyad rule was established under the leadership of Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan who was the first one to follow all the war tactics against Islam that was in the illuminated period of revolution and against the teacher and leader of humanity. Muawiyah stood up to announce opposition of progress of society and against establishment of the society on the foundation of justice and equality.
The Islamic community became involved in this trap of Umayyads due to their own greed and they submitted to their rulership in awe and terror; that had malice and enmity against social values and their intellectual and social foundations; it raised up its head and they began to destroy that which Islam had established in the economic, political and intellectual fields.
Umayyad policy initiated a terrible pogrom to destroy the fundamental bases of the community and to root out the spiritual and intellectual treasures through their terrible and merciless policies that are described as follows:
A – Considering worthless the value of Ahle Bayt whose view was the social pivot in Islam and who were the most sensitive nerve in the body of the community and the spirit of progress in the Ummah. The ruler employed all political machinery, economic and their other capabilities to distance the hearts of the Muslims from Ahle Bayt and made them inimical to Islamic life. So that this enmity of Ahle Bayt may become an inseparable part of Islam. And in this path the machinery of education and training, the machinery of speeches, counseling and other mediums were employed and the cursing of the Prophet’s Progeny from atop the pulpits was made an obligatory duty, such that its omission was threatened with the worst consequences. Whoever refrained from this was interrogated severely and subjected to a terrible punishment.
B – Destroying the elements of enlightened thinking in Islam that they had received in training by guidance and reality and to send the senior ones of Islam to jaws of death as done to Hujr bin Adi, Mitham Tammar, Rushaid Hujri and Amr
bin Hamaq Khuzai and others like them who had the power of social enlightenment and the capacity to protect the community from deviation and moving in undesirable ways.
The system of the rulers made excuse that these people had given up obedience and separated from the congregation while there was not an iota of truth in this. They created a political front clothed in the dress of religion to take benefit of the community for themselves. Since the selection of the ruler was supposed to be with justice and equality between the people and its duty was to endeavor for balance in their affairs, taking excuse of this system they declared that it was lawful to shed their blood.
C – Changing of the illuminated reality of Islam and turning upside down of all Islamic teachings and destroying its foundation with superstitions and doubts so that their powers are nullified. And their movements on the path of life and their release with man for getting guidance by their capabilities and abilities, made them helpless in all this. Thus they hindered the people from means of progress in their life.
The regime formed false committees and bestowed them a lot of wealth so that they may fabricate traditions of the Prophet. And that they should be made out as tenets of law and Sunnah, which is itself a source of Islamic law.
Fabricators began to concoct false sayings and associated their lies to the Prophet but most of what they fabricated was opposed to logic, reason and the law of nature. It is a matter of great regret that all their lies were compiled into books of traditions. So such so that some shameful scholars were compelled to write some books and introduce some of these fabrications. In our view it was a very dangerous and terrible plot that Muslims became involved in it. Because involvement in that matter was not restricted to a particular period. Rather it accompanied the flow of history and they continued to affect the life of majority of Muslims. They began to consider those fabrications as a part of their religion while many obstacles were put so that the capability of progress and the freedom of their thoughts may be ended and like a boulder of obstacle it remained in the path that Islam had appointed for its followers.
The Muslim man during the tenure of Muawiyah, experienced unpleasant and painful examples of hardships and calamities because Muawiyah’s regime tried to spread oppression and injustice in all the areas and entrusted the affairs of Muslims to killers and robbers like Ziyad bin Abih, Busr bin Abi Artat, Samra bin Jundab, Mughairah bin Shoba and other filthy characters like them. And they wrought continuous horrors and painful tortures on the people, such that humanity had never seen such terrible things in any of the stages of history.
Imam Husain witnessed the social injustice during the tenure of Muawiyah, so much so that he was very much affected by it and he used to be very aggrieved at it. Because His Eminence, on the basis of his spiritual leadership that he had
inherited from his grandfather, used to feel it more and their pains made him sad and he lived with this pain which was that the tyrant and cruel governors of Muawiyah were in pursuit of the Shias of Ahle Bayt and they did not refrain from any step in killing them, burning their homes and confiscating their wealth and property and they tried all means to oppress them. So that the Imam himself had to condemn those unjust policies and send caustic and critical letters to the tyrant of Damascus. In these communications he wrote about the steps those cruel officials took for destroying his followers and those who were aware of his merits. In some of those letters His Eminence negated the fact that Muawiyah belonged to the community. Rather he was considered an outsider, an alien who bore enmity towards this community. And this was the real scenario because his political stances proved that he was the worst enemy of the community and for them he used to prepare the most terrible plots and in the light of the days and the darkness of the night he was always planning various methods to oppress and exploit them. The most terrible step according to historians that Muawiyah had taken in this regard was to appoint his profligate son, whose favorite pastime was playing with monkeys and dogs, as the caliph of the Muslim community. So that he may destroy their religion and the world and make them involved in the worst calamities.
During the period of Muawiyah and his profligate son, Yazid, Muslims lost all their basic principles and no better community remained so that it may serve as an example for the future generations as the Almighty Allah had willed. Because Muawiyah had wrought severe destruction among them and subjugated them in such a way that except for materialism they had no time for anything else. Also he made them habitual of degradation and slavery and he had snatched away their shame and kept them away from good morals and that was the reason that the community did not try to find the aim and actions which are necessary for giving them a respectable life. They gave no importance to it. They used to submit themselves to the Umayyad regime and were degraded and humiliated and passed their lives under their cruel yoke which shed their blood and destroyed their property and spread injustice and corruption among them. Therefore a form of terrible event remained in them
such that they became a stagnant body which neither had the power to move nor the ability to think. Nor it stood up for defense of its honor and merits. And neither they stepped forward for merits and sacrifice. So that they may oppose the oppression and injustice being done to them.
Imam Husain, the grandson of the Prophet and the illuminated hope of His Eminence having all the strengths of His Eminence was seeing this pitiful condition of the Muslims that how they were involved in humiliation and degradation and also it was no more that great nation that could lay the foundation of the message of Islam and present the torch of guidance for all nations.
A life threatening pain of feelings and sentiments enveloped the Imam and His Eminence became involved in a deep and prolonged contemplation. He used to remain awake in the nights to find a way to save the religion of his revered
grandfather and how he could save the Muslims from reverting to ignorance.
The Imam sometimes held meetings in Mecca and sometimes in Medina and he used to present the contemporary conditions of the Muslims to the companions and their sons and told them about the evil deeds and unlawful activities of Muawiyah. And at last he concluded that this method was in no way effective to bring about a social reformation and it was not capable to regain their lost spirituality. He also noticed that his position was between two matters and a third option was not imaginable.
1 – The first option was that he makes a truce with the Umayyads and gives allegiance to Yazid and ignores all their unjust actions and close his eyes to the destruction of faith and society in which the community was involved. In that case, it was possible with no certainty that he may have secured his life. However it was a thing that the Almighty Allah would never accept for His Eminence and also his living conscience, full of piety for his Lord, did not like such a thing. Because with regard to his relation to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), he was responsible for the defense of the community and to support their aims and values. And in front of his grandfather, His Eminence, the Prophet (s.a.w.s.), he was responsible for social reformation and protecting Islam from destructive and transgressive plots of the transgressors. His Eminence announced this great responsibility and that which was obligatory on him in his address to Hurr and his
companions from the mercenaries of Ibne Ziyad:
“O people, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said, ‘One who sees a tyrant ruler making unlawful things lawful and who breaks His covenant and opposes the practice of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and acts with sins and transgression among the people and does not oppose him by action and words as Allah desires, it is upon the Almighty Allah to send him to a place where He would send him…’”
2 – The second option was to announce a revolution and sacrifice himself, his family members and his Shias while he was certain that his revolution shall not succeed. Therefore His Eminence subjected to close scrutiny the social conditions and he knew that religion was only a word on the lips of those people. However, His Eminence was certain that his sacrifice would be in the interest of the Muslims because their intentions shall be free and they would rush to the fields of Jihad and they shall be waving the flags of freedom and they would topple the regimes of tyrant Umayyads and take them to their destruction.
His Eminence chose this illuminated path with all types of hardships and calamities that no one could bear.
The Imam saw and perfectly understood the atmosphere of sorrow and troubles and he made a program that provided very distinct consequences. It was the matter of making Islam successful and to return life to nerves of religion due to the causes that had spread slow poison by the Umayyads and made them stagnant.
Imam declared his aim and explained the sorrowful tragedy that was to endure
forever. He explained and mentioned it on many occasions.
1 – When His Eminence was in Mecca, he announced his uprising against the Bani Umayyah. He spoke about his martyrdom, because it is mentioned in that address that: “The martyrdom that I reach, I have selected it. As if I can see the parts of my body that the hyenas of the wild between Nawawis and Kerbala are tearing them up…”
Does this statement not prove the loftiness of his determination and intention for sacrifice? Does it not inform us about the confirmed prophecy about his great sacrifice which shall take place at Kerbala? And this is Kerbala in whose lap his blessed body would be.
Similarly, before this, his grandfather and father had also prophesied this matter.
2 – The great Imam spoke of the terrible calamities and dreadful events that shall befall his family members from the time he is martyred. It was at the time when Ibne Abbas suggested to His Eminence that he may not take with him to Iraq, the veiled ladies of the family of prophethood and daughters of the sanctuary of revelation, and that he should leave them in Medina till the time conditions are favorable.
In reply Imam told him, “The Almighty Allah wishes to see them as hostages.”
The Imam took his family members with him though he knew what afflictions and captivity would afflict them because the completion of his message was possible only in this way. Also their activities shall bring to an end the Umayyad regime in this way and return the Islamic life to its illuminated pristine glory.
3 – Imam also spoke on the way to Iraq that his blessed head shall be raised aloft the point of spear and it shall be taken around in cities and provinces and presented as gifts to the rulers just as the head of his brother, Yahya bin Zakaria was dealt with given as a gift to a tyrant king of Bani Israel.
Imam bore all types of hardships in the path of truth and to exalt the word of God.
The Imam performed his great revolution so that the Almighty Allah through it may make the Book clear and it may become a lesson for the people of reason. A revolution that with all its programs was a part of the message of Islam and an illuminated continuation of the great revolution of the Prophet that took it forward and gave it a living form for the aims and hopes of His Eminence such that if that revolution had not been there the efforts of the Prophet would have been in vain and his aspirations would not have been realized and no sign of Islam would have remained.
Imam Husain became successful and the Almighty Allah blessed him with a brilliant victory because the sky of Islam became illuminated with his ever-living revolution and his sacrifice joined the feelings and sentiments of the people and united with their hearts and it came in the form of a great school of faith in Allah
through which the spirit of faith and sacrifice is spread in the path of truth and justice and it taught the people lofty morals and superior values and tried to take them to goodness, guidance and the true path.
The people witnessed with seriousness the afflictions of the chief of the nobles and carefully pondered upon each of its parts and obtained lessons of morality and sacrifice from it. They also learnt from it incomparable valor and the honor that is never dominated by any oppression or injustice.
Humanity bowed its head in submission before that great Imam who waved the flag of truth in the heights of time because he spoke of the rights of the oppressed and defended the interests of the persecuted…
Humanity remembers his greatness more than any other social reformer on the face of the earth. And the great Imam, in this regard obtained such a great success that no other social reformer except him in the world has received such success.
The first success that the Imam received was the destruction of the Umayyad regime because his everlasting revolution placed the bombs of destruction in the Umayyad palaces and laid mines in their paths and not much time passed but that they burst and toppled the Umayyad heads to the ground and ended their intoxication of victory. That after their honor and power they took the form of a historical relic. In this book we shall present in a different manner a research on the illuminated revolution of Husain in the intellectual and social fields of the Islamic world.
The history of Islam is not capable of imparting any benefit to life if one is bound in tethers and heavy chains are on him and he does not study the events of Islamic history with research and knowledgeable contemplation. He should ponder deeply, without bias the conditions that were in the history of other communities which have been subjected to thorough study and research. Because the study of history in their view has the most important position in cultural and intellectual study.
If we desire that the history of Islam bears fruit and moves with the intellectual development and scientific progress it is necessary that it should be studied with full knowledge and in an intellectual manner and far from religious and practical attachments. One must subject to thorough study those great events in which the Muslims of the first period were involved. Events that in our view, were the source of great mischief and created everlasting difficulties for the Muslims that they had to bear those hardships and mischiefs throughout history.
The study of Islamic history should be accompanied with understanding of the conditions and situations of that time. If not, it would be a dogmatic study for the people of this age and it would not benefit them in any way.
We have already narrated and studied many events of early history of Islam and the political and economic system that the caliphs had established in their times so that we may make many of their events subjects of our study with precaution and free of bias. Since it is necessary for every researcher to try his or her best to reach
to the reality, I believe that of the causes of falling into sin is intentional ignorance and if we conceal the political or social aspects it would be a kind of misguidance of the people and lying to the readers.
It is not proper that the study of history should be such that we change it or distort the meanings, or that we move away from its intellectual criterion. Rather this matter is connected to reality and it is a need of life of our illuminated modern age.
Anyway, this study is related to the personal conditions of the life of His Eminence, Imam Husain because His Eminence lived in an eventful period. We have studied those events with great efforts and learnt their aims that those events without any doubt in a practical form and many circumstances that Muslims had become fearful of them were effective and one of them was the tragedy of Kerbala as it was the direct result of the destruction that the community at the hands of Umayyad regime, which was trying to paralyze their intellectual and social life and made comfort-seeking common among Muslims.
I hope that this study shall reach to the truth without being influenced by sentimental manners, away from the love of customs and established traditions. And in whatever I have written, truth is given precedence so that there should not be any other way from this path except narrating Islamic history in its reality. And before I conclude this preface, I consider it my duty with all sincerity and awareness of the value, to mention Haaj Muhammad Rishad Ajine. That righteous and great man who has served continuously to spread knowledge about Ahle Bayt and encourage the publication of their history. It is the best service that is given to the community. The respected sir agreed to bear the cost of publication of this book and he was desirous that it should be a dedicated to his late father, Haaj Muhammad Jawad Ajine (died 1391 AH) according to his will. May the Almighty Allah increase his rewards and make all his valuable efforts fruitful.
Baqir Sharif Qarashi
On the day of Taff, Imam Husain constructed the majesty of humanity by which everyone prides and it is alone sufficient for it that it presented its sacrifice on a path which is accepted by all for spreading truth and justice.
Examples of sacrifices that the Imam presented to establish a life of honor in Islam are really astonishing and outstanding because the intellects of the people of the world were shaken by it and it left a deep imprint on their hearts. So much so, that even those who were slightly perceptive were also affected by it.
The most important matter that makes the Imam unique in this is incomparable steadfastness that he displayed in front of terrible events because the Imam was armed with unlimited patience, in such a way that historians say: The crushing powers that were continuously moving towards the Imam were welcomed by him with absolute submission to God’s will, in such a way that no kind of weakness or cowardice was seen in it and whenever tragedies testing patience descended upon him his lips used to open and with deep faith which was the most prominent quality of his personality, he used to say:
“Being in the sight of Almighty Allah has made it easy for us to bear what is befalling us.”
This faith was that very secret of miracle and eternality in the mission of Husain; with his lofty example that leaves a school for generations to show them a way and increase its bestowals, in the same way as the generous ones, it may release a spring of reformation so that the Almighty Allah may let those on the earth inherit it.
On the day Ashura, truth was exalted in the field of values that created discrimination about loyalty, sincerity and selflessness and this day was not restricted to Muslims or a particular group. It is related to all the communities of the world and all those who reside on the earth; that through inspiration and perception brings them out of slavery.
Husain's message became victorious and along with his companions he became the first standard bearer of truth and justice among the people, such that more astounding success is not found anywhere else.
The day of Ashura had not yet reached its tragic end when people became attentive to its events and factors. This incident bestowed such honor to Islam that even writers having opposing views had to acknowledge its importance. The chief factor was that it became the most well-known event of human history.
Past scholars have considered it a separate subject of study and written extensively
 Taff – Lit. on the banks of the river. It is one of the names of Kerbala. It is named thus as it is situated on the banks of River Euphrates. Majma al-Bahrayn
on its various facets and among these scholars is the great historian, Abu Makhnaf, Saut bin Yahya bin Mikhnaf Azadi who has written the book, Maqtal al-Husain. Tabari has relied on Abu Mikhnaf for the account of Kerbala tragedy even though the wordings are different. It is very likely that this book is related to some other person and it was later attributed to Tabari.
Of those who have written about the martyrdom of Imam Husain is Nasr Ibne Mazahim bin Siyar at-Tamimi al-Kufi but his book is not found in any of the libraries we have searched. Waqidi Muhammad bin Zakaria and Jabir bin Yazid and other personalities of that time have written around 60 treatises on this subject. But even though we made great efforts to obtain their books or refer to them in libraries, we did not succeed in this regard. It is possible that foreign libraries that maintain Arabic manuscripts may be in possession of some of these books.
In this volume our discussion on the life of Imam Husain comes to an end; in such a way that we had to try very hard to refer to Arabic manuscripts and microfilms that are present in large quantities in Imam Amirul Momineen library, Imam Hakim and Imam Kashif al-Ghita Library. Please see the list of books in bibliography. In spite of this we cannot claim that we have written an exhaustive account of Imam Husain. We believe we have just cast some light on it and have not been able to fully present the encompassing personality of Imam Husain. This is so because he was a great personality all of whose aspects cannot be recognized except by studying all the Arabic manuscripts written on the subject.
Anyway, this book is merely a collection of some pages on the life of Imam Husain and some examples of his pure life that the common people pride on. Except for this it is nothing else.
Before we conclude this introduction we would like to thank profusely our mentor, the righteous Hajj Rishad Ajine who sponsored the printing of this book through the estate of his departed father, Muhammad Jawad Ajine. And we pray to the Almighty that He may bestow great rewards to him. Also it is my duty to mention the favor of Hazrat Hujjatul Islam, Shaykh Hadi Qarashi, my scholar brother who helped me to find reference to numerous sources and also assisted me with many suggestions and improvements. The Almighty would Himself reward him for this as He is the One to give Tawfeeq.
 The narrator Abu Mikhnaf was well-versed in traditions and narration reports. He was a Shia and a resident of Kufa. He is the source of most of the events that occurred in that period. Orientalists have a very good opinion about him. Maussin says: “If Abu Mikhnaf hadn’t written anything, History would have been in a great loss.” Falhauzen says: Tabari has taken large parts of narrations from Abu Mikhnaf and preserved them for us and in this way preserved the earliest and the best writings of an Arab for us.” Paul, the orientalist, says in Encyclopedia of Islam 1/399: Abu Mikhnaf had written 32 glosses on History of various events of the first century of the Hijrah of whom Tabari has preserved a major portion for us.”
The biography of Abu Mikhnaf is present in Mojam al-Udaba 17/41, Taj al-Uroos 6/104 (old edition), Fawaat al-Wafayaat 3/225, no. 405, An-Najjashi, Pg. 320, no. 875, Fehrist Tusi, Pg. 204, no. 584, Ad-Dharia 1/348.
 Nasr bin Muzahim is an early Shia historian who has written books like, Jamal, Akhbar al-Mukhtar ath-Thaqafi, Waqiyatus Siffeen, An-Nahrawan etc. Some writers have alleged in his biography that he was an extremist Shia and they say: He was a person deviated from truth. Khatib Baghdadi has mentioned this in his Tarikh 13/282-283 while Ibne Abil Hadid says about him: He was a positive person who narrated accurately without any bias.
His biography is present in Mizanul Etedal 4/253 no. 9046, Lisanul Mizan 6/157, no. 551, Ad-Dharia 1/147, Zarkali, Al-A’laam 8/350 and Rauzaat al-Jannaat
Baqir Sharif Qarashi
# Offspring of Prophethood "Part 1"
Greetings for the newborn who initiated light and knowledge in the dark age in such a way that he illuminated the intellectual life and society of the people and guided them to the right path.
That purified offspring is from the Chief of the Ladies of the world, Fatima Zahra whom the Almighty Allah had purified by His grace and appointed her to guide people from deviation and bring them out from discord and disunity towards unity and integration. It was Fatima Zahra who has the spark from the soul of her father and benefited from his light and the flames of his guidance. She is the center of his attention and a halo of greatness and power had surrounded her, and he made her love incumbent upon Muslims so that it becomes a part of their faith and religion in such a way that her merits and greatness become well known in Islam and she may be regarded as the model of womanhood.
The Holy Prophet has narrated her merits and special qualities in general and private gatherings so that Muslims may retain his sayings regarding her and narrations upon which the traditionists are unanimous say:
1. “Allah is angry when you are angry and He is pleased at your pleasure…”
2. “Fatima is a part of me. One who hurts her has hurt me and one who causes pain to her has caused pain to me…”
3. “Fatima is the leader of the women of the world…”
Other statements of the Holy Prophet also say that among the signs of the personality of Her Eminence, Zahra is that she was the exemplar of Islam and a great example for the women of this community as she illuminates the way for them. In good manners, chastity and the bringing of a cultured progeny...and how great are her blessings and how beneficial for Islam and for her exalted honor it is sufficient to say that the great Fatimid Dynasty is named after her and also the University of Al-Azhar is named thus in her honor. For the greatness of the Fatimid Kingdom it is sufficient to say that it gained prominence due to the name of Fatima Zahra.
 Mustadrakul Sahihain 3/154. Tahdhibut Tahdhib 12/441, Kanzul Ummal 13/674 and 12/111, Usud al-Ghaba 5/522, Mizanul Etedal 1/535. Zakhairul Uqbah, Pg. 39
 Tirmidhi, Sahih 5/656. Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad 4/571. And in Sahih Tirmidhi it is mentioned that His Eminence (s.a.w.s.) said: As for my daughter, that is Fatima. She is a part of me, one who aggrieves her, aggrieves me and one who hurts me has hurt her. And in Kanzul Ummal 12/111 he is reported to have said: As for Fatima, she is a branch of mine, one who makes her happy makes me happy and one who angers her, angers me.
 Usud al-Ghaba 5/522. And in Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal 6/112 he said: Fatima is the chief of the ladies of this community or the ladies of the world. And in Sahih Bukhari in the origin of creation it is mentioned. Are you not pleased that you are the Chief of the ladies of Paradise or the ladies of the world?
 Nisa Lahunna fi Tarikhul Islami Nasib, Pg. 48
Anyway, the Prophet received news from the unseen that it is only this purified part (Fatima) through whom would be born the purified Imams of Ahle Bayt, successors of the Prophet and callers to truth on the earth. They shall bear important responsibilities of the Prophet’s mission and make all efforts to reform the society; and in doing so bear all sorrows and pains, that is why the Holy Prophet paid utmost attention to her upbringing and took utmost care of her.
He is the beloved son of Ali, the rightful and just leader on the earth, the brother of the Messenger of Allah and the gate of knowledge of His Eminence. He is the one who was having the same position with the Holy Prophet as Harun had with Musa. He was the first to have brought faith in Allah and testify for the Prophet. He was the first to take up the responsibility of fighting Jihad at the dawn of Islam and he went to the most perilous places and subdued powers of polytheism and apostasy in deadly combat and astonishing duels, till the time this religion became strong with the help and support and his Jihad bestowed strength to the religion of Allah. The Almighty Allah bestowed him with all the honors and gave him also virtues and he is the Father of the Purified Imams. He is the one who spread effulgence from the source of his wisdom.
The first new-born
The fruits of the tree of Prophethood and the plant of Imamate are successors of the Holy Prophet who shall continue his mission. The first child of this family was Abu Muhammad Zaki, seeing whom the soul of the Prophet overflowed with joy. Thus began his attention to him and he inculcated in him his own noble virtues; virtues whose effulgence covered the whole world.
Only a few days, according to some historians 52 days elapsed when the chief of the ladies conceived again. Such that the Messenger of Allah and other Muslims were impatiently awaiting that the Almighty Allah will unite that star to another star so that the sky of the Islamic community may be illuminated and bestow a great part towards the life of freedom.
Dream of Ummul Fadl
Lady Ummul Fadl, the daughter of Harith had a strange dream and she did not
 Detailed chapter on the holy birth Abu Muhammad is given in our book life of Imam Hasan 1/49-56
 Ibne Qutaybah, al-Ma’rif, Pg. 158
 Ummul Fadl Lubaba, the elder was the wife of Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib. She was the first lady after Her Eminence, Khadija binte Khuwailid to accept Islam in Mecca. She had such an honorable position near the Prophet that His Eminence used to visit her to see her and take rest and afternoon nap in her house. She has narrated many traditions from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). She was the mother of Abbas’s six children, namely, Fadl, Abdullah, Ubaidullah, Qatham, Abdur Rahman and Umme Habiba.
Abdullah Ibne Yazid has said about her:
No lady in the mountains or plains we know of to have given birth to such six issues.
Like the six children born from the womb of Ummul, Fadl. Consider them worthy of honor and also her husband.
Who is the uncle of the Prophet Mustafa, who possessed merits and is the seal of Prophets and the best of the Messengers.
Her biography is present in all books like Tabaqat-e-Kubra 7/278, Al-Isabah 4/464 and al-Istiab.
have any idea about its interpretation. Thus she came to the Messenger of Allah and asked His Eminence: “I had a very strange dream: that a piece of your flesh fell into my lap.”
The Messenger of Allah dispelled her fears and gave her good news saying:
“You have seen something good! Allah willing, Fatima will give birth to a boy that shall be given in your arms.”
Days passed swiftly and Fatima, the chief of the ladies, gave birth to Imam Husain and the newborn child was given in the lap of Ummul Fadl just as the Messenger of Allah had informed.
The Holy Prophet remained waiting for the rise of the newborn star as the life of his beloved child was being illuminated by it. He was his favorite grandchild and the most beloved of those whom he left behind.
The Blessed Birth
The Chief of the ladies of the world gave birth to such a great child that no daughter of Eve had ever done either before the time of Prophethood nor after him. He was the one who reached such heights of greatness that no one bestowed greater blessings or grace on humanity more than him. Thus there was none purer, cleaner and more prominent than him.
The world became illuminated with him and the humanity, along with its whole progeny, became blessed. Muslims were proud of him and considered his remembrance worthy and every year they express pride in him.
The Ministry of Endowments in Egypt holds celebrations in the Husaini Mosque to commemorate the birth of the Holy Imam and considers this a great and a very significant occasion just as most of Islamic areas hold celebrations in this regard.
This joyful news spread over the horizon of Medina. Mothers of the believers (wives of the Prophet) and other Muslim ladies hastened to the residence of the chief of the ladies and congratulated her about the newborn child and participated in her joy.
 Mustadrak Sahihain 3/176 and in Musnad Firdausi Ummul Fadl says: I saw as a limb of the Prophet was in my house. Thus I became worried about it and I went to His Eminence and related the matter to him.
His Eminence said: Yes, it is like that only. Thus Fatima gave birth to Husain, then I gave milk to him till the milk was over.
And in Tarikh Khamis 1/418 it has come that this dream had occurred before the birth of Imam Hasan
Grief and weeping of the Holy Prophet
When the news of his grandson’s birth was conveyed to him, His Eminence, immediately hastened to his dearest Fatima in such a condition that his steps were heavy and grief and sorrow had enveloped him. Then in a choked voice he called out: “O Asma! Get me my child!”
Asma handed over the child to him. The Holy Prophet took him in his arms and kissed him again and again while all the time he was weeping. Asma became worried and asked: “May my parents be sacrificed on you, why are you lamenting?”
The Holy Prophet replied with his eyes filled with tears: “I am weeping for this son of mine.”
She was astonished to hear this and she could not understand the motive behind this. She asked: “He has just stepped into the world!”
The Messenger of Allah replied to her in an aggrieved tone: “An unjust group shall slay him after me, may the Almighty Allah deprive them of my intercession.”
After that he stood up in a sad mood and told Asma secretly: “Do not convey this to Fatima as she has just come out of labor…”
The Holy Prophet emerged from the house in a sorrowful mood because he had received the information from the unseen about the calamities that were to befall the child in the future; such calamities as could shake the complete life of every living person.
Year of Imam Husain’s birth
The grandson of the Prophet was born in the 4th year of the Hijri calendar and elsewhere the year is also mentioned to be the 3rd year of the Hijri calendar. Narrators also differ as to the month of his birth and most of them consider it to be the month of Shaban and on the 5th day of the month. Some of them have not specified the day of his birth and said he was born after a few nights of Shaban had
 Musnad Imam Zaid, Pg. 468 and in Amali of Saduq, Pg. 199 it is mentioned that the Holy Prophet took Husain in his arms after he was born while he wept. Then he handed over the child to Safiya binte Abdul Muttalib saying: May Allah curse the people who shall be your slayers. And he repeated this thrice. Safiya asked: May my parents be sacrificed on you! Who would slay him? He replied, “A group of Bani Umayyad oppressors.”
 Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 38. Tahdhib al-Asma 1/163. Maqatilut Talibeen, Pg. 84. Maqrizi, Khattat 2/285. Bustani, Dairatul Ma’rif 7/48. Jauharatul Kalaam Fi Madhis Saadaatil A’laam, Pg. 116. Al-Ifaadah Fil Tarikhul Aimmatil Saadah by Yahya bin al-Husain (died 424 A.H.) from photocopy at Imam Hakim Library. Ad-Dhariyatut Taahira from written manuscript at Amirul Momineen Public Library, Majma az-Zawaid 9/194. Usud al-Ghaba 2/18. Al-Irshad, Pg. 198
 Usul al-Kafi 1/463. Maqrizi, Khattat 2/285. Al-Istiab (Printed on the margins of al-Isabah) 1/392
 Tibrani, al-Mojam al-Kabir from manuscripts of Amirul Momineen Library. Tohfatul Azhar Zilaalul Anhaar from manuscripts at Imam Kashiful Ghita Public Library. Maqrizi, Khattat 2/285
passed. While some historians have ignored this and just state that he was born in Shaban and they are all unanimous in this.
Some elders also say that His Eminence was born at the end of the Rabi I, but this view is against the established one, so we must not pay any attention to it.
Birth ceremonies of Imam Husain
The Messenger of Allah personally performed the religious ceremonies of the blessed newborn child and carried out the following rituals:
First: Azan and Iqamah
The Messenger of Allah took the blessed child in his arms and in his right ear recited the Azan and in his left ear recited the Iqamah. And it is mentioned in narrations that: “This ritual protects the newborn child from the accursed Shaitan.”
The first voice to reach the ears of Husain was that of his grandfather, the Holy Prophet who was the first to have turned towards God and called the people towards Him and his slogan was: “Allah is the Greatest. There is no god except Allah…”
The Holy Prophet inculcated these words into the soul of his grandson; words, which were the essence of faith and reality of Islam and he imbibed these things into the newborn child and taught him about them. They became a part of his elements and basics of his existence. He became absolutely devoted to these concepts in every aspect of his life. Thus he hastened towards the field of Jihad and sacrificed everything so that this formula of faith may be exalted on the earth and powers of righteousness and goodness may become dominant and signs of apostasy of ignorance that were trying to put out the divine light may be subjugated and destroyed.
The Holy Prophet named the child ‘Husain’ just as he had named his brother, ‘Hasan’. Historians state that Arabs were not aware of these names during the period of ignorance till the Prophet named his grandsons thus. Rather the Holy
 Imtaul Asma, Pg. 187. Usud al-Ghaba 2/18. Ad-Dhariyatut Taahira, Pg. 101
 Fathul Bari in the chapter of Virtues of al-Hasan and al-Husain 7/75
 Al-Muqna, Pg. 467, At Tahdhib 6/41, Ad Durus 2/8
 Kashful Ghumma 2/3, Tohfatul Azhar wa Zilaalul Anhaar
 Ali has narrated that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said, “For the newborn child you must recite the Azan in his right ear and the Iqamah in his left because it is a protection against the accursed Satan.” And he told Ali to perform this ritual for Hasan and Husain, that is to recite the Azan, the Iqamah, Surah Fatiha, Ayatul Kursi, last verses of Surah Hashr, Surah Ikhlas and Surahs Falaq and Naas. This is mentioned in Daimul Islam 1/148
 ar-Riyazun Nazarah
Prophet gave them these names on the basis of divine revelation.
Later this honorable name became synonymous for one who spread knowledge and faith on the earth and his remembrance enveloped all languages of the world and people became devoted to him. So much so that in their view it become a holy slogan for all the high examples and a slogan for every sacrifice that was based on truth and justice.
Statements opposed to facts
Some historical and traditional sources have, in different ways, reported this matter but they are not free of doubtful authenticity. They are as follows:
1 – It is that Hani bin Hani narrated from Ali that he said: “When Hasan was born the Messenger of Allah arrived and asked: ‘What have you named my child as?’ I said: ‘I have named him Harb.’ He said: ‘Rather he is Hasan.’ And when Husain was born the Prophet asked: ‘What have you named my son as?’ I said: ‘I have named him Harb.’ He said: ‘Rather he is Husain.’ And when the third child was born the Holy Prophet came and asked: ‘What have you named my son as?’ I told him: ‘Harb.’ He said: ‘Rather he is Mohsin.’”
In our view this report is not correct, because:
A – Since the Ahle Bayt were deeply rooted in Islamic culture and absolutely observant of every law that is related to it, they could not name child with a name associated with the Age of Ignorance and was from the signs of backwardness and decadence. More than this, this name Harb was well known as the name of the Progenitor of the Umayyad clan who were the representatives of animosity and oppression against the religion of Islam. Thus how can the Imam name his son as such?
B – The objection of the Holy Prophet from naming his eldest grandson by that name should have restrained the Imam from again giving the same name to his other sons.
C – Mohsin, according to the unanimity of the historians, was not born during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. Rather he was miscarried a few days after the passing away of the Messenger of Allah.
The above reasons prove that this narration is nothing more than a false claim and it has no authenticity.
2 – Ahmad bin Hanbal from his chains have narrated from Imam Ali that he said: “When Hasan was born to me I named him after my uncle Hamzah and when Husain was born I named him after my brother Ja’far. However the Messenger of
 Usud al-Ghaba 2/9, And in Tarikhul Khulafa, Pg. 188, Imran bin Sulaiman has narrated that: Hasan and Husain are two names from the people of Paradise that the Arabs were oblivious off during the Age of Ignorance
 Nihayatul Arab 18/213, Al-Istiab 1/384, Tahdhib at-Tahdhib 2/296. Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad 1/158
Allah summoned me and told me: ‘The Almighty Allah has commanded me change the names of these two and to name them as Hasan and Husain.’”
This narration is also weak like the previous one because the naming of these two grandsons took place only a short while after their birth according to the widely known historical records and no one has seconded the claim of Ahmad bin Hanbal.
3 – Tibrani has narrated through his chains of narrators from Ali that he said: “When Husain was born, I named him after my brother, Ja’far. But the Messenger of Allah called me and told me to name him as ‘Husain’.”
This report is also weak like the previous two narration reports because His Eminence, Amirul Momineen did not take precedence in naming the grandson and beloved one of the Prophet over the Prophet himself. It was the Prophet himself who, as is well known, named him as such. The traditions of Ahle Bayt are unanimous upon it.
Third: Aqiqa Ceremony
Seven days, after the birth of the grandson of the Prophet, His Eminence issued instructions that a sheep be sacrificed in Aqiqa for him and its meat be distributed to the poor people and also ordered that a leg of mutton be given to the midwife and this ritual became a recommended act of Islamic faith.
Fourth: Shaving of the head of Imam Husain
In the same way, the Holy Prophet ordered to shave the head of his newborn grandson and in proportion of the hair shaved equivalent weight of silver be distributed among the poor. The weight of it came to be one and a half dirham, on the basis of what has come down in traditional reports. Then his head was anointed with perfume of saffron and other materials. The Prophet prohibited the ritual of applying the blood of the slaughtered animal to the head of the newborn child.
The Holy Prophet instructed his Ahle Bayt to have the newborn child circumcised on the seventh day of its birth. The Prophet has recommended
 Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad, 1/257
 Tibrani, Al-Mojamul Kabir, 3/10
 Musnad Imam Zaid, Pg.468, Tohfatul Azhaar wa Zilaalul Anhaar. And in the book Dhariatut Tahira, pg. 122. It is narrated from Ayesha that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) sacrificed a sheep each in Aqiqa ceremony of both Hasan and Husain on the seventh day of their birth and ordered that it be sacrificed in their names and the following be recited at that time: In the name of Allah. O Allah it is for you and towards you this Aqiqa of so and so. This tradition is quoted by Hakim in his Mustadrak (4/237) and said that its narrators are in large number and it is weak since it is well-known among the jurisprudents that it is recommended to slaughter only one sheep for each child.
 Ar-Riyadh Nazarah, Tirmidhi, Sahih, Nurul Absar, Pg. 253
 Daimul Islam 2/187
 Bihar 43/239
circumcision in this young age because it is purest and cleanest for him.
Attention of the Prophet towards Imam Husain
The Holy Prophet personally took up the rearing of Imam Husain and gave him a lot of attention and mingled his feelings, emotions and aspirations with that of his own. On the basis of what historians state, he used to place his thumb in the mouth of the child. His Eminence took him in his arms and placed his tongue in his mouth so that the exudation of prophethood may be fed to him in the condition that he used to tell him: “Behold O Husain! Behold O Husain! The Almighty Allah has not accepted for you except what He intended, that is Imamate that shall be for you and your descendants.”
Regarding this Sayyid Tabatabai says:
“They kept him away from water, thirsty. The one whom his grandfather Mustafa gave him his fingers to suck.
Sometimes he gave him his thumb to suck and sometimes his tongue so that his nature may be inculcated into him.
The child whom the Prophet himself reared and after his basic goodness there sprouted out from him branches of righteousness (other Imams).”
The Prophet imbibed in the personality of the newborn his personal virtues and excellence so that he may be an exemplar of greatness and this may continue even after he has passed away, and that he may become his successor in spreading his aims and in defending his principles.
Amulet of the Holy Prophet for Imams Hasan and Husain
Among the compassions of the Prophet towards his grandsons was his extreme love of the two and his seeking their protection from every evil and calamity by seeking Allah’s refuge for them, and he used to often do this for them.
Ibn Abbas has narrated that: “The Holy Prophet sought protection of Hasan and Husain as follows: ‘I seek by the perfect words of Allah from all devils and poisonous creatures and from all the envious eyes.’ And he used to say: ‘Ibrahim used to invoke protection in this way for his sons, Ismail and Ishaq.’”
Abdur Rahman bin Auf has reported that: “The Messenger of Allah told me: ‘O Abdur Rahman! Do you not want me to teach you the amulet through which
 Jawahirul Ahkam, 31/260 It is mentioned therein that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Circumcise your male children on the 7th day as it is the purest and cleanest and best for the growth of flesh it is most appropriate and that the earth remains impure by the urine of one who has not been circumcised.
 Al-Manaqib 4/50
 Amulet (Taweez) literally means to seek refuge or to give in refuge of, to protect someone. It is also used in the meaning of a supplication that is written on a piece of paper and fastened to be neck or the arm for dispelling of evil eye and warding off calamities. (Farhang Ameed)
 Zakhairul Uqba, Pg. 134, Mushkilul Athar 4/72
Prophet Ibrahim sought protection of his two sons, Ismail and Ishaq and I do for my two sons, Hasan and Husain…?
Sufficient is Allah as a protector for one who supplicates and there is no place for any archer to shoot an arrow after the command of Allah…’”
This proves the intense love that the Holy Prophet has towards the two Imams and that he feared that evil eyes may strike them; thus he sought their protection through these supplications and amulets.
Appearance of Imam Husain
The signs of his grandfather, the Holy Prophet became apparent in the face of Imam Husain, because in his characteristics he resembled His Eminence and he also had the same morals due to which the Holy Prophet had precedence over the other Prophets.
Muhammad bin Zahhak has described him saying: “The body of Husain resembled that of the Messenger of Allah.”
And it is said: “The lower half of his body resembled that of the Holy Prophet’s.”
His Eminence, Imam Ali said: “One who likes to see the person most closely resembling the Messenger of Allah from neck to the face should look at Hasan. And one who desires to see the person most closely resembling the Messenger of Allah from the neck to the feet, in shape and complexion, should look at Husain bin Ali…”
Signs of Imamate became apparent on the blessed face of His Eminence, and his face was most luminous of the people and it was such that Abu Kabir Hazali says: “When you look at the face it seems to be a flash of lightning.”
Some writers have described the physical appearance of His Eminence as follows:
“He had a fair complexioned face and in whichever dark place he used to sit it was illuminated by the brilliance and elegance.”
Others have said: “He had great elegance and a luminous forehead, his cheeks glowed in the darkness of the night and he was the one most closely resembling the Prophet.”
 Zakhairul Uqba, Pg. 134
 Tibrani, Al-Mojamul Kabir 3/123 from the photocopy of the book in Hazrat Amirul Momineen Public library
 Al-Munmaq Fi Akhtar-e-Quraish, pg. 424, Maqrizi, Khatat 2/285 Al-Ifada min Tarikhul Aaimmatus Saada, from the facsimile at Imam Hakim Public Library
 Tibrani, Al-Mojamul Kabir 3/98
 Al-Ifadah Fil Tarikhul Aimmatus Sadah
 Ali Durai Hanafi, Muhaziratul Awail wal Awakhir, Pg.71, and in Masabihus Sunnah 4/187-188 quoted from the Anas that he said: None resembled the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) as Husain bin Ali and regarding Husain he said: He was the most closely resembling one to the Prophet (s.a.w.s.). In Ansabul Ashraf 3/5 it is mentioned that: Husain was the image of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.).
One of his companions, who was also martyred along with him on the day of Ashura, has said as follows describing His Eminence:
“He had the brilliance of the midday sun and the glow of his forehead was like the luminous moon.”
Awe of Imam Husain
His Eminence had the qualities of the Prophets. In his awe he resembled his grandfather that people used to humble before him. A mercenary of Ibn Ziyad has said regarding the great awe of the Holy Imam: “The brilliance and luminosity of his face compelled me to have second thoughts about killing him.”
On the day of Ashura, the strikes of the swords and the wounds of the spears did not conceal the luminosity of his face. He was like a full moon in his elegance and handsomeness. Regarding this Kabi says:
“The wounded one whose elegance the spears could not dissipate and they could not make his freshness fade.
He was a full moon that it changed into a sun at its zenith.
From the time when blood smeared hands put coverings over it.”
When the blessed head of His Eminence came to Ibn Ziyad he remarked, “I have not seen anyone more handsome.”
Anas bin Malik objected to him saying, “But, is it not that he is the one most closely resembling the Holy Prophet?”
When the blessed head was presented to Yazid bin Muawiyah, he was astonished and perplexed by his awe and elegance and he said, “I have indeed never seen such a beautiful face.”
One of those present said, “He was the image of the Messenger of Allah.”
Traditional reporters are unanimous that he was just like his grandfather, the Holy Prophet, in physical appearance and gestures and in resemblance and qualities he was the image of the Prophet. Such that when Ubaidullah bin Hurr Jofi got the honor of his audience his being was filled with his greatness and awe and remarked, “I have never seen anyone as elegant and attractive as Husain…”
Gestures of the Prophets and signs of the pious became obvious on his face and therefore, the eyes of the audience were filled with his vision and they used to become subservient before him.
Titles of Imam Husain
The titles of His Eminence and the lofty qualities that he possessed are as follows:
 Balazari, Ansabul Ashraf 3/5, Manuscript at the Amirul Momineen Public Library
 Balazari, Ansabul Ashraf 3/5
1. Martyr (Shaheed), 2. Pure (Tayyib), 3. Chief of the youths of Paradise, 4. Grandson
According to a saying of the Holy Prophet: “Husain is my grandson from among the grandsons.”
5. The Rightly guided one (Rashid), 6. Wafi (Loyal), 7. Blessed (Mubarak), 8. Follower of Allah’s will (At Taabe le marzillah), 9. (Ad-Daleel Alaa Zaatullah) Proof for the True entity, 10. Most Purified (Mutahhar), 11. Birr (Righteous), 12. Ahadul Kazmain (one of those who swallowed the Anger)
Patronymic of Imam Husain
The patronymic of His Eminence was Abu Abdillah and numerous historians have stated that he had no other patronymic. And it is said that his patronymic was Abu Ali and after his martyrdom people gave him the patronymic of Abu Shuhada and Abul Ahrar.
Inscription on the Ring stone of Imam Husain
His Eminence wore two finger rings. One of them was set with cornelian having the inscription: “Surely Allah attains His purpose.” And the other ring was the same that was looted from him on the day he was martyred. Upon it was inscribed: “There is no God except Allah, prepare to meet Allah.” And it is related that: “Anyone who wears such a ring would be safe from Satan.”
Use of Perfume
His Eminence liked perfumes very much and in journey or at home, musk was never distant from him and his assemblies were made fragrant by incense of aloe-wood.
The first house where he resided with his parents was next to Ayesha’s quarters and a door of the Masjid opened into the house of Fatima.
 Tohfatul Azhar wa Zilalul Anhar
 Bustani, Dariatul Ma’rif 7/47
 Nurul Absar, Pg. 256, Jauhratul Kalam Fi Saadaatul A’laam, Pg. 116
 Dalailul Aimmah, Pg. 73
 Al-Irshad, P. 198
 Al Fusulul Muhimma, Pg. 170, Nurul Absar, Pg. 253
 Al Manaqib 4/78, Ansabul Ashraf, Vol.1
 Father of the Martyrs
 Father of Freemen
 In Nurul Absar, Pg. 253 it is mentioned that the inscription on his ring was: For every Term there is an appointment. (Surah Ra’ad 13:38)
 Dalailul Aimmah, Pg. 73
 Raihana-i-Rasool, Pg. 38
 Wafa al-Wafa
Upbringing and Training
As the grandson and the beloved of the Prophet, Imam Husain had in him all the elements of a good upbringing that no one else was bestowed with such things and he gained from its essence and quiddity. These elements of His Eminence prepared him for the leadership of the community and responsibilities of prophethood of Islam in every aspect and manner and it bestowed him with unlimited spiritual powers from a deep faith in Allah and steadfastness in patience in difficulties and calamities, such that no living man possessed the ability to bear them.
Factors that contributed to the lofty training of His Eminence and that greatly influenced the greatest riches of thoughts and reformation were as follows:
Heritage is explained to be an expression from the similarity of the branch with the root and it is not limited to apparent similarities. Rather it also includes personal qualities and natural make up in such a way that scholars of inheritance have explained clearly saying: “The fact is clear in every living entity, because the seed of cotton yields cotton and the seed of flower gives a flower and another thing is that the branch resembles the roots and is similar in the qualities to the roots.
Mandel says: “Most characteristics are transferred from one or both progenitors to the offspring without any change.”
Hurley explains this phenomenon in the following words: “No quality is there for any human part of the body but that it reflects environment or heredity, because the system of heredity appoints the limits of possibility and this proves that all the possibilities from them will really come to pass. From this aspect of heredity, the make up of man is nothing except that it is related to environment.”
This means that all physical and personal characteristics present in a human being are mostly based on his heredity and environment that serves to bring out the qualities present in him. On the basis of this, according to experimental research, experts of heredity have proved that environment is only a helper in what one has received in heredity.
In any case, experts of heredity, without any doubt, have emphasized that sons and nephews inherit most of their physical and psychological characteristics from their ancestors and these things are transferred to them without any voluntary effort or choice. Dr. Alexis Carrel has explained this in his writings thus:
“The time moves forward in the same way as in branches it goes ahead as far as the limits of his body and the limits of time are not deeper or steadfast than the limits of its spread because it is related to the past and future. In spite of this his essence does not go beyond the present and the individuality as we know, comes into being when the sperm enters the ovule. However the factors of the being (the personality) have been created before it and they are spread right up to our parents and ancestors and are found in their bodies because we are born from the cellule of our
parents, that without division, stops in the past age and we are carrying little parts of innumerable bodies of our ancestors and qualities and defects and whatever we have are the same that were more or less with our ancestors.”
Islam, before others has exposed this reality when it emphasized thorough investigation and proper inquiry before establishment of marital ties because all psychological, physical and spiritual elements of the offspring depend upon both the parents. It is also mentioned in traditions that: “Select the best repository of your sperm as it is going to be the source of your descendants.”
The Holy Quran has informed about the most important characteristics that are transferred through heredity as follows:
“My Lord! Leave not upon the land any dweller from among the unbelievers: For surely if thou leave them they will lead astray thy servants and will not beget any but immoral, ungrateful (children).”
This verse clearly proves the transference of disbelief and apostasy through heredity. Books of traditions are replete with reports of narrations of the Imams of Ahle Bayt regarding the factuality of heredity and its principles and their great significance on the behavior of man and his natural make-up.
In the light of the fact that personal qualities are never based on anything but heredity we can say for sure that the grandson of the Prophet had received as heredity, the moral and psychological qualities and spiritual make up from his grandfather, His Eminence, the Holy Prophet. The same qualities that had accorded him precedence over all the other divine prophets. Numerous traditions state that the Imams, Hasan and Husain inherited physical characteristics from their grandfather, the Holy Prophet. It is also narrated from His Eminence, Ali that he said: “Anyone who likes to see the person most closely resembling the Messenger of Allah between the neck and hair should glance at Hasan and anyone who prefers to view the person most closely resembling the Messenger of Allah between the neck and feet, in make up and complexion, should look at Husain.”
It has also come in traditions that Imam Husain resembled the Prophet from his navel to the feet. Just as he had inherited the outward appearance from the grandfather in the same way he had also inherited from him other qualities and special characteristics.
 Nizam Tarbiyati Dar Islam, pg.61-62
 Surah Nuh 71:26-27
 Tibrani, Al-Mojam al Kabir 3/97, from written manuscript of Allamah Sayyid Aziz Tabatabai.
 Al-Munmaq Fi Akhbar-i-Quraish, Pg.424
The Family is an important factor in formation of society and the shaper of the child’s personality and it inculcates in him habits that remain with him for the rest of his life because the family is the first seed for the formation of individual progress and social behavior. The factor of training is most influential in formation of balance in interpersonal behavior. The child learns the language from them and acquires values and social practices.
At that time the children of a family based on good social behavior obtain the best values and balanced life, while in their house, things like comfort, love, mental peace, no anger and dislike are dominant. But if the family does not care for these things, the children are afflicted with serious mental and spiritual maladies that create more difficulties and worries for them. It is proved by the view of psychology that the most serious problems of personal dilemmas are rooted in early childhood, specially the child’s relationship with his or her parents.
In the same way, one of the most important duties of the family is to pay attention towards the training of children, because it itself is responsible for acceptance of social behavior so that the child gains information about the culture and its principles in such a way that he actively takes part in relation to other organs of society in his life.
According to scholars of training the most important functions of the family are as follows:
A – To prepare the children in a decent atmosphere so that they may have their biological and psychological needs fulfilled.
B – To prepare them for participation in social life and recognizing its values and habits.
C – To provide them with comfort, security and support.
D – To provide means for making possible their existence and entry into society.
E – Their moral, spiritual and religious training.
In the light of modern researches connected with the science of family and ethics we can say with certainty that Imam Husain had been the recipient of the very best family training and the highest values of a good family life because the family in which he was brought up was the best family under the dome of the sky. Therefore, Imam Husain was brought up under the shade of this family and he obtained his nature and manners through them. Now we shall briefly delineate the major points of incomparable training that Imam Husain received from the family of prophethood.
 According to scholars of social science, family is a social relationship that is brought into existence through the husband-wife and their children and it includes the grandparents and grandsons. (Ilmul Ijtima, Pg.92)
 Bimari hai Rawani wa Aqli, Pg. b
 Nizam-e-Tarbiyati Dar Islam, Pg. 81
 Nizam Khanwadeh Dar Islam, Pg.25
The Prophet’s Training
The Holy Prophet personally took up the responsibility of training his grandson and beloved child. He presented to him his personal merits and virtues and brought him up with his values and principles so that he may become like His Eminence.
Narrators have stated that: “His Eminence used to be very attentive and caring towards Imam Husain and most of the time he used to keep him with himself and imbibe him with his own good qualities and lofty manners. He used to demonstrate before him his exemplary behavior. In his early childhood he taught him the Surah Tawheed.”
Once some dates of Sadaqah were presented to the Holy Prophet and Imam Husain took up a piece and placed it in his mouth. However, the Messenger of Allah took it out from his mouth and asked: “Sadaqah is not lawful for us.”
In this manner, His Eminence inculcated the habit of restraining in his childhood and taught him that he must never partake of anything that is unlawful for him and it is natural, according to new medical researches, that what a child eats affects his memory, understanding and behavior as it halts his behavioral development and in him develop negative qualities like hard-heartedness, rebellion and impatience with others. Islam has paid deep attention to this aspect and therefore considered it necessary to keep the child away from unlawful food.
Therefore it was but natural for the Holy Prophet of Islam to keep away Imam Husain from eatables unlawful for the Ahle Bayt since it was the most import part of his training and a significant factor of his physical and spiritual development. We shall present more traditions on this subject at appropriate occasions.
Imam Amirul Momineen’s Training
However, His Eminence Imam Ali is himself is the foremost trainer of good moral behavior and ethics and he brought up his Imam Husain with the best training and upbringing. He inculcated in him wisdom and imbibed him with chastity and purity and demonstrated practically to him, good manners and morals and ingested into him enthusiastic spirituality and made him inclined towards those virtues so that he may create a good and correct path for himself.
His Eminence, Imam Ali in his bequest to his sons spoke of invaluable points on the subject of morality; such that his statements stand out prominently as the final word in acquiring good morals and eternal success. It contains all the rules of social behavior and everything that man is in need of. It is the masterpiece of Islamic teachings, as it becomes cause of moderation and manners.
His Eminence said, “O my son! I advise you to fear Allah, the Mighty and the
 Yaqubi, Tarikh, 2/246
 Imam Ahmad, Musnad, 1/201
 Nizam Tarbyati Dar Islam, Pg. 99
Sublime in concealed and open matters and I make bequest to you to observe truth in happiness, thrift in wealth and poverty, justice with friend and enemy, work in happiness and sadness and satisfaction from the Almighty Allah in hard times and prosperity.
O son, no hardship is bad after which there is Paradise and no goodness is good after which there is Fire (of Hell) and every bounty is less than Paradise and nothing and every calamity is lesser than the Fire of Hell; it is salvation.
Know that, O my son. One who is aware of his own faults, he does not find fault of others. And one who is satisfied with the fate of Almighty, he is not distraught with what he loses. And one who exposes others, his own defects shall be exposed. And one who ignores his own sins, he regards the sins of others great. And one who puts himself into hardship of useless actions stumbles (suffers). And one that throws himself into the sea, drowns. One who follows his own opinion becomes deviated. And one who considers himself needless of his own intellect, commits mistakes. And one who is arrogant to the people is degraded. One who behaves with them in foolish manner is abused. And one who sits in a bad place is put to blame. And one who cultivates the company of scholars gains honor. And one who jokes too much is not considered serious. And one who keeps aloof remains safe. One who leaves off the sensual desires gains independence. And one who leaves jealousy,
gains the love of people.
O my son! The respect of the believer is in his needlessness of the people. And contentment is unending wealth. One who remembers death too much remains content with little of the world and one who comes to know that his word is considered as his action, he becomes a man of few words, except where it is beneficial for him. Surprising that one who fears the punishment and is hopeful of rewards but he does not act. Remembrance is effulgence and forgetfulness (carelessness) is darkness and ignorance is misguidance and fortunate is one who takes lesson from others. Manners are the best inheritance and good behavior is the best companion.
O my son. There is no bounty and progress for the one who cuts off relations and he shall not remain needless of sinfulness…
O my son! Salvation is made of ten parts. Nine parts of it are in silence but except that one remembers God and one of it is leaving off company of fools. One who decorates his gatherings with disobedience of God, receives humiliation and one who seeks knowledge becomes intelligent.
O my son! The beginning of knowledge is moderation and its calamity is concealing it. And from the treasure of faith is patience in calamities. Chastity is the embellishment of poverty and thankfulness is the embellishment of wealth. One who does a thing too much is recognized by it. One who speaks too much, makes too many mistakes and one who makes too many mistakes reduces his
 In another version it is mentioned: ‘in pleasure and anger.’
shame and one in whom shame is reduced his abstemiousness reduces and one in whom abstemiousness reduces his heart becomes dead and whosever’s heart dies he shall enter the Fire.
O my son! Do not make any sinner hopeless because many a times it had been such that someone continued to sin but his ultimate end was good. And many a times it had been that people performed many good deeds but in their last days they destroyed them and went to Fire (of Hell). One who gets the end of the matter, it becomes easy for him.
O my son! Too much of meeting gives rise to boredom and dislike. (Familiarity breeds contempt).
O my son! Satisfaction before knowledge is opposed to farsightedness. Self worship is the proof of weakness of ones intellect.
O my son! How often it had been that a glance creates regret and many a times a word becomes cause of a bounty. No status is higher than Islam, no gift is higher than piety, and no refuge is more satisfactory than abstemiousness and no intercessor is better than repentance. No dress is more beautiful than salvation and no wealth is more effective in removing poverty than satisfaction while possessing power. One who makes efforts to get only as much as he needs, he has made haste in gaining his comfort and he has tried to maintain his reputation. Greed is the key of sorrow, vehicle of hardship and cause of falling into sins. Evil deeds bring bad traits and defects. And for training of self it is sufficient that one pays attention to that which one does not like for others and it is for your brother just as it is for your own self. And one who without any thought and consideration makes himself subject to hardships; he has really put himself into sudden
Thoughtfulness and consideration before initiating anything will keep you safe from regret. And one who carefully analyses the actions and studies them fully recognizes the points of mistakes. Patience is a shield against poverty. Opposition of the self creates perfection in oneself. Hours eat up the age (reduce it). Your Lord is the best of the rulers for the oppressors and He is cognizant of the hidden and keeps an eye on the inside (hidden). The worst provision for the Day of Judgment is oppression on people, his throat will burst at every gulp of water and every morsel of food shall get stuck in his throat. No bounty shall he receive except after separating from another bounty. How near is comfort with exhaustion, and poverty with bounty, and death with life, thus blessed is the one who has made special for Allah, the knowledge and action, love and hatred, taking and leaving, speaking and keeping quiet. And congratulations to the scholar who is aware
and refrains from sins and acts and makes efforts, and is fearful of destruction and loss. Thus he is prepared and ready. If he is asked, he replies clearly and if he is released he remains silent. His speech should be correct and his silence should be due to the inability to reply. Woe, and all woe on the one who is disappointed, degraded and sinful. And what he does not like for others he considers it good for himself. One who has softness in his speech his love becomes incumbent. One who does not
have shame and generosity; his death is better than his life. Generosity of a person is not perfected till it is not important for him that which of his two dresses he should wear and which of his two eatables he should eat.”
This will is full of moral teachings and points of character building. It teaches all the good ethics and invites towards piety as these are the fundamentals of self building and keeping the self safe from sins and it shows the true path which is indicated by guidance and rightfulness.
Her Eminence, Fatima’s Training to Imam Husain
The chief of the ladies decided to train her son and she molded him into her love and kindness so that he may develop a stable character and understanding. In the same way she inculcated in him Islamic manners so that he may develop a habit of steadfastness and the right path.
Alaili says: “Among the reports about Imam Husain that have reached us, it is mentioned that his mother made elaborate arrangements for his training so that examples of Islamic thoughts may become firm in his personality. It would not be wrong to assure that the Holy Prophet also provided the same training in childhood, which is the time when a child perceives a feeling of stability.”
Her Eminence Fatima perfected in him correct thinking and general love and accorded him with lofty virtues and morals so that it may become a part of him and the center of his attention may be Allah as everything is included in this.
In this way a child puts into practice his limited circle of childhood and only keeps in his view its mother and he does not see anyone besides her. His mother demonstrated to him an unlimited circle where the divine thought was made the center of attention and made it the standard of morals and behavior. Thus his self became wide so that he may include the world into his good behavior and he may present a lofty example to lead people towards the path of goodness…
Imam Husain was bred out brought up in the atmosphere of that great family whose equal the history of humanity cannot trace in faith and guidance. Thus His Eminence was brought up under the shade and among this family and became to be an incomparable example for human thoughts and became the most prominent Muslim leader.
Experts of training and psychology are unanimous that environment is one of the most important factors that shape the child’s personality and it forms inclinations and habits in the child and they all depend on the environment. And responsibility in every way for decadence and backwardness in the training values returns to it, in the same way the effect of environment and lack of family problems have a profound effect on our behavior and that of our children.
 Al-Ijaaz wal Ijaaz Pg. 33
 Imam Husain, Pg. 289
UNICCO, the international organization for children has surveyed the unnatural effects on the child’s nature and the research conducted by a number of experts in this regard presented the following results:
“Without any doubt, environment is proved to have a profound effect on the child and then the family that has come into being, if it is based on love and affection it would be the first step that shapes the good nature of the child. The child would, in the future, base his social relationships on his family upbringing and in case if the child’s personality is a prey to unfavorable attitude of the parents, he would not be able to have social acceptance…”
A stable environment and absence of family problems are the basis for formation of a good personality of the child and the development of a good life for him and it would be able to remove worries from him. Psychologists believe that instability of environment and its difficulties cause the child to feel that he is spending a life in a defective world filled with deceit, misappropriation and greed, and that he is a powerless creature, not any match to this powerful world…
Islam has been attentive to the problems of environment in a positive manner and has spent all means and capabilities for its reformation and more than anything else it has kept this matter in view so that the highest values of truth, justice and equity be dominant and factors of obedience and backwardness like injustice oppression and deceit are destroyed and the environment may become a safe place and away from problems and difficulties so that it could present the best and most useful people to the community; such humans that compete in performance of righteous deeds, charitable acts and reformation.
The Islamic Environment has nurtured great, famous, incomparable personalities from the reformers who were the best of the people that humanity has itself witnessed them in all its stages of history. Like our Master, His Eminence, Imam Amirul Momineen, Ammar bin Yasir, Abu Zar and others like them who strengthened social justice in Islam.
Imam Husain was brought up in the illuminated Islamic environment that the rays of its light affected it and he established the civilization and made the communities of the world and guided them on this path; and powers that cause decadence and backwardness be destroyed. The great environment which has come into being from the sources of justice and he benefited from it and also benefited the needy generations by it.
While yet in his childhood, Imam Husain had understood how the Islamic environment was capable of founding a society based on justice and love and how it aims to make itself strong and stable by spreading its principles and its aims of creating love and righteousness among the people.
 Effect of family and society on children below 13 years. Unesco, Pg. 35
 Shakl Geeri Shakhsiyat, Pg. 22
These were some of the means of training provided for Imam Husain. The means that bestowed His Eminence preparedness so that he may become a lofty example of his grandfather, His Eminence, the Holy Prophet and in the call towards truth and dignity he should be equal to him.
In the Shade of Quran and Sunnah
Islam has paid special attention to Imam Husain in Quran and Sunnah (sayings of the Prophet) and has endowed special kindness and made elaborate arrangements with regard to him. This is so because His Eminence is one of the highest centers of leadership. That if anyone looks upon this world of existence he would see him shining brilliantly before it; he has accorded success to the affairs of human beings and has led them on the path of righteousness and the correct way.
Islam has spoken of Imam Husain with absolute respect and honor and along with him also paid attention to his parents and brother and exalted their remembrance and emphasized their emulation and advised following them and took the oath of the community that it must not deviate from their path. In all aspects it must never try to get precedence over them. Here we shall present in brief whatever is mentioned about him in Quran and traditions.
Under the shade of Quran
Quran is the great of book of Allah; such that falsehood can neither approach it from before nor from behind it. It has declared the merits of Imam Husain under the reference of Ahle Bayt. His Eminence, in presence of Quran, is not needy of the praise of praisers and acclaim of the acclaimers. The following are some verses of Holy Quran that mention about Imam Husain:
Verse of Purification
The Almighty Allah says:
Allah only desires to keep away impurities from you O People of the House and purify you with a thorough purification.
We feel compelled to dwell more at this juncture and have a detailed discussion on this verse:
A – Who are the “Ahle Bayt” (People of the House)?
Commentators of Quran and reliable tradition scholars are unanimous that the
 Surah Ahzab 33:33
 Fakhruddin Razi, Tafsir Kabir 25/209. Nishapuri in the exegesis of Surah Ahzab. Muslim, Sahih 4/1883. On what is revealed from the Quran on Ahle Bayt, Pg. 71. From photo copied manuscripts at Imam Hakim Library in the Mustansiriya Collection, Year 666 A.H., written by Husain bin Hakim Hibri. Al-Khasais al-Kubra 2/ 464. Ar-Riyadh an-Nazarah. Khasais an-Nasai 2/ 152. Nasai, Pg. 34 & 35. Ibne Jurair, Tafsir 22/5. Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad 4/107. Baihaqi, Sunan 2149 & 152. Nasai, Sunan, 2/150. Mushkilul Athar 1/334 Jalaluddin Suyuti in Durre Manthur 5/199 has narrated more than 20 narrations from different channels that indicate that this verse was only about Ahle Bayt and Ibne Jurair in his Tafsir has presented 50 reports from different chains saying that this verse is only with regard to Ahle Bayt.
Ahle Bayt are these only five persons of the Blanket (Kisa) that include: The Leader of the Universe, His Eminence, the Holy Prophet and the brother of His Eminence, who is the self of His Eminence; that is Master of the Believers, and the pure part of his body, an image of Maryam daughter of Imran, leader of women, Her Eminence, Fatima Zahra, who was such that her pleasure was like pleasure of Allah and her anger equivalent to Allah’s anger. After that were the two beloved ones of His Eminence, the Holy Prophet, the two grandsons of His Eminence, that is Hasan and Husain, chiefs of the youths of Paradise and no companion or any other person is included in this verse with them. The following traditions prove this distinction:
Firstly: Umme Salma says: “This verse was revealed in my house while Fatima, Ali, Hasan, and Husain were present. The Holy Prophet spread his cloak on them and said: ‘These are the members of my family. (O Allah!) Remove uncleanness from them and make them pure’, and he repeated this statement. Umme Salma heard and saw this and then said, ‘Am I with you?’ She held the blanket that she may enter therein. The Prophet pulled away the sheet from her and said: ‘You are on the good.’ This tradition is related in Sihah books on a large scale (Tawatur). This narration of Umme Salma clearly proves the special status of Ahle Bayt in this verse and their precedence over all other people in this matter. It shows that only these five persons are meant in this verse. This verse denotes only these five personages.
Secondly: The Holy Prophet took every opportunity to declare the sole precedence of Ahle Bayt as beneficiaries of this verse. Ibn Abbas has narrated that: ‘I noticed for seven months that the Holy Prophet went to the door of Ali’s house everyday when it was time for prayers and used to say: ‘Peace and blessings be upon you! O People of the Prophet’s House! Allah intends but to remove all sorts of uncleanness and blemish from you and to purify you with a thorough purification.’ And he repeated this act five times a day.’
Anas bin Malik narrates that for a period of six months the Holy Prophet used to pass by the door of Fatima when he came out for morning prayers and say: ‘O People of the House, it is time for prayers’, and then added: ‘O People of the Prophet’s House! Allah intends but to remove all sorts of uncleanness and blemish from you and to purify you with a thorough purification.’
Abu Barza has narrated that: ‘I performed my prayers with the Holy Prophet for seven months.
As and when he left his house, he went to the house of Fatima and used to say:
 Hakim, Mustadrak 2/416, Usud al-Ghaba 5/ 521
 Ad-Durre Manthur 5/199
 Majma-az-Zawaid 9/169, Ansaab al-Ashraaf 2/104, Zakhair al-Uqbah pg. 24
‘Peace be upon you! O People of the Prophet’s House! Allah intends but to remove all sorts of uncleanness and blemish from you and to purify you with a thorough purification.’
The Holy Prophet emphasized that the connotation of this verse is restricted to his Ahle Bayt and considered them different from others so that they may guide the community and made it compulsory for them to accept their leadership.
Thirdly: The Holy Progeny has used the specialization of this verse for themselves as their argument for their superiority as mentioned in a sermon of Imam Hasan Mujtaba: “I belong to the family upon whom Jibraeel used to descend and from there ascend to heavens. I belong to the family from whom Allah has removed all impurities and made them pure.”
Numerous traditions (widely narrated) from the channels of Progeny of Muhammad have specified the restricted implication of this verse to only these five personages and they also announce the exclusion of all other family members of the Holy Prophet.
B – Exclusion of the Prophet’s wives in the verse of Purification
The wives of the Prophet have no share in this verse, because they have been excluded from it by subjectively as well as legally according to scholars of the Principles of Jurisprudence. By way of proof we present below some points of discussion:
1 – “Ahl” (Family), according to dictionary denotes the family of man and his relatives and it does not include the wife. This meaning has been emphasized by Zaid bin Arqam when he was asked regarding the family of the Prophet that whether the wives of the Prophet are included in it. He rejected this view and said: “No, by Allah! The wife stays with the husband for a limited period, after that he divorces her and she returns to her father and her clan…His Ahle Bayt are his original relatives, such that after him Sadaqah (alms) has become unlawful for them.”
2 – If we accept that “Family” includes the wife and it refers to her we would be compelled to consider it restricted to them on the basis of the previously quoted traditions because it has reached up to the limits of Tawatur in wordings and by meanings.
C – False Claims of Akrama and Maqatil
A group supporting the Bani Umayyads and claimants of exclusion has tried to take away the verse away from the Holy Progeny and apply it to the wives of the Prophet and in this matter they have used the preceding verses. Among these are persons like Akrama and Maqatil bin Sulaiman.
 Zakhair al-Uqbah Pg.24
 Hakim, Mustadrak, 3/172
 Qamus Muhit 1/331, Aqrabul Mawarid
 Ibne Kathir, Tafsir, 2/302, Muslim, Sahih 4/1873
Akrama was the most inimical person towards the folks of the Blanket and he openly declared it in the market place. His audacity reached such a stage that he claimed: “I can participate in imprecation contest with anyone who does not accept that this verse was revealed for the wives of the Prophet.”
It is obvious that this open challenge of his is a clear proof of his animosity towards the Holy Progeny, which has the same position as that of Quran itself. Here it is necessary to study some matters related to Akrama and Maqatil so that their view regarding their claim becomes clear.
 Wahidi, Asbab an-Nuzul, Pg. 240
 Ad-Durre Manthur, 5/198
# Offspring of Prophethood "Part 2"
Akrama in Mizanul Etedal
Akrama, the Berber, is Abu Abdillah Madani who was originally a Berber and was initially the slave of Haseen bin Abil Hurr Anbari. Then he presented him to Ibn Abbas, when he became the governor of Basra under the orders of His Eminence, Amirul Momineen. He remained under his service till the passing away of Abdullah bin Abbas. After that Ali bin Abdullah sold him and then later bought him back. He had changed his beliefs and had a doubtful character because his biographers have written about him as follows:
1 – He was from the Khawarij (renegades). He stood at the gate of the Masjid and said there were none except disbelievers inside it because the Khawarij believed all Muslims to have become apostates. As for his position with regard to His Eminence, Amirul Momineen he is well-known for his malice and animosity towards Ahle Bayt.
2 – He was famous for lying and he had no qualms about lying and he is well-known for this because it is narrated from Ibn Musayyib that he told his slave, Burd: “Do not attribute falsehood to me like Akrama did to Ibn Abbas.”
It is narrated from Uthman bin Marrah that he said to Qasim: “Akrama had told Ibn Abbas such a thing about us.” So Qasim said: “O my nephew! Akrama is a liar. He says a thing in the morning and opposes it in the evening.”
Due to his being convicted of lying, none of the reports narrated by him is reliable because lying is an important factor that makes the narrator unreliable.
3 – He was a sinner and he used to listen to music, he played dice, he was careless about prayer and was of deflective intellect.
4 – The Muslims abandoned him and became aloof from him. One day he and
 Tahdhib at Tahdhib, 7/263
 Mizanul Etedal, 3/95, Tabaqat al-Quraa, 1/15, Ibne Sa’ad, Tabaqat 5/216
 Mizanul Etedal, 3/95
 Mizanul Etedal 3/96
 Mojamul Udba
 Tahdhibut Tahdhib 7/263
Kathir Uzza died. People attended the funeral of Kathir but none took part in the funeral of Akrama.
In presence of such testimonies against him how could one rely on the narrations of Akrama? Bukhari has relied on him though Muslim avoided him. Bukhari says: “There is none among our companions (tradition scholars) but that he or she is needful of Akrama.” It is surprising Bukhari relies on Akrama as well as those who like him, whose faith he doubts but he abstains from traditions of the Holy Progeny who are equals to the Holy Quran.
Maqatil bin Sulaiman
Maqatil bin Sulaiman bin Bashir Azadi Khorasani like his friend Akrama was having a weak faith and biographers have mentioned this about him thus:
1 – He was a false reporter. Nasai says: “Maqatil reported false statements” and Waki has also said: “And Ishaq Ibrahim Hanzali says: ‘Khorasan has produced three characters unequalled in lying and innovation. They are Jaham, Maqatil and Umar bin Sabah.’”
And Kharijah bin Musab said: “In our view Jaham and Maqatil are two sinners and transgressors.” Thus due to his proven falsehood it is not correct to trust his reports and his tradition is of no value in proving anything.
2 – He was having doubts in faith and had belief of Tashbih. Ibn Hayyan says: “Maqatil obtained the knowledge of Quran through Jews and Christians according to what their books taught. He used to compare the Almighty Allah to created things and creatures and he resorted to falsehood in narrating traditions.”
Some pious people considered shedding his blood lawful.
Kharijah says: “I do not consider lawful shedding blood of Jews and Zimmis but if I gain dominance over Maqatil bin Sulaiman and none sees us, I would kill him.”
3 – Maqatil was well known for his animosity and hatred towards Amirul Momineen and he always associated the merits of Imam to other characters. It is related from Imam that he said: “Ask me before you are deprived of me.” Maqatil also tried to be like this and he claimed that he could provide information of all that is between the sky and the depths of the earth. So a
 Tahdhibut Tahdhib 7/271
 Mizanul Etedal 3/93
 Tahdhibut Tahdhib 7/271
 Mizanul Etedal 4/173
 Tahdhibut Tahdhib 10/281
 Comparison of Allah with other things
 Tahdhibut Tahdhib Pg.284, Mizanul Etedal 4/175
 Non-Muslim protected people
 Tahdhibut Tahdhib, Pg.281
person stood up and asked him to inform about the dwelling of the ant. But he failed to reply to this query.”
Again at another time he claimed: “Ask me whatever you want regarding whatever is between the sky and the depths of the earth.” A person stood up and asked: “Who shaved Adam’s head when he performed Hajj?” Maqatil was dumb founded and he could not offer any reply.
The above reports indicate his false notions and that is none of his traditions are worthy of being trusted.
Weak arguments of Akrama and Maqatil
Akrama and Maqatil have argued from the preceding words of the verse that it is revealed about the wives of the Prophet and the Ahle Bayt are not included in it.
Imam Sharafuddin has refuted these notions in a topic-by-topic manner. He says: “We have some reasons to refute this view:
Firstly: It is a personal opinion against clear texts and widely related traditions.
Secondly: If this verse had been restricted to the wives as they claim, the address would have been to females and the Almighty Allah would have used feminine pronouns and said: Ankunna and Yutahara-rakunna (instead of Ankum and Yutaharakum), as seen in other verses. The use of masculine pronouns in this verse proves their argument wrong.
Thirdly: An eloquence discourse includes interjections and objections and it denotes that a sentence of some other topic is included in the systematic order as the statement of the Almighty Allah in the incident of Aziz to his wife, when he tells her:
“…Surely it is a guile of you women; surely your guile is great: O Yusuf! Turn aside from this; and (o my wife)! Ask forgiveness for your fault…”
In the above statements the words: “O Yusuf! Turn aside from this…”is an interjection, as we see.
And in the same way is the remark of Almighty Allah:
“Surely the Kings, when they enter a town, ruin it and make the noblest of its people to be low, and thus they (always) do; And surely I am going to send a present to them, and shall wait to see what (answers) do the messengers bring back.”
In this verse the words: “and thus they (always) do” is an interjection from the Almighty in between the statement of Bilquis.
 Tahdhibut Tahdhib, Pg.283
 Wafayatul Ayan
 Surah Yusuf 10:28.29
 Surah Naml 27:34-35
In the same way is the statement of the Mighty Lord:
“But nay! I swear by the falling of stars; and most surely it is a very great oath if you only knew; most surely it is an honored Quran…”
In the above discourse the words Allah intends actually to say: “But nay! I swear by the falling of stars; most surely it is an honored Quran.”
But what is between the above two verses is by way of digression and inter alia to the statement. This technique is found in many instances in the Quran in traditions, in the discourses of Arabs and others from the preachers.
The verse of purification is also of this same category. It is a digression contained within a discourse mainly about the wives of the Holy Prophet. Through this it has become restricted Allah is not issuing any commands, prohibitions and advices to them but it is due to the regard the Almighty Allah has for the Holy Five. It may not be that (even though it be through the wives of the Prophet) any sort of evil may reach them or that hypocrites may gain some way (even if it be through the wives of the Prophet), and if in this way there had been no generality, that valuable point would not have been achieved. That is the eloquence of the Wise Lord had reached to its depths and it has made it clear and perfect in such a way that it should not remain concealed.
The view of Imam Sharafuddin is a stable and strong view that has rejected the wrong interpretations and destroyed the claims of the opponents and through it he completed the argument over them.
The Proof of the Verse of Purification on Infallibility
This verse clearly proves the infallibility of the Five Personages because the Almighty Allah has removed all impurities from them (that is sins) and purified them in a way it befits and this is, in fact, the meaning of infallibility.
The verse contains the word “Innama” (only) in its heart to emphasize this fact of restriction and the letter L (Laam) is added to it, as also the repetition of the word “purification”. All this is according to the construction of the sentence. It conveys limitation of the meaning. In this matter the intention of Almighty God is a Takweeni intention; that it is not possible to go back on this: “His command, when He intends anything, is only to say to it: Be, so it is.”
Imam Sharafuddin says: “This verse proves the necessity of Imamate for Amirul Momineen because His Eminence claimed the Caliphate for himself and Imams Hasan and Husain and Fatima also claimed it for him and they were not given to making false statements, because lying is a sin which the Almighty Allah
 Surah Waqiah 56:75–77
 Al-Kalimatul Ghurra Fi Tafzeeluz Zahra, Pg. 196-197
 Fixed destiny
 Surah Yasin 36:82
has kept away from them and purified them with a perfect purification.”
The Verse of Love
The Almighty Allah has made the love of Ahle Bayt compulsory on the Muslims. Allah says: “I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives; and whoever earns good, we give him more of good therein; surely Allah is forgiving, grateful.”
The majority of the Muslims are of the opinion that the word ‘qurba’ (relatives) refers to these same personages: Ali, Fatima and their two sons, Hasan and Husain and the ‘earning of good’ implies the earning of divine rewards for their love and regard. Some of the traditions related on this subject are as follows:
1 – Ibn Abbas has narrated: “When this verse was revealed they asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah! Who are your near kindred whose love is made incumbent on us?’ His Eminence replied: ‘Ali, Fatima and their two sons.’”
2 – Jabir bin Abdullah has narrated: “A Bedouin came to the Messenger of Allah and said: ‘O Muhammad! Please explain Islam to me.’ His Eminence said: ‘Testify that there is no god except the One God and He has no partner and that Muhammad is His servant and Prophet.’
The Bedouin asked: ‘Would you seek recompense from me regarding that?’
His Eminence replied: ‘No, except love for the near relatives?’
Bedouin: ‘My relatives or yours?’
The Prophet: ‘My relatives.’
Bedouin: ‘Come, so that I can pledge allegiance to you that curse be on the one who does not love you.’
The Prophet said: ‘Amen.’”
3 – Ibn Abbas has narrated: “When the ‘saying of God’ (verse of Quran) was revealed: ‘Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives…’ some people opined: ‘He does not intend but to make us inclined to his relatives after he has passed away.’ So Jibraeel informed the Messenger of Allah that they had accused His Eminence. Then the following verse was revealed: ‘Or do they say: He has forged a lie against Allah?’ Then those people said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! You have said the truth.’ At that time was revealed:
 Al-Kalimatul Ghurra Fi Tafzeeluz Zahra, Pg.201
 Surah Shura 42:23
 Majma az-Zawaid, 7/103, Zakhair al-Uqbah, Pg. 25, Nurul Absar, Pg. 227, Ad-Durr al-Manthur
 Hilyatul Awliya, 2/201
 Surah Shura 42:23
 Surah Shura 42:23
‘And He it is Who accepts repentance from His servants…’”
4 – The Holy Progeny has argued that the captioned verse was revealed in their honor as the elder grandson, His Eminence, Imam Hasan said inter alia his sermon: “And I am from the Ahle Bayt whose love the Almighty Allah has made incumbent on all Muslims and said: ‘Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives; and whoever earns good, We give him more of good therein…’and that earning good is through loving the Ahle Bayt.”
Also the Chief of those who prostrate and the leader of the worshippers, His Eminence, Imam Ali bin al-Husain argued with this verse. When he was taken as a prisoner to the tyrant Yazid and stopped at the steps of Damascus, a Syrian addressed him: “Thanks be to Allah Who killed and destroyed you and finished off the dual horns of mischief.”
Imam glanced at him and found him to be a misguided soul due to false propaganda, which had taken him away from the truth. So he asked him: “Have you read the Holy Quran?”
“Have you recited Aal-e-Haa Mim?”
“I have read the Quran, so have I not recited Aal-e-Haa Mim?”
“Have you recited: ‘Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives…?’
That man was astonished and he began to tremble. He asked in haste: “Are you those?”
And His Eminence, Imam Amirul Momineen said: “The verse of Aale Ha Mim is regarding us. None shall keep the sign of our love but a believer.” Then he recited the verse: “Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives…?”
Fakhruddin Razi has established his view and considering the family of the Prophet to be highly exalted saying: If it is proved that the verse is special for Ahle Bayt it becomes incumbent that they shall become eligible for more respect. He says that the following points prove this theory:
First: The words of the Almighty Allah are: “Except the love of the near relatives” are the aim of something that has already been stated before. And it is a thing that has already been mentioned before. That the Progeny of Muhammad are
 As-Sawaiq al-Mohreqa, Pg. 202
 Life of Imam Hasan
 Tabari, Tafsir, 25/16
 Surah Shura 42:23, Kanzul Ummal 1/218, Sawaiqul Mohreqa, Pg. 170
the same whose matter returns to His Eminence. Thus they are those whose matter is more closely associated with the Holy Prophet and they shall be that “Progeny”. And there is no doubt that Fatima, Ali, Hasan and Husain have the strongest relationship with the Messenger of Allah and this matter is that is learnt from widely related tests. Thus it is necessary that they be “ Progeny”.
Secondly: There is no doubt that the Prophet loved Fatima greatly. His Eminence said, “Fatima is a part of me. One who hurts her, hurts me.” Also, widely related reports and sayings of Prophet Muhammad show that he loved Ali, Hasan and Husain and if this matter is proved this also would become incumbent on all the Muslims due to the saying of the Almighty Allah: “and follow him so that you may walk in the right way.”
And for the sake of the words of the Almighty: “therefore let those beware who go against his order…”
And for the statement of the Almighty Lord: “Say: If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you…”
And for the command of the Almighty Allah when He says: “Certainly you have in the Apostle of Allah an excellent exemplar…”
Thirdly: Praying for the Progeny is a great status and therefore this prayer became the ending of the Tashahud in ritual prayers. And it is: O Allah, bless Muhammad and the Progeny of Muhammad and have mercy on Muhammad and the Progeny of Muhammad…which became obligatory.
Loving the Ahle Bayt is the most important of the obligatory Islamic duties and the most sanctified of religious obligations. Imam Muhammad bin Idris Shafei says:
“O Ahle Bayt of the Prophet. Loving you is an obligatory duty from Almighty Allah revealed in the Holy Quran.
It is sufficient for your lofty station that anyone who does not pray for you in his or her ritual prayers, it (ritual prayer) would be invalid.”
Ibn Arabi has said:
“I consider loving the Family of the Prophet as a religious duty that in spite of remoteness it bestows proximity to me.
Because the Holy Prophet did not seek any recompense for the labors of his propagation except the love of his relatives.”
 Surah Araaf 7:158
 Surah Nur 24:63
 Surah Aale Imran 3:31
 Surah Ahzab 33:21
 Razi, Tafsir, Under the exegesis of the verse of love in Surah Shura
 Sawaiqul Mohreqa, Pg. 148
Kumayt, the poet of Islam says:
“There is a sign for you in the verse of Aal-e-Haa Mim. That among us are some people who resort to dissimulation and those who say it openly, it is these that are implied.”
In the love of Ahle Bayt there is recompense of the labor of prophethood, goodness to the Holy Prophet and thankfulness to His Eminence due to the labor and great difficulty that he bore on the path of the liberation of Muslims from polytheism and releasing their intellects from wrong notions and the Almighty Allah has stipulated the right of the Prophet on this nation that they must love his Progeny and cultivate their affection and regard in their hearts.
Verse of Malediction
Among the verses of the Holy Quran that announce the merits of Ahle Bayt is the verse of malediction (Mubahila). The Almighty Allah says: “But whoever disputes with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our near people and your near people, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars.”
Commentators of Quran and traditionists are unanimous that this verse was revealed in the honor of Ahle Bayt, and that “our sons” implies Hasan and Husain, “our women” refers to Fatima and “our near people” to Ali.
This verse was revealed on the occasion of a very important event in the history of Islam between the powers of Islam and the Christians of Najran. The context in which this verse was revealed was that a Christian delegation from Najran arrived in Medina to have a debate on the religion of Islam. Thus a stage reached when both parties agreed to enter into a malediction contest and pray to God’s curse on the liars. The time and place for the proposed contest were also fixed.
The Christian delegation returned to participate in the said malediction so that the affair of the Almighty becomes apparent and falsehood is destroyed. Their hearts became filled with unrest and fear and they had no idea whom the Messenger of Allah would bring for the Malediction contest with him.
The appointed day arrived and the Prophet came out in such a condition that he had selected the greatest of the people in the view of Allah for the contest. In other words the gate of knowledge and the father of his two grandsons, that is Imam Amirul Momineen and his beloved daughter, Fatima Zahra, chief of the ladies of Paradise and Hasan and Husain, the two chief of the youths of Paradise.
The Prophet came carrying Husain in one hand and holding Hasan with the
 Surah Aale Imran 3:61
 Razi, Tafsir, 8/85; Baidhawi, Tafsir, 2/47; Tafsir Kashaf 1/368; Tafsir Ruhul Bayan, 2/44; Tafsirul Jalalayn, 1/35; Tirmidhi, Sahih 5/225; Baihaqi, Sunan, 7/63, Muslim, Sahih, 4/1871, Book of Merits of Companions; Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad, 1/185, Baghawi, Misbah as-Sunnah 4/183 Seer A’laamun Nubla 3/286
other. Behind him moved Her Eminence Zahra covered with divine light and after her walked Imam Amirul Momineen in majestic grace.
On the other side, the Sayyid and Aaqib came out with their sons while they were all decked in the best of raiments and wore expensive ornaments. They were accompanied by the Christians of Najran and the cavalry of Bani Harth in a magnificent display.
A large number of people had also arrived and they stretched their necks to witness the contest. A silence had spread like a blanket over the crowds and only whispers were exchanged among the people.
When Christians glanced at the majesty of the Holy Prophet and his Ahle Bayt they were dumb struck and their heads bowed down in humility towards them. Their hearts were filled with awe at the magnificent spectacle.
The Messenger of Allah was sitting on the ground for malediction. Sayyid and Aaqib approached the Messenger of Allah with trepidation and asked: “O Abal Qasim! With whom have you come for malediction contest with us?”
The Holy Prophet replied in words that expressed the greatness of faith and humility for God: “With the best people on earth and the most honorable in the view of God.” Then he pointed towards Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain.
The two men asked in surprise: “Why have you not been accompanied with the nobles of your community and the most prominent of your followers?”
The Prophet informed them emphatically that his Ahle Bayt were the greatest creatures near God. His Eminence said, “Anyhow I would contest with you along with these people, who are the best of the people of the earth and the best of the creatures.”
They were filled with trepidation as they understood that the Prophet was on the right. So they returned to Isqaf, their leader in order to seek his advice in the matter. He told them: “O Aba Haritha! What is your opinion about this?”
“I have seen such faces that if someone invoked God with them to pick up a mountain he would be able to do so.”
He did not rest content with this, rather he proved his assertion with proof and argument. He said, “Don’t you see Muhammad raising up his hands and waiting for what you two say to him? By Holy Jesus, if a word comes on his lips neither shall we return to our families nor to our properties.”
He was stopping them from the contest and was pleading among them and saying, “Don’t you see the sun whose color has changed and the dark clouds of the sky have surrounded it? And while the black and red winds are blowing and these mountains from whom smoke is rising up with the breeze. It is a divine chastisement on our heads. You see that birds are leaving their nests and trees are shedding their leaves and see how this earth is trembling beneath our feet.”
They had kept concealed those great faces and to see them openly is so meritorious in the view of God.
The Christians immediately looked for a solution. They hastened to the Messenger of Allah and said, “O Abal Qasim! Forgive us! God will forgive you!”
They accepted the conditions proposed by the Holy Prophet. After that the Messenger of Allah announced to them that if they had participated in the contest, they would have been destroyed. His Eminence said, “By the One in Whose hands is my life, the Chastisement had come upon the heads of the people of Najran. If they had participated in the contest, they would have been transformed into monkeys and pigs and a valley filled with fire would have been turned towards them. Najran and their people would have been destroyed; even the birds on the tree. The people of Najran would not have survived the end of the year.”
The important event shows the level of Holy Ahle Bayt, such that none was equal to them in the whole world. For if anyone had been equal or more worthy than them, the Holy Prophet would have chosen them for the contest. If anyone else had more piety and righteousness, the Messenger of Allah would have chosen him or her to accompany him for the imprecation duel. Rather even if anyone had been equal to their status that they would be given preference over Ahle Bayt, he would have refrained from it, because preferring the inferior in presence of the superior is against reason and logic as the scholars of logic have stated.
In the same way, His Eminence did not bring anyone from his family for the Mubahila contest. Neither did he bring his uncle, Abbas Ibn Abdul Muttalib nor anyone else from the Bani Hashim with his two grandsons. And he also did not invite any of the mothers of believers (his wives) even though they were present at their residences. He also did not take his paternal aunt, Safiya so that she may accompany her beloved nephew and be with the chiefs of the ladies of the world. He did not take any respectable lady of the family. Neither any lady from the ‘Amr the high’ (Hashim) and ‘Shaibatul Hamd’ (Abdul Muttalib) nor did he take any of the wives of the three caliphs, nor of the other Emigrants and Helpers while all the families were before him. Thus the aim of this action was that a proof should be created for the lofty status of Ahle Bayt and that it may show how great their position was in the view of the Almighty: “that is the grace of Allah: He
gives it to whom He pleases, and Allah is the Lord of mighty grace.”
Imam Sharafuddin says, “And you do know that the contest of His Eminence, and his request from them that they should say Amen to his pleas, itself is alone a great merit and their selection by His Eminence for this position over other people and preferring them to other personalities. They had this merit in the past and in future also; no one could be equal to them. And the verse of Quran about the matter of
 Surah Hadid 57:21
Mubahila is a third virtue for them, which shows more the merits of Mubahila and it adds another honor to their lofty status and effulgence to their effulgence.”
In the same way the verse also clearly shows that His Eminence, Amirul Momineen Ali himself is the self of the Messenger of Allah and the Holy Prophet is higher to all the creatures of Allah and Ali also due to his equality is having the same position. And Fakhruddin Razi has mentioned this point in his Tafsir Kabir saying, “In Rayy there was a person named Mahmud bin Hasan Hamasi. He was an Ithna Ashari teacher. He used to claim that Ali was higher in position to all prophets except Muhammad, and he used to quote the verse of Quran to prove his assertion: “And our selves and your selves.” Because “And our selves” does not denote the self of Muhammad as one never calls himself, it is for others. And there is consensus that the other ‘self’ is Ali Ibn Abi Talib. Thus the verse proves that the self of Ali is same as the self of Muhammad and it is not possible that this self should be the same self. Its aim is that the self is just like that
(similar) to that self and this only denotes equality of every point among them. It implies that the two were having equality in all aspects. But we have accepted their equality in only position and status and not in terms of the divine post of prophethood. Because regarding this we have consensus that Muhammad was superior to Ali and except for this they were equal in every other aspect.
It is also proved that Muhammad is superior to all other prophets. Thus it necessarily implies that even Ali is superior to all the prophets.
Verse of the Righteous
One of the verses of Quran that informs about the lofty grade of the Purified Progeny of the Messenger of Allah is the verse of the Righteous. The Almighty Allah says: “Surely the righteous shall drink of a cup the admixture of which is camphor. A fountain from which the servants of Allah shall drink; they make it to flow a (goodly) flowing forth. They fulfill vows and fear a day the evil of which shall be spreading far and wide.”
Majority of commentators and traditionists have related that this verse was revealed in honor of Ahle Bayt and its reason was that Hasan and Husain were indisposed, so their grandfather, His Eminence, the Holy Prophet went to visit them with a group of his companions. He asked Ali to make a vow to keep a fast if the two of them get well. Amirul Momineen Ali made the vow that he would keep three fasts. Lady Fatima Zahra decided to accompany him in the fulfillment of the vow and her maidservant, Fizza, also followed them in this matter. When Hasan and Husain recovered, all of them kept a fast. At that
 Al-Kalimatul Ghurra, Pg. 184
 Razi. Tafsir, 8/86
 Surah Dahr 76:5-7
 Fakhruddin Razi, Tafsir 30/140. Wahidi, Asbabun Nuzul, Pg. 296. Nishaburi in the exegesis of Surah Hal Ata, Ruhul Bayan 10/268, Durre Manthur, Yanabiul Mawaddah 1/279. Ar-Riyadh an-Nazara 2/180 & 208. Maqrizi, Imatul Asma, Pg. 502
time, the Imam had nothing to eat which he could offer them to break the fast. His Eminence brought a portion of barley on loan. On the first day, Lady Fatima grinded a portion of this grain and prepared bread from it. When the time of breaking the fast approached a poor man knocked on the door and asked for food. All of them gave their portions to this poor man and continued their fast and except for water they did not partake anything else.
On the second day, the Prophet’s daughter again prepared bread from the same grain, and at sunset an orphan arrived who was on the verge of death due to hunger. He beseeched them to help him and all of them gave their shares to him while themselves they had nothing except water.
On the third day, the chief of the ladies (Fatima) kneaded the flour and prepared bread and presented them with the food at the time of the breaking of the fast, but not much time passed when a hungry captive came to their door and asked for something to eat, and they restrained their hands from food and gave it all to the hungry man.
Glory be to Allah! What righteousness could be better than this? What sacrifice is greater than this? That was the sacrifice they had for the proximity of God.
On the fourth day the Messenger of Allah came to visit them and saw their conditions. How terrible was what he saw! His Eminence, saw that they were trembling due to hunger and their strength had waned due to starvation. Thus his expression changed and he said, “O Allah! Help! The Ahle Bayt of Muhammad shall starve to death.”
The Prophet’s statement had not even come to an end when the ‘trustworthy one of the revelation’ descended to His Eminence and brought the recompense and certification for Ahle Bayt. That reward which cannot be described and it is not possible for anyone to estimate its value, and forgiveness, salvation and divine pleasure that is from the Almighty Allah.
“And reward them, because they were patient, with garden and silk. Reclining therein on raised couches, they shall find therein neither (the severe heat of) the sun nor intense cold. And close down upon them (shall be) its shadows, and its fruits shall be made near (to them), being easy to reach. And there shall be made to go round about them vessels of silver and goblets which are of glass, (Transparent as) glass, made of silver; they have measured them according to a measure, and they shall be made to drink therein a cup the admixture of which shall be ginger…”
In the same way are those rewards that the Almighty has given to them in the Hereafter and more forgiveness and happiness is given to them.
Here we conclude our discussion on some verses of Quran revealed in honor of Ahle Bayt and without any doubt, His Eminence, Imam Husain from all
 Surah Dahr 76:12-17
the people in question, is also included in these verses; verses, which have come about the lofty status of His Eminence in the view of Allah.
In the Shade of Sunnah
A large number of traditions have been recorded from the Messenger of Allah that bring out the meritorious position and lofty status of Imam Husain. These traditions clearly show that the position of Imam Husain with respect to all the other people of the world in a sense that it distinguishes him in loftiness of station among the Muslims…
On this matter exist a large number of proofs that can be divided into different groups. One group is that which speaks of all the Ahle Bayt and Imam Husain is also included in it. Some are about Imams Hasan and Husain together. So these also apply to Imam Husain individually. The third class is of traditions specifically about Imam Husain.
These are as follows:
As for the statements of the Holy Prophet about the merits of the Progeny and the incumbency of love towards them, they constitute a large portion of Prophetic sayings. We present some of them as follows:
1 – Abu Bakr has narrated that he saw that the Messenger of Allah has fixed a tent and was leaning on an Arabic bow while Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain were in the text. Then he said, “O Muslims! I am at peace with those who are at peace with the folks of this tent and I am at war with those who are at war with them. None except those who had righteous ancestors love them and none have enmity towards them except those who have unfortunate ancestors and are born of illegitimate birth.
2 – Zaid bin Arqam has narrated that the Messenger of Allah told Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain: “I am at war with one with whom you are at war and I am at peace with one with whom you are at peace.”
3 – Ahmad bin Hanbal with his chains has narrated that the Messenger of Allah took the hands of Hasan and Husain and said, “One who loves me and these two and their parents, shall be with us in the same grade on the Day of Judgment.”
 Ar-Riyadh an-Nazara 2/154
 Tirmidhi, Sahih 5/699. And Ibne Majah in his Sunan 1/52 has narrated that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said, “I am at peace with one is at peace with them and I am at war with one who is at war with them.” In the same way Hakim has mentioned similarly in his Mustadrak 3/149. Ibne Athir in Usud al-Ghaba 5/523. Ahmad has narrated it in his Musnad 2/442 through his chains from Abu Huraira and also Khatib Baghdadi in his History 7/36.
 Ahmad, Musnad 1/77. Tirmidhi, Sahih 5/641. And Tahdhib at-Tahdhib 10/430 it is mentioned that Nasr bin Ali has narrated this tradition. Thus Mutawakkil ordered that he should lashed 1000 times. Then Ja’far bin Abdul Wahid has spoke about him and he said that he is from the Ahle Sunnat he himself was till he released him.
4 – Jabir has narrated that on a day in Arafat while Ali was before him, the Holy Prophet said, “O Ali! Come near me. You and I are created from the same tree. I am the root and you are its trunk and Hasan and Husain are its branches. Thus one who remains attached to those branches, the Almighty Allah shall admit him to Paradise.”
5 – Ibn Abbas has narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, “Stars are security for the people of the earth from drowning and my Ahle Bayt for my nation are security from differences. Thus if a tribe of Arabs opposes them, it shall become a group of Satan.”
6 – Zaid bin Arqam has narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, “I leave among you two heavy things. If you remain attached to them you shall never go astray after me. One of them is greater that the other. The Book of Allah, which is a rope stretching from the earth to the sky, and my Progeny, my Ahle Bayt; the two shall not separate from each other till they arrive at the Pool to me. Thus see, that after me how you act with them…”
The tradition of the two heavy things (Hadith Thaqlayn) is of the most prominent traditions of the Prophet and it is the most well known and famous tradition among the Muslims and this tradition has been repeated by the Messenger of Allah on a number of occasions. Some of them are as follows:
A – Messenger of Allah announced this tradition during Hajj on the Day of Arafah because Jabir bin Abdullah has narrated: I saw the Messenger of Allah when he was in his Hajj on the Day of Arafat he was riding his she-camel, Qaswa and saying: “O people! I leave among you a thing, such that if you act upon it, you shall never go astray. The Book of Allah and my Progeny, my Ahle Bayt…”
B – His Eminence mentioned it on the Day of Ghadeer because Zaid bin Arqam has narrated: “The Messenger of Allah halted at Johfa. Then he addressed the people and praised and glorified the Almighty. Then he said, ‘I am not made a prophet except for half the age of the past prophets. And it is near that I shall be summoned and I have to accept the summons. Then what do you say about it?’
They said, ‘You have made us sad and aggrieved.’
His Eminence said, ‘Do you testify that there is no deity except God and Muhammad is His servant and Messenger? And that there is Paradise and Hell?’
They replied, ‘Yes! We testify to this.’
 Ahmad, Musnad 1/77
 Hakim, Mustadrak 3/149. And in Kanzul Ummal 12/102 and Sawaiqul Mohreqa, Pg. 187 it has come that His Eminence (s.a.w.s.) said, “Stars are the security for the folks of the earth and my Ahle Bayt are the security for my Ummah.” Manawi has mentioned it in Faiz al-Qadeer 6/297 and Haithami in his Majma 9/174.
 Tirmidhi, Sahih 5/663. Usud al-Ghaba 2/12
 Kanzul Ummal 1/172, Tirmidhi, Sahih 5/662
Then the Messenger of Allah kept his hand on his breast and said, ‘And I testify along with you.’ And he turned to them and asked, ‘Do you hear?’
‘Yes,’ they replied.
His Eminence said, ‘I shall reach at the edge of the Pool before you and you shall come to me at the edge of the Pool, whose length shall be from Sanaa to Basra and silver goblets equal to number of stars shall be in it. Then you must take care how you behave with the two weighty things after me.’
A person asked the Messenger of Allah, ‘O the Messenger of Allah! What are the two weighty things?’
The Messenger of Allah replied, ‘The Book of Allah; its one side is in the hand of Allah and the other is in your hands. So hold it firmly; and the other are my relatives. The Most Informed and the Kind Lord has informed me that the two shall not separate till they reach me at the edge of the Pool and for this I beseeched to my Lord. Thus do not try to precede them as you shall be destroyed and do not remain behind them as you shall be destroyed and do not try to teach them as they are more learned than you.’
Then he took the hand of Ali and said, ‘Of whomsoever I am the master, this Ali is also his master. O Allah! Love those who love Ali and be inimical to those who hate him…’”
C – The Holy Prophet announced this matter at the time of his passing away when he faced the people and said, “O people! Very soon I shall pass away and I am to be taken away. And I have told you this before also so that none has any excuse about it. Except that I leave among you the Book of my Lord and my Progeny, and Ahle Bayt. Then he held the hand of Ali, raised it and said, “This Ali is with the Quran and the Quran is with Ali. The two of them shall not separate till they reach me at the side of the Cistern and I shall ask them that what happened to them after me?”
The Hadith Thaqlayn is the most reliable and authentic tradition of the Holy Prophet and Samhoodi has narrated from Manawi that he said, “And in that room were present more than 20 companions and all of them have reported this tradition.”
And Ibn Hajar says, “This tradition has been transmitted through many channels from more than twenty companions.”
His tradition clearly proved the limitation of Imamate in Ahle Bayt and also proves their infallibility from all sins and sensualities because the Messenger of
 In Kanzul Ummal 1/188 the words “is my Progeny” are mentioned.
 Haithami, Majma 9/163
 Sawaiq, Pg. 126
 Faiz al-Qadeer 3/15
 Sawaiq, Pg. 228
Allah has made them companions of the Book of God, which is such that falsehood cannot approach it either from front or behind, and it is natural that every type of their deviation from religion shall be considered a separation from the Book of the Almighty while the Messenger of Allah has clearly stated that they shall never separate from each other till they reach His Eminence at the Pool. Thus the proof of their infallibility is a clear matter and there is no doubt in it, and also the Messenger of Allah has emphasized in this tradition to the people of his nation that they must not precede them and they must entrust the leadership to them so that they are not destroyed in this life.
A separate book shall be needed to be written about the conclusions of this tradition. Many scholars have conducted researches on this subject and dealt with this particular topic.
7 – Abu Saeed Khudri has narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, “The simile of my Ahle Bayt is the simile of the Ark of Nuh. One who boards it shall be saved and one who abandons it shall be drowned and destroyed. And the simile of my Ahle Bayt among you is like the simile of the Baab-e-Hitta in Bani Israel, that all those who enter it are forgiven.”
In this tradition there is constructive invitation that makes incumbent the obedience and attachment of the Purified Progeny that it is guarantee for salvation of the nation and its security just as being away from the Progeny causes deviation and destruction. Imam Sharafuddin says with regard to this tradition:
“You know that likening them with the ark of Noah implies that whoever resorts to them in matters related to the creed, deriving the branches and basics of religion from their virtuous Imams, will certainly be saved from the fire of hell, and whoever lags behind them is like one who seeks shelter during the flood with a mountain so that it may save him from divine fate, but he will eventually drown while the first will be hurled in the inferno, may Allah protect us from it. The reason why they are compared to the Gate of Salvation is that Allah has made that gate a symbol of humility before His Greatness and submission to His Judgment; therefore, it becomes a reason for forgiveness. This is the reason for the similitude.”
Ibn Hajar, in the exegesis of Chapter 7 of the Holy Quran, in Chapter 11, page 91, of his Al-Sawaiq al-Mohreqa, has accepted it while saying, after quoting these and other similar traditions,
 For this topic refer to al-Murajat, Pg. 71-78 Al-Usul al-Aamma Lil Fiqh al-Maqarin, Pg. 164-187
 Majma az-Zawaid 9/168 and Hakim has narrated it in his Mustadrak 2/43, from Hansh from Abu Zar. Khatib Baghdadi in his History 2/19 has narrated from his chains from Anas bin Malik. Abu Naeem in Hilya 4/306 has narrated from his chains from Saeed bin Jubair from Ibne Abbas. Al-Muttaqi in Kanzul Ummal has narrated from his chains from Ibne Zubair and Ibne Abbas. Mohib Tabari has narrated in Zakhair al-Uqba Pg. 20 from his chains from Ali. Tibrani has narrated in his book, Kitabul Asghar wal Awsat from Abu Saeed Khudri.
“The reason for their similitude to the ark is that whoever loves and highly respects them as means of thanking the One Who gave them honors, following the guidance of their learned men, will be saved from the darkness of dissension, and whoever lags behind it is drowned in the sea of ingratitude and will perish in the paths of tyranny.” Then he adds the following: “As to the Gate of Salvation (meaning thereby their similitude thereto), Allah has made entering that gate, which probably was the gate of Shittim or of Jerusalem, in humility, seeking forgiveness, a reason for salvation, and He (likewise) has made loving Ahle Bayt a reason for this nation’s salvation.
Shia Scholastic Theologians have relied on this tradition to limit the Imamate in Ahle Bayt because the Messenger of Allah has compared them to the Ark of Nuh on the basis of their superiority to others. Thus attachment to them is cause of salvation and distancing from them is cause of deviation and destruction.
8 – The Messenger of Allah said, “Cognizance of the Progeny of Muhammad is safety from Hell fire and friendship of Progeny of Muhammad is a channel of passing over the Sirat Bridge; and the guardianship (Wilayat) of Progeny of Muhammad is safety from divine chastisement.”
9 – The Messenger of Allah said, “Whoever dies on the love of Muhammad’s progeny, dies a martyr. Whoever dies on the love of Muhammad’s progeny dies as a believer of a perfect faith. Whoever dies on the love of Muhammad’s progeny will be given glad tiding of Paradise by the angel of death, then by Munkir and Nakir. Whoever dies on the love of Muhammad’s progeny will be taken to Paradise like a bride taken to her groom’s house. Whoever dies on the love of Muhammad’s progeny will have two doors in his grave overlooking Paradise. Allah will make the grave of whoever dies for loving Muhammad’s children a visiting place for the angels of mercy. Whoever dies for loving Muhammad’s progeny, dies adhering to the Sunnah and consensus. Whoever dies hating Muhammad’s progeny will come on the Day of Judgment with this inscribed between his eyes: ‘In despair of Allah’s mercy,’”
10 – The Messenger of Allah said, “Consider my Ahle Bayt among you as you consider the head of the body, and the eyes in the head, for the head is guided by the eyes.”
11 – The Holy Prophet said, “The foot of any servant of Allah shall not move forward on the Day of Judgment unless he or she is asked about four things: How he spent his life, what he wore his body out for, how he made and spent his wealth, and about loving us, Ahle Bayt.”
 Al-Murajat, Pg. 77
 Al-Murajat, Pg. 82
 Al-Murajat, Pg. 83, Quoted from Tafsir Thalabi
 Al-Murajat, Pg. 81 quoted from Sharaful Mobad, Pg. 58
 Al-Murajat, Pg. 82, Quoted from Suyuti
12 – The Messenger of Allah said, “One who likes to live like me and die like me and wants to stay forever in the Garden that my Lord has planted should love Ali after me and should love those who love him, and after me should take the refuge of my Ahle Bayt who are my Progeny; they are created from my clay and my understanding and knowledge is bestowed to them. Then woe be to those people of my community who deny their excellence and who dissociate them from me. May the Almighty not make them destined to my intercession.
13 – Ali said, “The Messenger of Allah informed me that the first of those to enter Paradise shall be, I, Fatima, Hasan and Husain. I asked, ‘O Messenger of Allah! And what about our friends?’ He replied, ‘They are behind you.’”
14 – Abu Saeed Khudri has narrated that the Holy Prophet came to Her Eminence, Fatima and said, “I, you and these two (Hasan and Husain) shall be in one place on the Day of Judgment.”
These were some of the traditions recorded from the Messenger of Allah regarding the excellence of his Progeny and anyone who may ponder upon them shall understand that the Prophet intended to convey that the Islamic leadership should be left to the Imams of Ahle Bayt for they were such who gave preference to the obedience of God to everything else so that the nation is not distanced from guidance and salvation in its path and may not deviate from the divine commands so that justice and truth may be established among them and the ways of the oppressors are closed so that they may not jump on the pulpits of Islamic rulership and caliphate.
Sources of Prophetic biography and traditions are full of reports of the Messenger of Allah in favor of his two grandsons and the importance and lofty position they had near His Eminence. Some of these reports are as follows:
1 – Abu Ayyub has narrated that he came to the Messenger of Allah while Hasan and Husain were playing near the Prophet (or in their room). So he said, “O Messenger of Allah! Do you love them?” He replied, “How can I not love them, while they are my blossoms from the world that I smell?”
The Holy Prophet has referred to Hasan and Husain as ‘two flowers’ on many occasions. Some of these occasions are as follows:
A – Saeed bin Rashid has narrated: “Hasan and Husain rushed towards the Messenger of Allah so the Prophet lifted one of them and took the other under his arm. Then another one came and the Messenger of Allah took him under his
 Kanzul Ummal Vol. 12/102
 Hakim, Mustadrak 3/151
 Hakim, Mustadrak 3/137
 Majma az-Zawaid 9/181. And Zahabi has narrated it with slight diffrence in Seer A’laamun Nubla 3/282, Mukhtasar Sifwatus Safwa, Pg. 62. Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain from History of Damascus, Pg. 61
other arm. Then he said, ‘They are my flowers in the world, one who loves me must also love them.’”
B – Saad bin Malik says, “I came to the Messenger of Allah while Hasan and Husain were playing on his back. So I said, “O Messenger of Allah! Do you love them?” He replied, “Why shouldn’t I love them, when they are two flowers of mine in the world?”
C – Anas bin Malik has narrated that he came to the Messenger of Allah while Hasan and Husain were rolling on his stomach. The Messenger of Allah said, “These two are my two flowers from this nation.”
D – Abu Bakr has narrated that Hasan and Husain stood on the back of the Messenger of Allah while the Prophet prayed. So he held them in his arms in order to straighten his waist and he kept them on the ground. When he finished the prayer he took them in his lap and said, “These two sons of mine are my two flowers from the world.”
E – Jabir has narrated that the Messenger of Allah told Ali Ibn Abi Talib, “Peace be on you, O father of my two flowers. I advice righteousness to you regarding my two flowers from the world as very soon two of your supports would go away and the Almighty would be my guardian for you. So when the Messenger of Allah passed away Ali said, “This was one of the two supports that the Messenger of Allah had mentioned.” And when Lady Fatima departed from the world, His Eminence, Ali said, “This is the second support that the Messenger of Allah mentioned.”
F – Bukhari from his chains of narrators from Abu Naeem narrates that he was a witness on Ibn Umar when a person asked him about the blood of a mosquito. So he asked, “Who are you?” He replied, “I am an Iraqi.” He said, “You are asking me about the blood of the mosquito while they killed the son of the Messenger of Allah and I heard the Messenger of Allah say, “They are my two flowers from the world.”
2 – Anas bin Malik has narrated that the Messenger of Allah was asked, “Who is the most beloved to you in Ahle Bayt?” He replied, “Hasan and Husain.” And His Eminence told Fatima, “Call my two sons.” Then he kissed and hugged them.
 Zakhair al-Uqba, Pg. 124
 Kanzul Ummal 13/671
 Nasai, Khasais, Pg. 125. And in Musnad of Imam Zaid, Pg. 469 it is mentioned that, “A son is a flower and Hasan and Husain are my two flowers.”
 Kanzul Ummal 13/667
 Hilyatul Awliya 3/201
 Bkhari, Sahih 8/8 and 5/33. Fazailul Khamsa min Sihah as-Sitta 3/183
 Tirmidhi, Sahih 5/657, Faiz al-Qadeer 1/148
3 – Ibn Abbas has narrated that one day when he was in the company of the Messenger of Allah, Fatima came weeping. The Messenger of Allah asked, “Your father be sacrificed on you, what has aggrieved you?” She replied, “Hasan and Husain went out and I don’t know where they passed the night.” The Messenger of Allah told her, “Do not lament, as their Creator is more merciful on them than you and me.” Then he raised his hands and said, “O Allah! Take care of them and keep them safe.”
Then Jibraeel arrived and said, “O Muhammad! Do not be aggrieved for the two of them are sleeping in the Bani Najjar locality and an angel has been appointed to protect them.” The Messenger of Allah arose and, accompanied by his companions, headed for that area. When he reached there he saw that Hasan and Husain were sleeping in each others’ embrace and the angel who had been appointed to take care of them had kept one of his wings below them and was shading them with the other. The Messenger of Allah bent down and kissed them till they awoke. Then he took Hasan on his right shoulder and Husain on his left. Abu Bakr said, “O the Messenger of Allah! Let me carry one of them for you.” The Messenger of Allah said, “The best mount is their mount and they are the best of riders and their father is better than them,” as he walked to the mosque. Then the Messenger of Allah stood while the two of them were on his shoulders. Then he said, “O
Muslims! Do you want me to show you the best people with regard to their grandparents?”
They replied, “Yes, O Messenger of Allah!”
His Eminence said, “They are Hasan and Husain. As their grandfather is the Messenger of Allah the last of the Prophets and their grandmother is Khadija binte Khuwailid, the leader of the ladies of Paradise.”
Then His Eminence said, “Do you want me to show the best persons with regard to their uncle and aunt?”
They replied, “Yes, O Messenger of Allah!”
He said, “It is Hasan and Husain. Their uncle is Ja’far Ibn Abi Talib and their aunt is Umme Hani, the daughter of Abu Talib.”
Then he asked, “Do you want me to show you the best persons with regard to their maternal uncle and maternal aunt?”
“Yes, O Messenger of Allah!” they replied.
He said, “It is Hasan and Husain. Their maternal uncle is Qasim, the son of the Messenger of Allah and their maternal aunt is Zainab, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah.”
After that the Messenger of Allah said, “O Allah! You know that Hasan and Husain and their uncle shall be in Paradise. And one who loves them shall be in
Paradise and one who hates them shall be in Hell.”
This tradition indicates the love and regard of the Messenger of Allah for his grandsons and that the two of them were his favorites among Ahle Bayt. In the same way that the two were best with regard to their family background and also that one who loves them shall be with them in Paradise.
4 – Umar has narrated that he saw Hasan and Husain upon the shoulders of the Messenger of Allah. So he said, “What a great mount!” The Messenger of Allah said, “What great riders!”
In the same way Jabir has narrated that he came to the Messenger of Allah while Hasan and Husain were riding the Prophet’s back and the Messenger of Allah was saying, “The best camel is your camel and you are the best riders.”
Sayyid Himyari has versified this in his following composition:
“One day the Messenger of Allah saw Hasan and Husain playing.
So he took them in his arms and said, “May I be sacrificed on you.”
And he mounted them on his back and said that he was a great mount and they were the best riders.”
5 – Abu Saeed Khudri narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, “Hasan and Husain are the two leaders of youths of Paradise…”
6 – Salman Farsi narrated that he heard the Messenger of Allah say, “Hasan and Husain are my two sons; one who loves them, loves me and Allah loves one who loves me, and one whom Allah loves, He admits him to Paradise. And one who hates them has hated me and one who has hated me, has hated Allah and Allah shall put into Hell one who hates Him...”
 Zakhair al-Uqba, Pg. 130
 Majma az-Zawaid 9/182, Kanzul Ummal 13/658
 Kanzul Ummal 13/663, Majma az-Zawaid 9/182
 Tirmidhi, Sahih 5/656. Mukhtasar Sifwatus Safwa, Pg. 62. Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad 3/62, Hilyatul Awliya 5/71. Tarikh Baghdad 9/231 and Hakim has narrated it from his chains from Ibne Umar that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said, “Hasan and Husain are the two chiefs of Paradise and their father is better than them.” And it is mentioned with these words in Musnad Imam Zaid. And in Isabah 1/266 Jaham has narrated: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) says, “Hasan and Husain are the two chiefs of the people of Paradise.”
And it has come in Kanzul Ummal 6/221 that, “Hasan and Husain are two chiefs of the people of Paradise. One who loves them loves me and one who hates them hates me.”
And in Jame al-Kabir of Suyuti from Ibne Asakir from his chains it is narrated from Huzaifah that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said, “Angels came to me and saluted me. And they gave me the good news that Hasan and Husain are two chiefs of the people of Paradise and that Fatima is the chief of the ladies of Paradise…”
 Hakim, Mustadrak 3/166. And with a slight difference Haithami has mentioned it in his Majma 9/111. And Muttaqi has also narrated it in Kanzul Ummal 12/120 and in Sunan Ibne Majah 1/51 it is mentioned that he said that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said, “One who loves Hasan and Husain loves me and one who hated them has hated me.”
And in Tahdhib at-Tahdhib in the biography of Nasr bin Ali Azdi, Ali bin Sawaf has narrted from Abdullah bin Ahmad that Nasr has narrated the tradition that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) took the hands of Hasan and Husain and said, “One who loves me and loves their father shall remain with us in Qiyamat in our station.”
When Mutawakkil heard him he ordered that he be lashed 1000 times. Then Abdul Wahid spoke to Mutawakkil about Nasr and said, “He is from Ahle Sunnat,” and he remained with him till he was released.
7 – While the Messenger of Allah was delivering a sermon, Hasan and Husain arrived, wearing red shirts and as they approached they stumbled in their dress. The Messenger of Allah came down from the pulpit and picked them up and said: “Indeed your wealth and your children are a test. I saw the two of them stumbling and I could not wait to finish my address. I broke my speech and picked them up…”
8 – Ya’la bin Marrah narrates that when Hasan and Husain were racing to reach the Messenger of Allah and they came to him the Messenger of Allah took them in his arms and said, “Indeed children are cause of miserliness and fear…”
9 – The Messenger of Allah said, “Hasan and Husain are two grandsons from the grandsons.”
10 – Anas has narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, “My favorites from Ahle Bayt are Hasan and Husain…”
11– Anas has narrated that he asked the Messenger of Allah, “Who is the most beloved to you from Ahle Bayt?”
He replied, “Hasan and Husain”. And His Eminence told Fatima, “Call my sons for me.” Then he kissed them and took them in his arms.
12 – The Messenger of Allah said, “Hasan and Husain are two Imams, whether they be standing or sitting.”
The Messenger of Allah dressed his two flowers (beloveds) in the dress of Imamate and he appointed them as Imams that whether they stand up to take the caliphate or do not take it.
 Tirmidhi, Sahih 5/658. Nasai, Sahih 3/108. Hakim, Mustadrak 1/287. Abi Dawood, Sahih 1/290. Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad 5/354. Baihaqi, Sunan 3/218. Usud al-Ghaba 2/12. Kanzul Ummal 12/114. Nasai, Sunan 3/108 and Sawaiq al-Mohreqa, Pg. 191
 Hakim, Mustadrak 3/168. Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad 4/172. And the meaning of this tradition is that people tend to become miserly as they fear that they would not be able to provide sufficiently for their children.
 ‘Sibtan’ is the dual of ‘sibt’ and in Lisanul Arab 9/181 it has come that ‘sibt’ is a nation from the nations in goodness.
 Kanzul Ummal 12/119. Sawaiq al-Mohreqa, Pg. 192. Al-Adab al-Mufrad in Subhul Aashi 1/430 it has come that Hasan and Husain were the first in Islam to be given the title of ‘Sibt’.
 Tirmidhi, Sahih, Kanzul Ummal 12/116
 Ibnud Daibagh, Taisir al-Wusul 3/320
 Biharul Anwar 10/78 and in Nuzhatul Majalis 2/476 it has come that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) told Hasan and Husain, “You are two Imams and intercession for us is in you.” And this tradition is mentioned on Pg. 129 of al-Ittiaf le Hubbil Ashraaf.
Tradition scholars have shown that the Messenger of Allah had a deep love and affection for his two grandsons. The following are some of the reports on this matter:
1 – Whenever Hasan and Husain went away from the Messenger of Allah he used to be very much desirous for them and used to order that they be brought back to him. Then he used to take them in his arms, kiss them and embrace them.
2 – Abdullah bin Ja’far says, “Whenever the Messenger of Allah returned from a journey he used to meet me or Hasan or Husain.”
3 – The affection of the Messenger of Allah for his grandsons reached such a level that he made a pledge of allegiance to them from his Ahle Bayt while they were with Abdullah Ibn Ja’far, their cousin. And except for them, the Messenger of Allah never pledged allegiance to any other child.
4 – His Eminence used to make them ride on himself. Thus one of them he took before him and the other he made to ride on his back.
5 – Love and affection of His Eminence for his grandsons reached such a level that when he was reciting his night (Isha) Prayer they climbed upon his back when he went into prostration. When he raised his head he used to hold them carefully and put them down on the floor. Again when he went into prostration they mounted his back. This continued till he completed his prayer. After that he used to seat them on his thigh.
The Messenger of Allah used to openly display his love and affection for his grandsons so that Muslims understand their importance and high status in view of the Prophet and they also may express their love for them and entrust their spiritual and secular leadership to them so that the nation may achieve a position of respect in which man finds all his aspirations.
Traditions of the Messenger of Allah recorded in praise of his beloved, Imam Husain show his personality in the true light. It is narrated often in a great part of the arrangement of the Messenger of Allah for Imam Husain. We present some of these traditions as follows:
1 – Jabir bin Abdullah has narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, “One who desires to see the chief of the youths of Paradise, should look at Husain bin Ali…”
 Darami, Sunan 2/285
 Al-Iqdul Farid 2/243
 Muslim, Sahih 4/1883
 Ahmad, Musnad
 Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 83 from the handwritten manuscript at Amirul Momineen Library, Seer A’laamun Nubla 3/282
2 – Abu Huraira has narrated that he saw the Messenger of Allah was carrying Husain bin Ali and saying, “O Allah! I love him, so You (also) love him.”
3 – Ya’la bin Marrah has narrated that once he was accompanying the Messenger of Allah to a dinner where they were invited. Suddenly he saw Husain playing in the street. So the Messenger of Allah came forward and stretched his hands. That child ran this way and that. The Messenger of Allah was laughing with him, till he caught hold of him and kept one hand below his chin and another on his head. Then he kissed him and said, “Husain is from me and I am from Husain. O Allah, love those who love Husain. Husain is a grandson of the grandsons…”
By this blessed tradition the Messenger of Allah has shown his deep love and affection for his sons and most probably His Eminence by this statement, “Husain is from me” is not about his relationship with him, rather it is about another matter which is more fine and deep in the view of His Eminence, because he was the one who was to take over the position and mission of the Prophet; guidance and giving direction of His Eminence. He had in his view the factors of reformation of man and his elevation and development on the basis of the faith in Allah so that all the meanings of good and reformation are achieved in this world.
4 – In the same way, His Eminence, by his statement, “And I am from Husain” had this interpretation in mind, that the great sacrifice that the grandson was to offer in the path of religion. And the great feat he performed to reform the prophethood of Islam and to keep it alive for the future generations by putting his own life as the price of achieving it. Due to this action the Messenger of Allah is from Husain. Because it was Husain who had infused new life into the religion brought by the Messenger of Allah and he had saved it from the mischief of that group of tyrant rulers who tried to destroy Islam in order to cause the coming back of the period of Ignorance and other evils. While the Imam, by his mission, destroyed the Umayyad wolves and made freshness and life return to Islam and elevated its standard and hoisted it for all the generations.
In the same way the Messenger of Allah for the greatness of his grandson has proved what the word ‘Sibt’ said about him and the aim of His Eminence was that he is a nation from the nations which stands on its own being and stable on its own self, so its a community from communities for goodness and is honored among all the communities for all times.
5 – The great companion, Salman Farsi has narrated that he came to the Messenger
 Hakim, Mustadrak 3/177. And in Nurul Absar, Pg. 254 the words of the tradition are as follows, “I love them and I love all those who love them.”
 And in a tradition, “Then he put his one hand below his waist and he put the other hand below his chin and placed his mouth on his mouth while saying, “Husain is from me…”
 Ibne Majah, Sunan 1/51. Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad 4/172. Usud al-Ghaba 2/19. Tahzib al-Kamal, 6/401. Taisar al-Wusul 3/320. Hakim, Mustadrak 3/177. Ansaab al-Ashraaf, Vol. 3/142.
of Allah and saw that Husain bin Ali was on the thigh of His Eminence while he kissed at his mouth and said, “You are a chief, son of a chief, you are an Imam, son of an Imam, brother of an Imam and father of Imams and you are the Proof and son of Proof and the father of nine Proofs from your progeny and the ninth of them is their Qaim (one who rises).
6 – The Messenger of Allah said, “This one (that is Husain) is an Imam, son of an Imam, brother of an Imam and progenitor of nine Imams…”
7 – Abul Abbas has narrated that he was with the Messenger of Allah while his son, Ibrahim was on his left thigh and Husain bin Ali was on his right thigh and the Messenger of Allah kissed them in turns. Suddenly Jibraeel descended to the Messenger of Allah from the Lord of the worlds and when he went away from His Eminence, he said, “Jibraeel came to me from my Lord and told me, ‘O Muhammad, Allah sends you ‘Salaam’ and says to you: I shall not leave both of them for you. So sacrifice one of them on the other.’”
So the Messenger of Allah looked at Ibrahim and wept, “If Ibrahim died, none shall be aggrieved as much as me. While Husain’s mother, Fatima and father, Ali, my cousin, is such that they are my flesh and blood and if he dies, my daughter shall be aggrieved and my cousin would sit in sorrow and I shall be sad for them and I prefer my own grief to the grief of these two. O Jibraeel, Ibrahim may be taken. I sacrifice Ibrahim for Husain.” Thus after three days Ibrahim passed away and whenever the Messenger of Allah saw Husain coming towards him, he used to kiss and embrace him and kiss his lips and say, “May I be sacrificed on the one for whom I sacrificed my son, Ibrahim.”
8 – Ibn Abbas has narrated that the Messenger of Allah had made Husain mount on his shoulder. A man told him, “O son, you are on the best of mounts.”
The Messenger of Allah retorted, “He is the best of the riders.”
9 – Yazid bin Ibn Yazid has narrated that the Messenger of Allah came out of Ayesha’s house and went to Fatima’s House and heard that Husain was crying. Thus His Eminence was very disturbed by this and he told Fatima, “Do you not know that his crying pains me…?”
10 – Abdullah bin Shaddad has narrated from his father that the Messenger of Allah performed a long prostration till we thought that something has happened or that revelation was descending on him. So we asked him about it and he said, “None of these happened, rather my son had made me a mount and I did not like
 Al-Murajat, Pg. 287
 Minhaj as-Sunnah 4/210
 History of Baghdad 2/204
 At-Taj al-Jame al-Usul 3/218, Kanzul Ummal 13/650, al-Bidaya wan-Nihaya 8/36
 Majma az-Zawaid 9/201. Seer A’laamun Nubla 3/284, Tibrani, al-Mojam al-Kabir 3/124. Zakhair al-Uqba, Pg. 143
that I should make him dismount quickly, till he may achieve what he desires…”
These are some traditions that have come about his beloved one, that are the signs of the lofty status that is bestowed on him and it is an expression of His Eminence that its image and its realities would be apparent in this child and it shall be an incomparable example for high humanity and be of the great secrets of His Eminence.
The Messenger of Allah Prophesied the martyrdom of Imam Husain
The Messenger of Allah informed his companions about the martyrdom of his beloved grandson and he announced this matter among the Muslims in such a way that this became an imminent matter for them and none of them had any doubt in it.
Ibn Abbas says that, “We had no doubt and Ahle Bayt often said that Husain bin Ali shall be killed at Taff.”
The Messenger of Allah had on many occasions been informed of those calamities that were to befall his beloved Husain. Here we shall mention some of them:
1 – Umme Fadl, the daughter of Harith, has narrated that Husain was in my lap when I came to the Messenger of Allah. So I transferred him into the Prophet’s lap. Then I noticed that the eyes of the Messenger of Allah were filled with tears. I asked His Eminence, “O the Messenger of Allah, may my parents be sacrificed on you, what has happened to you?”
His Eminence replied, “Jibraeel came to me and informed me that my people shall kill this son of mine.”
Umme Fadl became worried and asked, “This one shall be killed?” pointing towards Husain.
His Eminence said, “Yes, and Jibraeel brought to me red soil from the place of his burial.”
Umme Fadl began to weep and sorrow and grief descended upon her.
2 – Lady Umme Salma has narrated that one night the Messenger of Allah went to his bed to sleep. Then he awoke in a disturbed condition and again he went back to sleep. Again he awoke in a disturbed condition but it was less than his previous condition. Then again he went to sleep and again awoke while a red soil was in his hand and His Eminence was kissing it. I asked him, “O Muhammad, what soil is it?”
 Tahdhib at-Tahdhib 2/346 Taisar al-Wasul al-Jame al-Usul 3/321, Nasai, Sunan 2/229
 Hakim, Mustadrak 3/179
 Hakim, Mustadrak 3/176. And in the tradition of Ibne Asakir 13/162 it is mentioned from Ummul Fadl that she said, “One day the Prophet came to me while Husain was with me. So he took and played with him for a long time. Then his eyes were filled with tears. I asked him, “What has made you aggrieved?” He replied, “This is Jibraeel who has informed me that my people shall kill this son of mine.”
His Eminence, “Jibraeel, informed me that this one (Husain) shall be martyred in Iraq. So I asked Jibraeel, ‘Show me the soil of the land where he shall be slain,’ and this is the same soil.”
3 – Umme Salma has narrated that one day the Messenger of Allah was sitting in our house. Then he said, “None shall come to me.” I waited. Then Husain entered and I heard the Messenger of Allah weeping and saw that Husain was in his lap (or beside him) and the Messenger of Allah was stroking him and weeping. I asked him, “By Allah, I did not notice him entering.”
His Eminence replied to me, “Jibraeel was with us in the house and he said, ‘Do you love him?’ ‘Yes’, I replied. He said, ‘Your people shall slay him in the land of Kerbala.” Then Jibraeel took some soil of that place and showed it to the Prophet.
4 – Ayesha has narrated that Husain bin Ali came to the Messenger of Allah while revelation was descending on His Eminence. Then he ran towards the Holy Prophet while the Prophet was bent on the floor. Jibraeel asked, “O Muhammad, do you love him?” He replied, “Why should I not love my child?” He said, “Your people shall slay him after you have passed away.” Then Jibraeel stretched his hand and brought a white soil for His Eminence and said, “It is on this land that this son of yours shall be slain and the name of that place is Taff. When Jibraeel went away from the Messenger of Allah the soil was in the hand of the Prophet and he was weeping and saying, “O Ayesha, Jibraeel informed me that my son Husain shall be slain in the land of Taff and that my nation shall be involved in mischief after me.”
Then he came out to his companions while Abu Bakr, Umar, Huzaifah, Ammar and Abu Zar were among them. The Messenger of Allah was weeping. They rushed towards His Eminence and asked, “O the Messenger of Allah, what has made you weep?”
His Eminence replied, Jibraeel has informed me that my child, Husain shall be slain in Taff after me and he brought this soil for me and informed me that his grave shall be on that land.”
5 – Zainab binte Jahash, the wife of the Messenger of Allah has narrated that the Messenger of Allah was sleeping near me while Husain was crawling in the house on his four limbs. Then I became unmindful of him till he went to the Messenger of Allah and climbed on his belly. Then the Messenger of Allah arose to pray and carried him in his arms. And when he bowed or prostrated he placed him on the floor and when he stood up he used to pick him in his arms. When he sat down and began to supplicate and raised his hands and said…Then
 Hakim, Mustadrak 4/398. Kanzul Ummal 12/126. Seer A’laamun Nubla 3/289, Zakhair al-Uqba, Pg. 148
 Kanzul Ummal 12/126. Tibrani, al-Mojam al-Kabir 3/116
 Majma az-Zawaid 9/187. And in Tahzib al-Kamal, 6/409 it is mentioned that the Prophet took the dust that Jibraeel had brought to him and began to kiss it and said, “Woe be to Karb-o-bala.”
when he concluded the prayers, I told him, O the Messenger of Allah, today I saw something that I never saw you doing before.”
His Eminence said, “Jibraeel came to me and informed me that my son shall be slain.”
I said, “Then, in this case show me.” And he brought a red soil for me.”
6 – Ibn Abbas has narrated that Husain was in the lap of the Messenger of Allah. Then Jibraeel said, “Do you love him?” He replied, “How can I not love him while he is the fruit of my heart?” He said, ‘Your people shall kill him. Do you want me to show you the location of his grave?’ Then he closed his fist and suddenly there was red soil (in it).”
7 – Abu Amama has narrated that the Messenger of Allah told his wives: “Do not make this child (Husain) weep.” And he said: And that day was turn of Umme Salma. Then Jibraeel descended and the Messenger of Allah went inside the house and told to Umme Salma, “See that no one comes to me.” Then Husain came and saw that the Prophet was in the house. He tried to go in but Umme Salma took him in her arms and sung a lullaby to him. When his crying increased she released him. Then he went inside and sat on the Prophet’s lap. Jibraeel told the Prophet, “Your people shall slay this son of yours.”
His Eminence asked, “Would they kill while they had faith in me?”
Jibraeel replied, “Yes, they shall slay him,” and Jibraeel took a handful of soil and told His Eminence, “He shall be slain at such and such place.” Then the Messenger of Allah came out holding Husain in his arms and he was sad and aggrieved. Umme Salma though that His Eminence was aggrieved due to the coming of this child. She said, “O Messenger of Allah, may I be sacrificed on you. You told me to take care of this child and commanded me not to allow anyone to come to you but I released him.” The Prophet did not give any reply to her and he came out towards his companions in a sad and sorrowful condition. Then he told them, “My community shall slay him (and he indicated towards Husain).”
Abu Bakr and Umar looked towards His Eminence and asked, “O Messenger of Allah, would they do it while they are Muslims?”
He replied, “Yes, and this is the soil of that place…”
8 – Anas bin Harith has narrated from the Prophet that he said, “This son of mine (and he indicated towards Husain) shall be slain on a land called Kerbala. Then anyone who is present at that time should assist him.”
When His Eminence, Husain departed for Kerbala, Anas accompanied him and was martyred in his service.
 Majma az-Zawaid 9/189
 Majma az-Zawaid, Pg. 191
 Majma az-Zawaid 9/189
 Ibnul Wardi, Tarikh 1/233
9 – Umme Salma has narrated that, “Hasan and Husain were playing in my house in the presence of the Prophet. Then Jibraeel arrived and said, “O Muhammad, your community would slay this son of yours after you have passed away (and he pointed towards Husain).”
The Messenger of Allah wept and embraced him (Husain) while a soil was in his hand. Then he kissed it and said, “Woe be to Kerb-o-bala.” And he gave it to Umme Salma and told her, “When this soil turns to blood you should know that my son has been slain.”
Umme Salma kept it in a bottle and everyday she used to look at it and say, “The day you turn to blood shall be a day of a great tragedy.”
10 – The Messenger of Allah dreamt that a black and white dog was licking at his blood. He interpreted it in a way that a person shall slay his (grand)son, Husain. Thus Shimr bin Zil Jaushan was a leper who slew Imam Husain.
11 – Umme Salma has narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, “Husain bin Ali shall be slain 60 years after my Hijrat.”
12 – Maaz bin Jabal has narrated that the Messenger of Allah came out to us and said, “I am Muhammad and the first and the last word has been given to me. So obey me till I am among you. And after I leave the world you must consider the lawful of the Book of Allah as lawful and its unlawful as unlawful. Death shall come to you…mischief shall approach you like the darkness of the night. No matter how many Prophets go away, the same number will come back. Prophethood shall be transmogrified and assume the form of rulership. May Allah have mercy on one who takes his right in the way it has come for him and goes out from there. O Maaz, protect it and count it.”
Maaz said, “I counted till five (of the caliphs). Then the Prophet said, “Yazid, may Allah not bless Yazid…”
Then the eyes of His Eminence became tearful. Then His Eminence said, “I have been informed about the slaying of Husain and his grave soil has been brought to me and I have been told who his killer shall be. He shall be killed among a people that shall not defend him but that their hearts shall become divided and impose evil rulers on them and scatter them…”
Then His Eminence said, “Ah upon the sons of the Progeny of Muhammad. Those whom people consider as caliph shall slay my successor whom I have reared with care and also slay the successor of my successor. O Maaz, Remember this.”
When he came to the tenth, that the ten who shall take over the kingdom after him, he said, “Walid, it is the name of Firon, who destroys the Islamic Shariah is
 Tibrani, al-Mojam al-Kabir (In the biography of Imam Husain) 3/114
 Tarikh al-Khamis 2/299
 Tibrani, al-Mojam al-Kabir 3/110
 Walid bin Yazid bin Abdul Malik bin Marwan, he was such a wanton king that he committed every transgression. He went for Hajj and drank wine atop the Holy Ka’ba. He was more terrible to this nation than Firon was on his people. It is narrated that he kept a copy of Quran for target practice and Muslims were furious with him for his open expression of apostasy and innovations in religion and raised their voices against him and had him killed. This matter is mentioned on Pgs. 250-252 in Tarikhul Khulafa.
a person from their family; his hands shall reach up to his blood and the Almighty Allah shall take out His sword which shall not return to its case and the people shall differ among themselves and shall become such.” Then he closed his fist.
The he said, “After 120 years a swift death and slaughter shall become common and their death shall be on them and a descendant of Abbas shall be ruling over them.”
The Prophet exposed the secrets of the unseen that were to come on his community after him due to which terrible calamities shall befall them due to the battles on the Muslims. So much so that they shall be ruled by tyrant rulers and they shall kill and dishonor Muslims. As the Prophet has informed about what was to come to pass with his son Husain at the hands of Yazid and then the dominance of the Abbasids who would overthrow the Umayyads. All this came to be exactly as the truthful Prophet has prophesied.
13 – Ibn Abbas has narrated that, “When two years had passed after the birth of His Eminence, Husain, the Prophet went on a journey. When he was on his way, he halted and recited, “To Allah we belong and to Him we shall return,” and his eyes were filled with tears. So he was asked regarding it. He said, “This is Jibraeel, who informs me of a place called Kerbala at the banks of Euphrates where my son, Husain bin Fatima, shall be slain.”
A group of companions turned to His Eminence and asked, “O Messenger of Allah, who would slay him?”
His Eminence replied to them in broken and sorrowful words, “A man named Yazid. May Allah not bless him. As if I am seeing the place of his slaying and that his severed head is being presented to Yazid. By Allah, anyone who sees the severed head of my son, Husain and becomes pleased at it, the Almighty Allah shall put hypocrisy in his heart.”
When the Prophet returned from the journey, he was very sorrowful. He went to the pulpit and warned the people and said, “O Allah, I am Muhammad, Your slave and Your Messenger and these two are the best from my Progeny and the most righteous of the descendants and my Progeny and the ones I am leaving in my community. O Allah, Jibraeel has informed me that this son of mine (pointing towards Husain) shall be slain and he shall be deserted. O Allah, may You give blessings in his slaying. May Allah make him the Chief of the Martyrs. As You are powerful over everything. O Allah! Do not bless those who slay and desert him.”
 Tibrani, al-Mojam al-Kabir 3/129 (In the biography of Imam Husain) Majma az-Zawaid 9/190
Hearing these words a group of people in the courtyard of the Mosque began to wail and moan. The Messenger of Allah said, “You are crying! Would you not help him? O Allah, You be his guardian and helper.”
Ibn Abbas says, “The Messenger of Allah was such that his color had waned and his face was worried. Then he ascended the pulpit for the second time and delivered a short and nice sermon to the people while tears flowed from his eyes. Then he said, “I leave among you after me two heavy things, the Book of Allah and the Progeny. The two shall not separate from each other till they arrive to me at the Pool. Indeed I shall not request you about them except what my Lord has commanded, affection for my near kindred. Then be careful that tomorrow you may not come to me at the Pool in such a condition that you have made my progeny unhappy.
Know that! On the Day of Judgment three flags shall approach me. A black flag, seeing which the angels shall be terrified. They shall stand besides us. I would ask them, “Who are you?” They would remind me that they are Arabs, the followers of monotheism. Then I would tell them. I am Ahmad, the Prophet of Arabs and non-Arabs. They would say, “We are from your followers, O Ahmad.” We shall tell them, “How did you behave with my Progeny and the Book of my Lord after me?” They shall reply, “We wasted the Book and tore it to pieces. As for your Progeny we followed them till they departed from the world. Then I would turn my face away from them (in disgust) and they shall return thirsty and black faced.
Then another flag, darker than the previous one, would approach me. I would ask them, “Who are you?” Like the former group they shall reply, “We are monotheist folks and we are from your followers. I shall ask them, “How did you behave with the bigger and lesser heavy thing after me? That is the Book of God and my Progeny.” They shall reply, “We opposed the greater heavy thing and we abandoned the lesser heavy thing. And in all conditions considered them useless.” I shall tell them, “Get away from me.” They shall go away thirsty and dark-faced.
After that another flag shall come to me such that effulgence is emanating from it. I shall ask them, “Who are you?” They shall reply, “We are followers of monotheism. We are the followers of Muhammad and we are the survivors among the people of truth. We have followed the Book of our Lord and considered its lawful as lawful and considered its unlawful as unlawful. And we loved the Progeny of our Prophet, Muhammad and we helped them like we helped ourselves. We accompanied them in battles and confronted their opponents. Thus, I shall say to them, “Congratulations to you! As I am Muhammad, your Prophet. You were in the guesthouse of the world just as you have described. After that I shall provide drinks from the Pool myself and they shall depart satiated. Indeed Jibraeel has informed me that my community shall slay my son, Husain on the land of Kerbala. Curse of Allah be on his killer and those who abandon him till Qiyamat…”
After that His Eminence descended from the pulpit and there was none from the Emigrants and the Helpers who had any doubt about the slaying of Husain.
The above were some traditional reports from the Messenger of Allah regarding the slaying of his blessed grandson and from them we can gauge the intensity of the sorrow and grief of His Eminence.
From these traditional reports, the Muslims became certain of the slaying of the Imam. And they had no doubt about it whatsoever. In the same way, Imam Husain also had perfect certainty in it and he has mentioned this matter many a times that we shall discuss in this book.
Respect Accorded by Companions to Imam Husain
The companions used to highly respect Imam Husain and accorded him great honor when they came in his presence and they considered him in place of his honorable grandfather, because they found in him all that they expected from him with regard to knowledge, piety and religion.
Historians say: “His Eminence was very kind towards them and used to help the weak ones from them and he used to share their problems and difficulties. He used to keep away from their evil ones and he used to solve all their problems like his eminent grandfather had acted with them.”
The famous and prominent companions used to compete with each other in the service of His Eminence and his pure brother, Aba Muhammad Hasan and had the belief that whatever service is offered to them was a sign of greatness and honor for the one who provides it. For example, Abdullah Ibn Abbas, who is the scholar of the community, in spite of his status and greatness among the Muslims, whenever His Eminences Hasan and Husain wanted to mount their beasts, he used to rush forward and hold the stirrups and he used to adjust their clothes and considered it a matter of pride. Till Mudrik Ibn Ziyad or Ibn Ammara criticized him for this but Ibn Abbas scolded them and said, “O foolish man, do you know who these people are? They are the two sons of the Messenger of Allah. Is it not from the divine bounties on us that we hold their stirrups and adjust their garments?”
Their respect and honor from the Muslims was to such an extent that when the two of them used to go for visiting the House of Allah, all the caravans they passed used to also come on foot due to their respect till it became very difficult for some of the pilgrims. So a senior companion requested them to either ride like others or to leave the common route. They presented these options to them. They replied, “Neither would we ride nor leave the route.” So the people took up another route.
Whenever they circled the Ka’ba people thronged around them to salute them and
 Al-Futuh 4/216-219
 Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 210, Ibne Shahr Aashob, Manaqib 3/400
sought blessings from them in such a crowd that it was feared that they might be killed in that melee.
An example of this lofty personality is that once Imam Husain passed by a group of people in the Prophet’s mosque while Abdullah, son of Amr Aas was among them. Then he saluted them and they replied to his salutation. Abdullah replied to his salutation in a louder voice and with full attention towards him and asked the people, “Do you want me to introduce the most honorable one of the earth in the view of the folks of the heavens?”
“Yes,” they replied.
He said, “It is the one who is going,” and he pointed towards His Eminence, Husain. He has not spoken to me a word from a night of Siffeen till date. If he becomes satisfied with me, I would prefer it to red haired camels.”
Abu Saeed Khudri turned to him and asked, “Would you not seek forgiveness from him?” He agreed to do so and they hastened towards the Imam’s quarters and sought permission to enter. Imam accorded them permission and when all of them were seated Imam glanced at Abdullah and said, “Do you know that I am the most beloved of the inhabitants of the earth in the view of the folks of heavens?” Abdullah replied at once, “Yes, by the Lord of the Ka’ba.”
His Eminence said, “What compelled you to fight against me and my father? By Allah, my father was better than me.”
Abdullah told him about his excuses and said, “Yes, but (my father) Amr complained about me to the Messenger of Allah and told His Eminence, ‘Abdullah prays the whole night and fasts all the days.’ The Messenger of Allah said, ‘Pray, and sleep too. Fast, and break it too and obey Amr.’ Thus when the battle of Siffeen took place he put me under oath and I came out, but by Allah, neither I took out the sword nor used the spear or shot an arrow.” He them implored the Imam in such a way that finally the Imam became satisfied with him.
Although his excuse of obeying his father in fighting against His Eminence Amirul Momineen Ali has no legal sanction because on the basis of what has come in the Quran, obedience of parents in disobedience of Allah has no legality.
Anyway, His Eminence, Imam Husain was the recipient of respect and honor of the Muslims. Historians have said that, “His Eminence was present in a funeral when Abu Huraira rushed forward and cleaned the dust from the Imam’s feet with the garment he was wearing. And Miqdad bin Aswad, the companion of the Prophet and one of the most senior and of the first ones in Islam made a bequest that after his death 36000 (units of currency) be paid to His Eminence, Husain.
 Al-Bidaya wan-Nihaya 8/37
 Usud al-Ghaba 3/234-235. Kanzul Ummal 11/343. Majma az-Zawaid 9/186
 Seer A’laamun Nubla 3/187. And Kifayatut Talib, Pg. 425 it is narrated from Abi Mahram that he said, “I was attending a funeral of a lady and Abu Huraira was with us. Then they brought a dead body of a man and he kept it between the corpse of that lady and recited prayer on it. When we returned His Eminence, Husain became tired and sat down on the way. Then Abu Huraira cleaned the dust off the feet of His Eminence with the corner of his garment. His Eminence, Husain said to him, “Why do you do this?” Abu Huraira said, “Let me do it. By Allah, if people knew what I know about you they would have carried you on their shoulders.”
The companions had considered Imam Husain as the remnant of Allah on the earth. He was a lofty example of his grandfather. And due to this relationship they used to love and respect him greatly and they used to consider it a matter of honor to serve and visit him. They used to compete with each other in this.
Examples of the Merits of Imam Husain
In the personality of the chief of the nobles, were present all human values and lofty merits; and elements of prophethood and Imamate were merged in the person of His Eminence. And they with regard to his merits and manners are incomparable and prominent examples that are clear examples of Islamic prophethood and, in fact, which is counted as ever-living path of Islam with all its powers and its principles.
Indeed, all the characteristics of the father of the martyrs and every quality of his from the good qualities that has bestowed him with the greatest status in the world without any exaggeration has compelled us to confess that it is an incomparable example in the whole history of humanity except for his grandfather and father. We shall discuss about some of his personal qualities and virtues.
Imamate of Imam Husain
Imam Husain is one of the brilliant stars of the Imams of Ahle Bayt. The qualities of humanity are perfected in him and those qualities have reached to their zenith in him. He has established the torch of this religion and spread the slogan of truth and justice on the earth and established the constructive matters in Islam. In this path he had borne all sorts of difficulties and calamities. He bore all sorts of problems and oppressions from the oppressors of his time in this path; those oppressors, who considered the property of God as their personal wealth and those who considered the slaves of the Almighty as their own servants.
When revelation used to descend on the Messenger of Allah on most of the days, he used to look at the purified Imams of his Ahle Bayt one after the other. And he introduced them with their names and characteristics and through general and special proofs. That they are his successors and they are the Ark of Salvation and the security for the people and made them to be with the Great Book of Allah that neither falsehood shall approach it from back or from front. In the past discussion we have presented many such proofs of this and there is no need to repeat them here. Just as we have discussed about Imamate and its necessity as a topic and also discussed about the duties and characteristics of the Imam in the book of “Life of Imam Hasan” here we shall refrain from repeating them as there is no need to do so.
# Characteristics of the Personality
of Imam Husain
Those incomparable qualities that were present in the personality of the leader of the noble men and the elements and basic matters were present in the being of His Eminence in incalculable quantity as follows:
1 – Firm Determination
Of the personal qualities of the father of the martyrs is a firm determination and a strong will that this valuable condition he had inherited from his respected grandfather. A Prophet who had changed the course of history and had transformed the meanings of life and alone he stood against the great powers who stood in his way of spreading the word of God. And he did not care for them and told his uncle, Abu Talib, the believer of Quraish:
“By Allah, if the sun is placed in my right hand and the moon in the left and I am asked to refrain from this (prophethood of Islam) I shall not do so till I die, or that the Almighty Allah may make them successful.”
By this powerful determination he confronted the powers of polytheism and was able to dominate the direction of the events. In the same way the eminent grandson of His Eminence arose against the Umayyad kingdom and without any doubt and announced his denial to pay oath of allegiance to Yazid, and in spite of the scarcity of his helpers he left for the battlefield of the holy war, so that he may bestow loftiness to the word of truth and destroy falsehood, while the large number of Umayyad fighters were mobilized to confront him. However, His Eminence did not worry about it and he announced his intention and aim in his immortal words, saying,
“I don’t see death but as success; and life with the oppressors as nothing but a deviation.”
He moved towards the field of honor and respect with his family members of Ahle Bayt and his companions so that he may hoist the flag of Islam and obtain a great success and victory for the nation of Islam till he finally reached martyrdom. Peace of God be on him as he was the strongest person with regard to determination and foremost with regard to will and intention. He did not mind bearing all those circumstances that make the intellects and minds bewildered.
2 – Refusal to accept Injustice
Among the characteristics of Imam Husain was the illuminated quality of: Refusal to accept oppression. So much so that he earned the title of ‘Abi Dhayyem’ (One who refuses to be oppressed). This is one of the most well known titles of the Holy Imam, because His Eminence was a lofty example of this quality. It was he who raised the slogan of human greatness and constructed the path of honor and respect. Thus he did not bend before the monkeys of Bani Umayyah. He preferred death in the shade of spears.
dishonor. Aba Abdillah Husain bin Ali Ibn Abi Talib was such that he preferred safety for himself and his companions but he did not accept humiliation on the basis of his aim so that it may not be that Ibn Ziyad does not kill them and dishonors them is some way; he preferred death to it and I have heard from Naqeeb Abu Zaid Yahya bin Zaid Alawi that he said: You can say that the couplet of Abu Tamam about Muhammad in Hamid Tai actually fits Imam Husain:
“It was easy to escape death, but a loyal defense and a manly quality, he turned it towards them.
And one who does not accept oppression, it is as if on the day of the battle he would be like a refusal or higher than that.
Thus he made his steps steadfast by joining them to death and he said to it: Qiyamat or the day of gathering is under your control.
He donned the red apparel of death and the night did not pass but it turned into the green brocade.”
The leader of the nobles restrained his self from increasing oppression and taught sacrifice to the people. Musab bin Zubair says, “He gave preference to death with honor to a life of degradation.” After that the following lines came on his tongue:
“O one who was in Taff from the Hashemite clan. He considered others as equal and taught the elders equality.”
The words of His Eminence are the most prominent compositions that became established in Arab literature whenever there is mention of honor, sanctity and pride is explained he says, “Indeed, these ignoble sons have put me between two choices. Either I kill myself with the sword or accept dishonor. Far be it, that we accept degradation, because the Almighty Allah, the Prophet and the believers would not accept it for us. Those who are pure, incomparable, self-respected and souls of the oppressed ones do not consider it lawful that we prefer the debased ones to a death of honor…”
 Ibne Abil Hadid, Sharh Nahjul Balagha 1/302
 Meaning the garments of Paradise
 Tabari, Tarikh 6/273
On the day of Taff, he stood like a strong mountain against the Umayyad soldiers of apostasy and taught future generations the lesson of nobility, self-respect, greatness and destroying injustice:
“By Allah, I shall never give you the hand of humility and I would not accept slavery. I seek refuge from my Lord and yours that you may stone me…”
These brilliant words show to what extent the great Imam was rich with nobility and unlimited virtues; whose best example is the everlasting valor that shall remain forever that the History of Islam has kept recorded in it.
The poets of Ahle Bayt in order to portray this best scene have competed with each other and their compositions regarding this are the best examples of Arabic literature and eloquence. Sayyid Himyari Jalli in his immortal poems has versified the merits of his glorious ancestor, His Eminence, Husain. He says:
“Those people desired (were greedy) that he may accept oppression, but the Almighty Allah and sword fighters did not accept it.
How can the neck that has not bowed for anyone except for Allah, accept degradation?
For him was a heart, stronger than a coat of mail, which it spread in front of the thirsty spears.
And loyalty and determination used to turn about in those breasts that the land may become narrow it goes into it.
Thus he did not accept life but that it may be preferable or did not stop fighting at the time of the battle till he was rolling in the dust.”
In self-restraint and nobility they had so prominently drawn a picture that has never been done before. That is why Sayyid Haider has shown the forcible tactics of the Umayyad rulers and the firm determination of Imam Husain not to accept any kind of dishonor. While it is not acceptable to Almighty Allah, and that a lofty soul that had got the honor of prophethood in inheritance, how can he accept injustice, so he turns his head away, because His Eminence had not bowed his head (submitted) ever to anyone else except Almighty Allah. Then how can he do so before the debased ones of Bani Umayyah? And how can their power stop him from his iron will? That was like a coat of iron that stops the thirsty spears. How beautifully it is said:
“Are there deeper and reachable words than these that turn the quality of destroying injustice that is Imam Husain and could there be a better description than this? That all the powers of confrontations that turn the loyalty to the breast of Imam that the whole world is deficient to carry that determination which in spite of its vastness fitted in this breast.”
And it is the fact that in the quality of self-restraint that has reached its peak that
 Sayyid Haider, Diwan, Pg. 87
even the beautiful words in this matter promote it. While in this couplet there is no word, which is strange, and no letter is rare that is unheard of.
The following are some of the couplets and a part of great poetical compositions that we must consider. In this also, the great valor of Imam Husain in described.
“He died but his death was Hashemite death as he was recognized below the spears.
The nobility that you saw was such that he could not accept degradation. Thus it would be the smell of the aimed spear that shall reach him.
And he said, “O my beloved, halt, standing on the pool of death is not the standing of the one who is undecided.
He has seen the back of the mount of degradation less preferable than death while death was waiting for him.”
Thus he gave preference that he should step in the burning fields, but he did not give a hand in degradation to anyone.
I may not be able to obtain deeper and sweeter couplet than the above, which has presented a real scene, the forbearance in the nature of Imam and that, which shows his personal loftiness. That he preferred the shade of the spears to a life of comfort but surrender to the tyrants. The same thing is expressed in the poems regarding the other martyrs of the Imam’s side. They also competed with each other in the field of contest. They rushed to the field with zeal and were eager to lay down their lives in loyalty so that they be bestowed with honor and respect.
In the same way Sayyid Haider has drawn a picture of the defeating of oppression by the martyred Imam and he has described the Imam saying that he even restrained from smelling degradation and oppression but he smelled intentionally the swords and spears because in it was the taste of magnanimity, honor and respect. By the description of these prominent qualities of the Imam, Sayyid Haider moves forward. Then he delineates the magnanimity of the Holy Imam that was rooted in wisdom and had a specific aim; such that his aim dominated the aims of the opponents and he did not in the least give way to any laxity in this regard. He has not described and non-factual matter. Rather he has presented the facts with a real description without any sort of reservation.
Sayyid Haider, in another beautiful panegyric has presented the Imam’s confrontation with injustice and oppression and the courage of the Imam in this matter. It may be the most beautiful poem lamenting the tragedy of the Holy Imam:
“He was forced to accept one of the two options while the battle was shaking his teeth.
 Sayyid Haider, Diwan, Pg. 87
That he should either submit to them or be killed. But he did not accept surrender.
So he said to them: Maintain your forbearance, as the soul of man is lofty that imparts it with beauty.
If there is no dress except that of degradation don the raiment of death and be freed.
He considered being killed with patience as the slogan of his elders and the pride that beautified his status.
Thus he upturned his sleeves for the battle, in a battle in which death was approaching swiftly.”
Elegies of Sayyid Haider about the Imam are illuminated emblems for the Arab nation because he has used his imagination in a beautiful way and systematically arranged the points in a proper order. According to his contemporaries, he composes one elegy about the Imam every year and spends the whole year in polishing it. He used to carefully select each word of the elegy and consider and weigh it properly. In this way his final composition emerged.
3 – Valor
No personality braver, determined and more valiant than Imam Husain is seen throughout all the stages of the history of humanity. Because His Eminence on the day of Kerbala was in such a position that the intellects are perplexed and minds are bewildered at it. The generations venerate his memory and regard his bravery with absolute astonishment, and people have considered his valor higher to that of the well-known valor of his father.
His cowardly enemies were shocked by the strength of his determination and aim because the Imam did not step back due to the continuous horrible strikes that befell him one after the other; and the more the difficulties increased and the calamities intensified the more steadfast he became and the more his face shone. And when all his followers and his Ahle Bayt were martyred, all the armies consisting of thirty thousand mercenaries according to some reports, surrounded the Imam from all sides. The Imam. though the lone survivor attacked the hordes with ferocity of a wolf attacking a herd of goats and the enemies dispersed in fear and trepidation. They were fleeing in front of him in all directions and he was like a firm mountain. And he faced the swords from all sides in such a manner that there was no sort of laxity on his part. He did not care for death with all his bravery, Sayyid Haider says:
“When he alone faced a particular group all groups were terrified before him.
His spear was on his fingertips as if they had made their swords for that same purpose.
 Sayyid Haider, Diwan
The sword was married to the self and its dower was death and its henna the dust and soil of the battlefield.”
In another beautiful elegy he says:
“He was firm and steadfast while the ground under the hooves of his horse was shaking such that it was rocking its pillars.
He was firm on the ground while fear enveloped the fighters.
His face became more and more illuminated while terror was changing the color of the enemies’ faces.”
When the one who did not accept injustice fell to the ground while the loss of blood had weakened him, the enemies were so much terrified that when they glanced at him that none of them could summon the courage to deliver the last fatal strike.
Sayyid Haider says:
“They were filled with fear due to his awe. No one has presented such a battle that even after he is grounded the foes are awe-struck by him.”
The Ahle Bayt and his followers had also obtained this bravery and valor from him and therefore they moved towards with great fervor and spirit. No kind of fear or awe they ever found in their hearts, while even their enemies have confessed to their valor and steadfastness. Because a person who had accompanied Umar Ibn Saad in Kerbala was told: “Have you massacred the progeny of the Messenger of Allah?” And he replied:
“Keep quiet! Even if you had seen what we witnessed and did what we performed. A group attacked us such that they were holding their swords in the hands and falling upon us like hungry lions from all sides and were killing us. They were putting their lives on the mouth. Neither they pleaded for peace nor had any inclination towards any material wealth. There was nothing that served as obstacle between them and the pool of death and the spiritual kingdom. Even if we had refrained a bit from confronting them they would have terminated the life of all the army. Hence what we could have done under those circumstances? May your mother die!”
One of the poets has described this incomparable bravery in the following words:
“Even if mountains had come to confront them, they would have been sheltered in the battlefield and got pulverized.
They were either standing and receiving arrows on their fronts or the attackers used to spear their chests.”
And what a magnificent poetry Sayyid Haider has composed:
“They pulverized their stony rocks and when they were shattered they said: We
 Ibne Abil Hadid, Sharh Nahjul Balagha 3/263
are instead the solid rocks in their place.”
The father of the martyrs whose valor is unequalled, has challenged the nature of humanity for a contest. Thus he has made fun of death and humiliated life. He told in his address to his companions when the enemies were showering them with arrows:
“Arise, may the Almighty God have mercy on you, rush towards death as there is no other venue. These arrows shot by these people are their messengers for you…”
His Eminence, motivated his companions to embrace the throes of death as if he were inviting them to a banquet of delicious victuals; and in fact, it was acceptable to them because His Eminence was battling with falsehood and the Proof of the Almighty Lord, which was the first step, had been chalked out before him.
4 – Frankness
Among the special characteristics of the father of the martyrs is frankness in speech and his outspoken nature. All his life he never resorted to uncouth behavior and he never used deception and fraud and did not take up any deviated path. Rather he chose the straight path which was compatible with his living conscience avoided every kind of wavering that religion and good manners do not accept. Among the prominent examples of his excellent manners is that when Walid, the governor of Medina, summoned him in the dark of the night and informed him about the death of Muawiyah and asked him to pledge allegiance to Yazid the Holy Imam refused it and spoke up clearly explaining his stance:
“O Amir! We are the Ahle Bayt of Prophethood and repositories of messengership. The Almighty Allah has initiated (creation) and will terminate (it) with us. Yazid is a transgression and a sinner, who imbibes alcohol and a man who sheds blood God has made sacred. He openly resorts to sinful activities. None like me would never pledge allegiance to Yazid.”
These words show the frankness and outspoken nature of His Eminence and demonstrate his strength and determination in the path of truth.
Among the aspects of his frankness was that it had become a part of his personality; such that when he was leaving for Iraq, he received the news of assassination of his emissary, Muslim Ibn Aqil and his being betrayed by the Kufaites, he told the people who were accompanying him for material gains only: “Our supporters have betrayed us. Thus anyone among you who desires to go back may do so, no fealty shall remain on his neck…”
The greedy people left him and only the selected few among his companions remained.
At a time when the Imam was badly in need of numbers and numerous helpers would have helped in his campaign, yet he refrained from any kind of deception
 Abdullah Alaili, Al-Imam al-Husain, Pg. 101
 Ansabul Ashraf, 3/169
and frankly stated the true position to the multitudes who had been accompanying him. This was so because those who have firm belief in God and His justice never has such defects.
Among the examples of his forthrightness is that on the 10th eve of Mohurrum he gathered all his companions and informed them with absolute frankness that all those who shall remain with him would be martyred the next day. The Holy Imam explained to them in unequivocal terms that they may have a clear idea about what they were doing and he suggested them to go away in the darkness of the night, but the great clan did not agree to leave him and rather expressed their determination to be martyred in his company.
Kingdoms are established and governments destroyed but these lofty words that are the basis of eternity to every living being remain, because the lofty values are made prominent by it, such that man does not obtain any exaltation without it.
5 – Firmness on the Path of Truth
Steadfastness on the path of truth was one of the most prominent qualities of the father of the martyrs, Imam Husain, because for the establishment of truth and for the destruction of the facts of falsehood and centers of oppression he exhibited unequalled perseverance.
The Holy Imam had in his view, truth with all its vastness and meanings and he set out for the field of contest so that truth may be established in all Islamic lands and that people may be released from atrocities meted out to them by tyrannical rulers of the time and dispel forces that had besieged him and the events that had subjected people to deep pits of ignorance where they were thrashing their limbs for survival.
Imam saw that the community was sinking in falsehood and deviations and people were not having any values in their life. Therefore he proceeded towards the field of confrontation so that he may sacrifice everything for the sake of hoisting the flag of truth. The Imam has mentioned this same illuminated aim in his address to his companions:
“Do you not see that truth is not being practiced and falsehood is not being avoided so that a believer may be eager to meet the Lord…?”
Truth was one of the most prominent qualities of the personality of father of the martyrs, Imam Husain; that he had inherited those qualities from his grandfather and that is the reason why he used to, time and again, kiss that same face and the same mouth that spoke up the words of Allah and issued the springs of justice and truth on the earth.
6 – Patience and Forbearance
Among the unequalled qualities in which the chief of the martyrs had no peer was that of patience on the calamities of the world and the difficulties of the time. His Eminence, had tasted the bitterness of patience during his childhood when had sat
in grief of his grandfather’s and mother’s demise and witnessed the horrifying events that were encountered by his respected father. He saw the atrocities and problems borne by His Eminence and during the tenure of his brother also he experienced the bitterness of patience in the condition that he saw how his soldiers betrayed him and how they cheated him, till finally Muawiyah had him assassinated through poisoning. And how when he wanted to bury his brother next to his grandfather, but the Bani Umayyah disallowed it and this was extremely painful for Imam Husain.
And the greatest calamity in front of which His Eminence exhibited patience was that right before his very eyes the lofty principles of the Islamic religion were been trampled upon and inappropriate sayings were fabricated and falsely attributed to his grandfather, which were changing and distorting the Law of God. The most painful thing was that his venerable father was being denounced and imprecated from the pulpits and how the tyrant Yazid was busy in extermination his Shias and followers. He assumed patience and forbearance in all these atrocious circumstances.
On the 10th of Mohurrum such calamities descended upon him one after the other that patience used to rock in front of them, while the grief had not ended for him and all the difficulties and sorrows had besieged him. He saw the bright stars of his Ahle Bayt how the swords were cutting them into pieces. He witnessed this with utmost patience and urged them:
“O my Ahle Bayt! Be patient! O my cousins! Be forbearing! That after this day you will not have to face any humiliation and oppression.”
His Eminence, used to see his dear sister, the lady of Bani Hashim, how the severities of the tragedy had disconcerted her and sorrow had shattered her heart. He hastened towards her and counseled her that she must maintain patience and content with what Allah had decreed for them.
The most terrible tragedy that Imam bore with patience was the sight of his children and women suffering from killing thirst and they were seeking his help while he could only advice patience and steadfast to them and informed them about the everlasting rewards they would finally achieve after all these difficulties.
He was absolutely at ease in face of the hordes of enemies that surrounded him and their multitudes that had filled up the lands; in such a condition that he was alone bearing the strikes from all sides while extreme thirst was killing him, however he did not pay any heed to these circumstances.
The patience and forbearance of His Eminence and his unflinching attitude on the day of Ashura is the rarest of examples through which humanity was recognized. Arbili says: “The valor of Husain became a parable and his patience in the battle has rendered the past and future people powerless.”
 Kashful Ghumma 2/20
Each difficulty of His Eminence was alone sufficient to render a person powerless and defeated, even if he had possessed patience and steadfastness, but His Eminence, for the sake of his noble aims, on which exaltation of ones soul depends, in spite of difficulties and calamities, bore all these atrocities.
Historians say that no type of tragedy weakened the resolve of His Eminence. One day a son of the Holy Imam expired but no sign of tragedy was apparent in his face. He was inquired about it and he said in reply: “We are Ahle Bayt and whatever we ask Allah, He gives to us and we are pleased with whatever He desires for us.”
His Eminence became satisfied with divine decree and submitted to God’s command and this is the essence of Islam and perfection of faith.
7 – Forbearance
Forbearance was one of the highest quality of the father of the Martyrs and the most prominent characteristic of His Eminence. According to narrators he did not have any kind of unfavorable habits and he never misbehaved with any badly- behaved person. Rather he dealt with utmost goodness and pleasing manners. In this matter he used to tread the footsteps of his honorable grandfather His Eminence, the Messenger of Allah whose lofty morals and virtues had won the hearts of all. His Eminence was distinguished by this quality and his fame spread wide to such an extent that even some of his slaves took undue advantage of these qualities, and they intentionally misbehaved with him so that they may be recompensed with goodness and favor!
Historians say: A slave of His Eminence, once committed a grave mistake which made him liable to punishment and His Eminence ordered that he be punished. The slave pleaded with him saying: My Lord! The Almighty Allah says: “Those who swallow their anger.”
The Holy Imam turned to him smiling and said, “Release him! I have swallowed my anger.”
The slave said at once, “And the forgivers of men.”
His Eminence said, “I have forgiven him.”
At that time the slave pleaded for more favor and said, “And Allah likes those who do good.”
His Eminence said, “You are freed for the sake of Allah.”
Then His Eminence ordered that a valuable gift be given to him so that he no longer remains dependant on others.
These lofty manners were of the principles of the life of His Eminence, which did not separate from him throughout his life.
 Al-Isabah 2/222
 Al Husain 1/137
8 – Humility
Imam Husain was bestowed with utmost humility and his nature was absolutely bereft of any kind of pride and arrogance. He had inherited this quality also from his grandfather who established principles of good manners and lofty morals on the earth. Narrators have quoted many examples of his lofty manners, some of which we quote in the following paragraphs:
1 – One day His Eminence passed by a group of destitute having meals on the “poor platform” (suffa) in front of the Prophet’s mosque. This day these same people invited the Holy Imam to join them in their meals.
His Eminence alighted from his mount partook some food with them. Then he said, “I accepted your invitation. Now you also accept my invite.”
They accept the Imam’s invitation and hastened with him to his house.
His Eminence, told his wife, Rabab, “Take out what you used to save.” She took out all the money she had saved and His Eminence gave the full amount to those people.
2 – His Eminence passed by some beggars who were eating a piece of bread from the Sadaqah offerings. So the Imam saluted them and they invited the Holy Imam to join them. His Eminence sat down with them and said, “If it had not been Sadaqah I would have indeed joined you in partaking it.” Then he invited them to his house, served them food and gifted them clothes. Then he ordered that they also be given some cash.
In this manner, the Holy Imam trod the footsteps of his grandfather, the Messenger of Allah because according to historians, His Eminence used to mingle with the poor and benefited them through his favors so that poverty may not cause discomfort to the poor and affluence may not make the rich thankless.
3 – There was some sort of trouble between His Eminence, Imam Husain and his brother Muhammad bin Hanafiyyah. Thus Muhammad returned to his house and wrote a letter to His Eminence as follows: “So to say: You are having an excellence which is not given to me and a merit which I haven’t got. Our father is Ali and none of us are superior to the other regarding this matter. But my mother is a lady of Bani Hanifah while your mother is Fatima, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah. And even if the earth is filled with women like my mother they cannot become equal to yours. Thus when you read this letter of mine, put on your slippers and don your robe and come to me and make me happy and I could never take precedence to you in which you are more deserving…”
When Imam Husain read his brother’s letter, he hastened towards him and made up with him, making him happy. Such were his lofty manners and great personality.
 Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam al-Husain, Pg. 218
 Ayanush Shia, 1/580
 Nihayatul Arab 3/260, Ali Baa 1/467
9 – Kindness and Affection
Among the qualities of the father of the martyrs was that he had great affection for the people and offered his help to those in need. He used to reach for the assistance of all those who needed it and for anyone who sought his refuge, he used to accord it to him.
Marwan, after defeat in the episode of Jamal sought refuge from himself and his brother, though he (Marwan) was one of the staunchest opponents and he requested him to intercede on his behalf with his venerable father. The brothers went to their father and petitioned him regarding and Marwan said: “O Amirul Momineen! He would pledge allegiance to you.”
His Eminence said: “Did not pay allegiance to me before the killing of Uthman? I have no need of his allegiance, as it is the hand of a Jew. If he gives allegiance to me with his hand he would be betraying the trust with his fingers. While he would obtain a kingdom, like a dog licks at its nose and he is the father of four rams and the nation would see the light of the day from his sons.”
They pleaded so much with their father that at last he gave him amnesty, but Marwan never acknowledge this favor of Imams Hasan and Husain and he did all he could to trouble the two grandsons of the Messenger of Allah. He was the one who prevented Imam Hasan from being buried next to his grandfather and it was he who told Walid that if Imam Hasan refuses to give allegiance for Yazid he must be killed. Also he celebrated in joy when he heard about the martyrdom of Imam Husain. For Marwan, it is sufficient that he is a tree, which puts forth nothing except evil and harms to one and all.
Among the obvious examples of the Imam’s kindness is the episode concerning Hurr Ibn Yazid Riyahi who was accompanied with 1000 soldiers and they had been sent to confront the Imam, but when they came face to face with the Holy Imam they had already run out of drinking water and were all on the verge of death due to extreme thirst. When the Holy Imam saw their serious condition he was having sufficient quantities of water with him and he supplied all of them with water and even provided it to their mounts. Among the forces of Hurr was an old man, Ali bin Taan Maharabi who was so shaking so violently that he could not hold the mouth of the water bag steady to drink the water so the Imam held the water bag for him and made him steady with his own hands. These actions were the most prominent examples in the culture of humanity that are recorded in the pages of history.
10 – Charity
Charity was one of the greatest qualities of the father of humanity, Imam Hasan, because His Eminence was the refuge of the poor and destitute and the support of everyone who was going through hard times and His Eminence, used to satisfy and please all those approached him for help.
Kamaluddin bin Talha says that it had become famous that His Eminence used to
welcome guests with great respect and gave to anyone who asked him anything. He used to be kind to his relatives, help those who appealed him for it, provided clothes to the needy, fed the hungry, forgive his debtors, helped the weak, be concerned for orphans and make needy ones needless. Whenever he received any funds he used to distribute them to the needy. These good qualities of kindness, charity and benevolence are such that only those having the perfect morals possess it…
Historians state: “His Eminence, carried sacks full of bread and victuals and some money in the darkness of the night on his shoulders to homes of widows, orphans and destitute till it left scars on his shoulders.”
A huge quantity of wealth came to His Eminence and he did not leave his place before distributing all of it to the needy around him. Muawiyah came to know about this and he sent a huge quantity of gifts and souvenirs for him and also sent some personalities of Medina so that they may see what he does with those things. They reported about the Imam as follows:
“But Husain began with orphans of those killed in Siffeen on the side of his father. Thus if something remained he used to feed the milk of the load bearing camels to the people…”
He sent an informant to see what the people do and they did as Muawiyah had expected. Then Muawiyah said: “I am the son of Hind, I know better about the Quraish.”
Anyhow, historians have reported countless episodes highlighting the charitable nature of the Imam. Some of these are quoted below for the sake of our readers:
1 – To Usamah bin Zaid: Usamah bin Zaid became terminally ill and the Holy Imam visited him. When the Imam sat on his side, Usamah sighed, “O my sorrow!”
“What are you sorrowful for?”
“A debt of sixty thousand.”
“It is my responsibility.”
“I am afraid that I would die before it is repaid.”
“You will not die before I repay it on your behalf.”
Thus Imam hastened to repay the debt on his behalf before he breathes his last, while he had forgiven Usamah because Usamah was one who had not paid allegiance to his father but the Imam did not behave in the similar manner; rather he dealt with him with utmost kindness and benevolence.
 Matalibus So-ool, Pg.28
 Uyunul Akhbar, 3/47
 Ayanush Shia 1/570
2 – To one of his maids: Anas has narrated that he was with the Holy Imam when a slave girl came to him with a container of perfume and presented it to the Imam. His Eminence told her, “You are free for the sake of Allah.”
Anas was astonished and he asked, “A slave maid gets you a container of perfume and you have emancipated her?”
His Eminence said, “The Almighty Allah has taught us in this manner. The Almighty Allah says: Whenever someone wishes you, you must reply in a better way or return that same greeting, and better than that was emancipating her.”
By these lofty manners and great benevolence he captured the hearts of Muslims and they become devoted to his love and guardianship.
3 – To a borrower: One day, after the martyrdom of his brother, Imam Husain was sitting in a corner in the mosque of the Messenger of Allah. Abdullah bin Zubair and Utbah bin Abi Sufyan were also sitting in a corner of the mosque. A Bedouin arrived on a camel. He tethered his camel and entered the mosque. Then he approached Utbah bin Abi Sufyan and saluted him. He returned the greeting and the Bedouin said:
“I have killed the son of my uncle (cousin) and blood money is being demanded from me. Would you give me something?
Utbah raised his head and ordered his servants to pay him a hundred Dirhams.
The Bedouin said: I do not want anything less than the full amount of the blood money.
Utbah did not pay any attention to him and the Bedouin went away from before him, dejected, and came to Ibn Zubair and told him his problem and he ordered that two hundred Dirhams be given to him but the Bedouin refused and went towards His Eminence, Imam Husain and informed the Holy Imam about his requirements.
His Eminence ordered that they pay ten thousand Dirhams to the man and told him, “This amount is for you to pay off your debts.” And ordered that another ten thousand Dirhams be given to him and he said, “This is for you to make arrangements for your upkeep and to improve your living conditions and spend the amount on your family.”
The Bedouin was extremely overjoyed at this and he recited the following couplets:
“Neither any fragrance reached me nor was I involved in a love relationship, yet I became enchanted.
But for that Progeny of the Messenger, I came and recited pleasing couplets.
They are the noble and exalted beings that the stars of the heavens twinkle for them.
 Ibne Sabbagh, Al-Fusul al-Muhimma
You are the greatest among all the men, you are such a bestower that none could equal your generosity.
Your father obtained such pleasure from greatness that those who wanted to precede him fell behind.
Through him the Almighty God opened the door of guidance and through you He closed the door of mischief.”
4 – To a Bedouin: A Bedouin came to His Eminence and saluted him and told him about his needs and said: “I have heard from your grandfather that he used to say: ‘Whenever you have any need, ask it from (one of the) four persons: From a noble Arab, or the benevolent who gives happily or the people of Quran or one having an elegant face.’ However the Arab has received nobility only through your grandfather and as for benevolence, it is your custom and as for the Quran, it was revealed in your house and as for an elegant face, I heard the Messenger of Allah say: ‘When you desire to see me, just look at (the faces of) Hasan and Husain.’”
His Eminence asked him, “What do you want?”
The Bedouin wrote his requirement on the sand. His Eminence, Imam Husain said: “I heard my father say that goodness is proportionate to divine recognition. So I want to ask you three questions, if you reply to one of them, I shall give you one third of what I have, if you reply two question two thirds of what I possess shall be yours, if you reply to all three questions, all I have shall be yours, while a purse has just arrived from Iraq.”
The Bedouin said, “Go on and ask the questions, there is no power and strength except from Allah.”
Imam Husain: What is the best deed?
Belief in God.
What is the way of salvation for man?
Reliance (trust) on God.
What is it that bestows beauty to man?
Knowledge accompanied with forbearance.
What if he does not have?
Then he should have wealth accompanied with generosity.
What if he does not have it?
Then he should have penury accompanied with patience.
What if he does not have that also?
A bolt of lightening should strike him from the sky and burn him up.
 Bahrani, Iqdul Aal Fi Manaqibul Aal
The Holy Imam smiled and handed him the purse.
5 – To a petitioner: A petitioner came to the Imam, knocked at his door and recited the following couplets:
“Anyone this day having hope in you is not disappointed and anyone who knocks at your door.
You are having benevolence and you are the source of generosity, while your father was the exterminators of transgressors.”
The Holy Imam was standing up in Prayer. Thus he shortened his prayer and went to the Bedouin and saw signs of poverty in him. He turned back and called out for Qambar. When Qambar arrived, His Eminence asked him, “How much money do we have with us?”
He replied, “Two hundred Dirhams that you commanded me to distribute among your Ahle Bayt.”
He said, “Bring it here, because someone more deserving has arrived. Thus he took the money and paid it to the Bedouin, sought his forgiveness and recited the following couplets:
“Take these and I request you to excuse me and know that I am sorrowful for you.
If I had more possibility my sky (of favor) would have rained more on you.
However, the times are hard and we are having less provisions.”
Then the Bedouin took the money being highly obliged and praying for the well-being of His Eminence. He began to extol the praises of His Eminence and said as follows:
“They are purified and have a good lineage and whenever they are remembered, divine blessings are invoked for them.
You are the one, you are the one having an exalted status. You are the expert of the Quran and the meanings of its chapters.
One who does not have an exalted status by way of his lineage none has any precedence among the people.”
These were some examples of generosity and charity of His Eminence, that informs about his kindness and concern for the poor and he intended nothing but pleasure of Allah and rewards of the Hereafter.
Here concludes our discussion about some circumstances and qualities of His Eminence and how he scaled the heights of perfection in winning the hearts of Muslims in such a way that they became devotees of his love and friendship.
 Fazailul Khamsah Min as Sihah-e-Sittah 3/332
 Ayanush Shia, 1/579
# Worship and Piety of Imam Husain
Imam Husain was sincerely and heartedly devoted to the Almighty Allah and the love of God and His fear had blended with every part of his being. Historians say: “His Eminence did everything that obtained the proximity of Allah, so he prayed excessively and observed fasts, went for the Hajj, gave Sadaqah (charity) and performed good deeds.” Here we shall quote some narrational reports about the worship of His Eminence and his attention towards the Almighty God.
A – Imam Husain and his fear of God
Imam was the vanguard among those having divine cognition. He feared God very much to oppose Him. He was severely fearful of God. Such that some of his companions asked him: “How great is your fear of Allah?”
His Eminence replied, “On the day of Qiyamat none shall be secure except those who feared Allah in the world…”
Thus was the practice of the pious ones that bestowed light to the path and opened horizons of divine recognition and guided towards the creator of the universe and giver of life.
B – Excessive Prayer and fasting of Imam Husain
His Eminence was mostly engrossed in prayers and fasting. Every twenty hours he used to recite a thousand units of prayer as narrated by his son, Zainul Abideen. In the month of Ramadan he used to complete the recitation of Quran.
Ibn Zubair has mentioned about the Imam’s worship saying: “By Allah they killed him! The one who used to stand up in prayers at night and fasted during the days too much.”
C – Hajj of Imam Husain
The Holy Imam had performed many Hajj pilgrimages. He traveled to Hajj 25 times on the foot even though his mount was present alongside him. He held the black stone and pleaded to the Almighty God in the following words: “O my Lord! You Bestowed favor on me and did not find me thankful. And You tested me and did not find me patient. Yet neither You took away the bounties due to thanklessness nor You continued to send difficulties due to my lack of patience. O
 Tahzibul Asma, 1/163
 Ayanush Shia, 4/104, Raihana Rasool, Pg. 58
 Tahzibul Asma 1/163, Maqrizi, Khatat 2/285
 Yaqubi, Tarikh, 2/219, Ibnul Wardi, Tarikh 1/233
 Seer A’laamun Nubla, 3/291
 Tabari, Tarikh 6/273
 Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 215, Seer A’laamun Nubla, 3/287. Majmauz Zawaid 9/201. Tahzibul Asma 1/163. Ibne Maghazali, Manaqib, Tradition no 64. Mukhtasar Safwatul Safwa 1/763, Tibrani, Tarikh 3/123
 Sifwatul Safwa 1/763. Sherani, Tabaqat 1/26. Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 217
my Lord! Nothing but kindness comes from the kind one…”
His Eminence left for performing the lesser pilgrimage (Umrah) to the House of Allah and became indisposed. His father, Amirul Momineen received the news that he was in Yathrib (Medina), so he went after him and reached him at Saqiyah when he (Husain) was ill. Ali asked, “My son! What is troubling you?”
“My head is aching.”
Amirul Momineen told them to bring a camel. Then he sacrificed it and after that he shaved the head of Imam Husain and took him back to Medina. When his illness was cured he returned towards Mecca and performed the lesser pilgrimage of Umrah.
These were some incidents regarding the worship and obedience of His Eminence that are recorded in history and biography.
D – Charitable nature of Imam Husain
The Imam was very much charitable and he gave away a lot in charity and alms. His Eminence had inherited some land and other things. So before they could come in his possession he gave them away in charity. He used to distribute food to the destitute of Medina during the darkness of the night and except for divine rewards and God’s proximity he had no other aim. We have presented above many examples of his charitable deeds of the Holy Imam.
 Al-Kawaakibut Durriya 1/58
 Daimul Islam 1/344
 Daimul Islam 2/339
 Tadkiratul Khawaas Pg. 264
# Intellectual Talents of Imam Husain
No one had reached the level of the merits and knowledge of His Eminence, Imam Husain because the command and talent of His Eminence with regard to knowledge was more than all other people. Since his young age he had acquired knowledge from the source of the sciences of his grandfather, the science that illuminated the horizons of the world. In the same way he was under the training of his father, His Eminence, Amirul Momineen, who was the gate of the city of knowledge of the Prophet, and the most knowledgeable of the people and the wisest of them. And it has come in traditions that: “Hasan and Husain had been made to drink knowledge.”
The scholar of community, Abdullah bin Abbas says: “Husain is from the family of prophethood and they are the inheritors of knowledge.
A biographical account of His Eminence mentions: “Husain was the most accomplished one of the people in knowledge and recognition of the Quran and Sunnah.”
Here we shall briefly discuss some of the intellectual merits of His Eminence.
Referring to Imam Husain for religious Verdict
Imam Husain was the point of reference for religious verdict in the world of Islam. The senior most companions of the Messenger of Allah used to refer to His Eminence in religious matters. Among those who benefited from His Eminence was Abdullah bin Zubair and he says about it: “O Aba Abdillah! What do you say about the release of a prisoner, who is responsible for it?”
The Imam replied, “It is the responsibility of the one he had helped or the one on whose side the person had fought.”
At another time he asked him, “O Aba Abdillah! When does it become incumbent to forgive the child?”
His Eminence replied, “Every time (after he is born) and he cries it becomes incumbent to forgive him and provide nourishment to him.”
On the third time he asked about drinking in the standing position. The Imam ordered that a female camel be brought. It was brought and he milked it. Then His Eminence drank the milk in the standing position and gave to him.
Ibn Qayyim Jawzi has said, “Other companions who issued religious verdicts are Abu Darda, Abu Ubaidah Jarrah, Hasan and Husain.”
 Ibne Athir, an-Nihayah 3/347
 Athaairul Awwal Fil Islam Pg. 10
 Al-Kawaakibut Durriya 1/58
 Al-Istiab 1/398
 Al-A’laam 1/12
Muslim people referred to His Eminence in connection with the prohibited and permitted acts, Islamic law and rules of Shariah like they had referred to his respected father in these matters.
Gathering of Imam Husain
The gathering of His Eminence, was the gathering of knowledge and dignity and by the people of knowledge among the companions it was an adornment, for whom it taught manners and wisdom and obtained from it and in it the Imam narrated from his grandfather, which they used to note down.
Historians say that people gathered around him like birds are sitting on his head and they used to listen from the Imam the vast knowledge and correct traditions.
The gatherings of His Eminence used to be held in the mosque of his grandfather, the Messenger of Allah and he had a particular circle of companions. A person from Quraish asked Muawiyah where he could find Husain. He replied, “When you enter the mosque of the Messenger of Allah you would see a gathering of people collected around him like birds. That is the gathering of Abu Abdillah.”
Alaili says, “…his gathering was the place of arrival of the hearts and venue of the descent of angels and whoever used to sit in his gathering used to feel that though he (the Imam) were like a human but he was from some other world and this sight used to go on increasing awe in him. Rather as if he were sitting in a gathering where the angels were coming and going…
The personality of the Imam, his lofty status and his spirituality used to attract people, and their minds used to be attracted by his personality. They used to hasten towards his gatherings and listen to his discourses, though he spoke with utmost humility and simplicity.
Narrators from Imam Husain
The Imam was among the greatest and significant reformer of his times with regard to intellectual and knowledgeable qualities and he had a positive role to play in spreading Islamic sciences and explaining divine recognition in such a way a large group of companions and their children acquired such knowledge from him. The most important of them are as follows: His son, Imam Zainul Abideen and his daughter Fatima, Sakina and the grandson of His Eminence, Imam Abu Ja’far Baqir, Shobi, Akrama, Kurz Tamimi, Sinan bin Abi Sinan Duali, Abdullah Ibn Umar, Ibn Uthman, Farazdaq, his nephew Zaid bin al-Hasan, Talha Aqili, Ubaid bin Hunain, Abu Huraira, Ubaidullah bin Yazid, Matlab bin Ubaidullah bin
 Al-Haqaiq fil Jawamiul Fawariq, Pg. 105
 Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 211
 Ash’at Min Hayatul Husain, Pg. 93
 Al-Jarah wat Ta’deel, Section 2, Vol. 1, Pg. 55
 Tahdhib at-Tahdhib 2/345
 Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 7
 Seer A’laamun Nubla 3/280
Hantab, Abu Hazim Ashjai, Shuaib bin Khalid, Yusuf Sabbagh, Abu Hisham and others; and Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Saeed Hamadani has written a book about the letters of those who narrated traditions from Imams Hasan and Husain.
The Holy Imam selected the mosque of the Prophet as his school and therein he taught and explained religious jurisprudence, Quranic exegesis, traditional reports, rules of ethics, morals and good manners and people came from all sides to listen to the discourses of the Holy Imam, so that they may gain from the knowledge and divine recognition of His Eminence, that he had received from the Prophet.
Traditions of Imam Husain from his grandfather
Imam Husain narrated a large number of traditions from his grandfather, His Eminence, the Messenger of Allah. Zuhri says in Kitab Maghazi that Bukhari has narrated many traditions from Husain; some of them are on the subject of the Prophet’s encouragement for the Midnight Prayer. Also Tirmidhi, in the book Ash-Shamailun Nabawiyyah has quoted many traditions from His Eminence, that Sufyan bin Waki had quoted on the authority of the Holy Imam.
Below we present some traditions that His Eminence has narrated from the Holy Prophet:
1 – His Eminence says: “The Messenger of Allah said: ‘Among the Islamic good qualities is that a person speaks less about what he is not concerned.’”
2 – His Eminence says: “One of the merits in Islam is that a person keeps away from that which does not concern him.”
3 – His Eminence said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah say: ‘There is no believing man or woman who is not involved in difficulties (or he said: the difficulties do not befall him or her), even it is related to the past and it is returned from him or her except that Almighty Allah gives a new reward and a gives such a reward that He had promised when he or she were in the problem.’”
4 – His Eminence said: “I heard the Holy Prophet say: ‘The Almighty Allah likes the lofty deeds and He does not like lowly deeds.’”
5 – His Eminence said: “I heard the Holy Prophet say: ‘One who obeys Allah, is given a lofty status and one who disobeys Him is degraded. And one who purifies his intention for Allah is given adornment and one who relies on that which is with Allah, becomes needless and one who prefers himself or herself
 Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 8
 An-Najjashi. Pg. 94
 Athaairul Awwal Fil Islam Pg. 10
 Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad 1/201
 Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad 1/201
 Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 8, Usud al-Ghaba 2/19, Al-Isabah 1/332
 Yaqubi, Tarikh 2/219
above Allah is humiliated.’”
6 – His Eminence said: “The Messenger of Allah prayed for the rain as follows: ‘O Allah! Bestow us a rain, which is widespread and according to our needs, general and beneficial without any harm, which spreads to all towns and villages and increases our sustenance and increases our thankfulness. O Allah! Make it the sustenance of faith and bestowal of faith; such that your bestowals are never prevented. O Allah! Send its comfort on us on the earth and through it make our pastures green.’”
7 – His Eminence said: “My father has narrated from the Holy Prophet that he said: ‘One who is deceived (cheated) would not be deserving of praise and rewards.’” 
8 – His Eminence has narrated from his father that the Messenger of Allah said: “The secret of reason after faith in Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, is to befriend the people.” 
9 – He has narrated from his father that the Messenger of Allah said: “Man shall not proceed before he is interrogated about four things: About his life, how he spent it. About his youth, how he exhausted it. About his wealth, how he obtained it and how he spent it. And love of us Ahle Bayt.”
Reports of Imam Husain
The following traditional reports are narrated by Abu Bashir Muhammad bin Ahmad Dolabi (died 320 A.H.) in his book ad-Dhariayahtu Tahira:
1 – Ali bin al-Husain has narrated from his father that the Messenger of Allah said: “Among the Islamic virtues is that a man leaves off that which does not concern him…”
2 – Imam Husain says: “I found a paper tied to the sword sheath of the Messenger of Allah on which was written: ‘The most chastised person by Allah is the one who kills one who had not killed him, who hits one who has not attacked him and one who ignores the favors of his Lord, the Almighty Allah shall keep him away from whatever is sent by Him.”
3 – His Eminence, Imam Husain has narrated that the Messenger of Allah said: “The miser is the one in whose presence my name is mentioned but he does not recite the Salawat.”
 Yaqubi, Tarikh 2/219
 Uyunul Akhbar 2/303
 Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 9
 Al-Khisal, Pg. 15
 Ibid, Pg. 253
 From handwritten manuscript at the Ahmadiya Library in the University of Zaituniya in Tunis and its facsimile is available at His Eminence Amirul Momineen Library which Sayyid Aziz Tabatabai Yazdi has classified.
4 – His Eminence, Imam Husain has narrated from his father from the Messenger of Allah that he said: “After me there shall be three sects: Murjiya, Harooriya – Kharijis, so if they fall sick do not go to visit them, if they die do not attend their funeral and if they invite you, do not accept their invitation.”
5 – His Eminence has narrated from his grandfather that he said: “There is no man or woman who is miserly in spending in the way of Allah’s pleasure but many times that shall go to the ways disliked by Allah. And there is no man who avoids helping a man who is in real need but helps someone else who falls into sin but that he shall not be rewarded for rendering this help. And there is none that leaves Hajj while he is capable of performing it for the sake of worldly needs but that the one who has returned from Hajj his need shall been fulfilled more.”
6 – Yahya bin Saeed has narrated: “I was with Ali bin al-Husain when a Kufiate came to His Eminence. Then Ali bin al-Husain said: ‘O man of Iraq! Befriend us for the sake of Islam as I have heard my father saying: The Messenger of Allah said: O people! Do not accord me the status that I really have because before Allah, the Mighty and the Sublime chose me for messengership He selected me for His servitude.’”
7 – Fatima the daughter of Husain has narrated from her father and Abdullah bin Abbas has reported that the Messenger of Allah used to say: “Do not glance at the leprous person continuously and one who speaks to a leper, should keep a distance of a spear from him.”
8 – Fatima, the daughter of Husain has narrated from her father that the Messenger of Allah said: “Indeed the Almighty Allah likes the lofty morals and hates lowly behavior.”
9 – Fatima, the daughter of Husain has narrated from her father that the Messenger of Allah said: “Do not stare continuously at the patient of leprosy.”
10 – Fatima, the daughter of Husain has narrated from her father that: “The head of the Messenger of Allah was in the lap of His Eminence Ali while revelation was descending on the Prophet. So when the revelation was over the Prophet said, “O Ali! Did you perform the Asr (afternoon) prayer?” “No”, he replied, the Messenger of Allah said: O Allah! You know that he was in Your service and the service of your Prophet, so send back the sun for him. Thus the Almighty Allah returned it for him and he recited the prayer. After that the sun set again.”
11 – Fatima has related from her father that the Messenger of Allah said: “The petitioner has a right even if he comes astride a horse.”
12 – Fatima, the daughter of Husain has narrated from the Messenger of Allah that he said: “One who is involved in a difficulty and he remembers it later, just as when he was in that difficulty, Almighty Allah will give him fresh rewards when he says: ‘Indeed we belong to Allah and to him we shall return.’ i.e. He would give the same reward that is deserving for that difficulty.”
13 – Fatima, the daughter of Husain has narrated from her father that he said: “The Messenger of Allah said: ‘When the Almighty Allah took the covenant from the people and put it in the stone. Thus the fulfillment of the covenant is to touch the stone.’”
14 – Abdullah bin Sulaiman bin Nafe, slave of Bani Hashim has narrated from His Eminence, Husain bin Ali that he said: “The Messenger of Allah said: ‘O Bani Hashim! Speak a good word and provide food. (to others).’”
15 – Abu Saeed Mithami has narrated that he heard Husain bin Ali say: “The Messenger of Allah said: ‘One who wears the dress of fame, is dressed into the garment of fire.’”
These were some of the sayings related through Imam Husain that contain points of high moral virtues and good manners, such that no one is needless of them.
Traditions of Imam Husain narrated from his mother Her Eminence Fatima
His Eminence has related the following traditions from his mother, the chief of the ladies of the world, Her Eminence, Fatima Zahra:
1 – Muhammad bin Ali bin al-Husain has narrated: I came out walking with my grandfather, Husain bin Ali to the land of His Eminence. On the way I saw Noman bin Bashir riding a pony. He alighted and told to His Eminence Husain: “Mount it, O Aba Abdillah!” His Eminence did not agree and he continued to press him. His Eminence said: “You are making me do something I do not like but I would relate a tradition for you that my mother, Fatima had related to me: The Messenger of Allah said: The person on the mount and on his bed and the prayer in its home is more preferable except that it be the Friday congregation, so you should mount your animal. Thus he went off calmly. Noman said, “Her Eminence, Fatima said the truth…”
2 – Fatima, the daughter of His Eminence, Husain has narrated from her father from Fatima the daughter of the Messenger of Allah from the Messenger of Allah that he said: “He has not done anything good for himself if he spend the night till morning came while he did not make (do) anything.”
Traditions of Imam Husain from his father, Ali
Imam Husain has narrated many things from his father, Imam Amirul Momineen, whether they be related to the biography of the Prophet or connected to the religious law. Some of them are as follows:
1 – His Eminence has narrated from his father that the Messenger of Allah dispatched a battalion and they took a man from Bani Salim, named Usaid bin
 Adh-Dhariayut Taahira, Pg. 128-132
 Ibid Pg. 137-138
 Adh-Dhariayut Taahira, Pg. 138, Musnad al-Firdaus, Vol. 41
Salma as slave. When the Messenger of Allah saw him, he took pity upon him; and he presented Islam to him and he became a Muslim. This information reached his father who was an aged man and he wrote a letter to him with the following couplets:
“Who can mount and reached Medina safely. So that he could take my message to Usaid. That the worst child is the one who is the disowned one of his parents and who does good to strangers. Have you left the religion of your father and elders and follow Muhammad these days?
Usaid presented the letter of his father to the Messenger of Allah and sought his permission to write him a reply. The Messenger of Allah according him the permission and he wrote as follows:
“Verily, One Who created the heavens with His power and got loftiness to His kingdom and Who is Alone.
He sent such a one, as there was none like him before it so that he may call the people by his mercy, and he is Muhammad the Prophet.
Thus he called the people to his religion and they, willingly and unwillingly, came to guidance continuously.
And they feared the fire that was severely harmful and deviating for them.
Indeed you shall die and your accounting shall be done. Then what for is this misguidance and destruction?”
When Salma read the letter to his son, he came to the Prophet and accepted Islam.
2 – His Eminence says: I asked my father about the life of the Messenger of Allah in the presence of his companions and His Eminence said, “The Messenger of Allah was always cheerful and had simple manners. He has softness of character and not sharpness or hardness. Nor was he hot-tempered, obscene, fault finder or sour faced. He used to ignore what he did not like. No one used to be disheartened by him and none was ever deprived by him. He used to keep away from three things: Disputation, to consider something or someone too great and that with which he was not related and kept away from three things about the people. He did not criticize anyone, he was not finding fault in anyone and he was never in pursuit the evils of the people. He did not speak anything except that he hoped in its reward and whenever he spoke his companions bowed down their heads as if there was a bird on the head and when he was silent, they were speaking. He never quarreled
with them and heard attentively to all those who spoke to him so that they may complete their dialogue. Whenever he was first to speak, he used to laugh with that which people laughed and he used to be astonished with what others were astonished. He used to stop with the travelers (aliens) inspite of their harsh manners of speaking and act according to their
 Usud al-Ghaba 1/100
desires; so much so that he used to call his friends and say: If you find a needy person who needs anything, bring him to me; and he did not accept thanks from anyone except that he used to reward him according to his deed. He did not cut off the sentence of anyone except when he was going away from the truth. In this case he used to cut off his statement either by stopping him or by getting up himself…
By these good manners the Prophet became superior and the hearts of Muslims joined together and gave them unity in their intellects and desires and he guided them in his first period to the leaders of the nation and guides to the pleasure of Allah and made them obedient to Him.
3 – His Eminence has narrated from his father that the Messenger of Allah said: “One who dies defending his wealth or property, dies a martyr.”
4 – His Eminence has narrated from his father that the Messenger of Allah said: “I am surprised on one who refrains from food due to illness, how he does not refrain from his sins for the fear of the Fire.”
5 – His Eminence said: I heard my father say: “Faith is recognition with the heart and confession by the tongue and action by the physical organs.”
6 – His Eminence has narrated from his father that he said: “Enjoin good and prohibit evil, otherwise the Almighty Allah would make the evil ones among you dominate you. After that the good people among you would pray but their prayers will not be accepted.”
7 – He has narrated from his father that he said: “The Almighty Allah has concealed four things in four (other) things. His pleasure in His obedience. Then do not consider anything in obedience of Allah small that perhaps His pleasure was in favor and you do not know. And he concealed his displeasure in disobedience. So do not consider anything small in disobedience of the Lord. As perhaps it may become the cause of His anger, while you do not know. And he concealed His acceptance in His supplication. So do not consider any supplication small, perhaps it may bring His acceptance and you do not know. And He concealed Himself in his creatures. So do not consider a creature of God as lowly, perhaps he may be the selected one of God and you do not know.”
8 – His Eminence has narrated from his father that he said: “The Messenger of Allah said: The best of the houses of helpers (Ansar) is the Bani Najjar and after that Bani Abdul Ashal and then Bani al-Harth and after them Bani Sa’ada. May there be good in all the houses of the Helpers…”
 Al-Husain 1/86
 Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad
 Bahauddin Amili, Arbaeen, Pg. 111
 Al-Husain 1/140
 Musnad Imam Zaid, Pg. 374
 Al-Khisal, Pg. 209
 Musnad al-Firdaus, from the facsimile at Imam Hakim Library from the writings of Shahardar bin Shiruya Shafei (died 558 A.H.)
9 – His Eminence has narrated from his father that he said: “The Messenger of Allah said: The best supplication is seeking forgiveness, and the best worship act is saying: There is no god, except Allah…”
Here we conclude some of the traditions of His Eminence narrated from his grandfather and father.
About the astonishing inheritance of Imam Husain
There is an astonishing heritage for Imam Husain. Some of them are the collections of philosophical discussions and theological problems, which have complexity and secrets. So His Eminence, mentioned Islamic ideology in them and explained such as many sayings of Imam Husain are having the rules of good behavior, laws of ethics and had the foundation of social and personal reformation. We mention below some of these qualities.
The most important and the most complex problems of scholastic theology is the topic of predestination about which sayings have been recorded since the dawn of Islamic history and Imams of Ahle Bayt have explained and clarified doubts about it. Hasan bin Hasan Basri, inquired about it from His Eminence, Husain and His Eminence replied to him in a letter which is quoted below:
“For what I am explaining to you about the “Predestination”. From that with which we Ahle Bayt have achieved that one who does not believe in the good and bad destiny is a disbeliever and one who attributes evil to Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, has made a great allegation towards Allah and surely the obedience of Allah cannot be forced and disobedience cannot be by compulsion and the people shall not except destruction but He is the master of whatever he has delegated to the authority of the people and He is the Powerful who made them powerful on it. Thus if they follow the obedience, the Almighty Allah will not delay anything for them. And when they go to disobedience that Allah should do favor to them and they and the things they want to commit He should become an obstacle between them. That he has not done this under compulsion and Allah has not forced them to commit. Rather with all the possibilities He has provided them all facilities and
after He announced about them and after warning them of the dangers He makes them limited to it and He has also given them the power and He has also made way for them. He has invited and He has also kept the way open for those things He has prohibited. He has made them capable so that they may act on that which they are ordered and that they may not commit the acts He has prohibited. And thanks be to Allah that He made His servants capable for that which He has commanded that they obtain power for it. And they are stopped from that and for seeking forgiveness is made an accepted thing that even after being stopped they have come. And for those for whom there is no way, I believe and my companions also
 Musnad al-Firdaus, Vol. 2/179
believe that all praise is for Him…”
This blessed discourse mentions important theological discussions. More details on this would prolong our discussion and would be beyond the scope of our subject.
A group wrote a letter to His Eminence and inquired the meaning of the word “Samad” (Self-sufficient) in the statement of Almighty Allah, “Allah is self-sufficient.” His Eminence wrote to them after “Bismillah” (In the name of Allah):
“So to say: Do not go deep into the Quran and do not argue about its meanings. Do not speak about it without knowledge as I have heard from my grandfather that he said: One who speaks about Quran without knowledge, he has made for himself a place in the fire (of hell). And Allah glorified be He, has explained “Samad” (self-sufficient) and said: Allah is One, Allah is Self-sufficient, then he explained it and said: He begets not, nor is He begotten. And there is none unto like Him. He begets not, that is nothing dirty (bad) comes out from Him like a child and other dirty things come out from the creatures and neither a subtle thing like the soul and from it thoughts and ideas and different conditions like sleep and to remember something, sorrow, grief, happiness, smile, weeping, fear, hope, desire, dislike, hunger, satiation are not found in Him. He is much greater than that something should come out from Him and that something should be born from
Him, dense or subtle.
Nor is He begotten: Nothing is born from Him and nothing comes out from Him like dense things come out from their sources and origins. A living being from a living thing, vegetation from the earth, water from its source, fruits from the trees. In the same way subtle things come out from their respective sources. Like sight from the eyes, hearing from the ears, smell from the nose, taste from the mouth, speaking from the tongue, recognition and discrimination by the heart and in the same way, fire from stone. Never! Rather he is the self-sufficient who is neither a thing and nor in something and neither on something. He is the creator of things and maker of them and He is the originator of things by His Power. Whatever He has created for itself shall be annihilated and what He created by His wisdom, it remains and endures for further creation. And he is that needless God Who begets not nor is He begotten. He is the Knower of unseen and the seen. He is the
Almighty Who has no equal…”
In many of his sayings Imam Husain has mentioned about monotheism of the godhead and described and explained this concept beautifully to answer the doubts raised by the apostates. Some of the sayings of His Eminence are quoted below:
 Fiqh ar-Reza, Pg. 408, Biharul Anwar 5/123
 Surah Tawheed 112:2
 Ma-aadinul Hukma fil Makaatib al-Aimmah 2/48-49
1 – His Eminence has said: “O People! Fear these two extremes, those who compare God with themselves and say like the unbelievers from the people of the Book while He is such a God that there is nothing like Him and He is the Hearing and Seeing, that eyes could not see Him and He sees all visions. And He is the Subtle and Omniscient, He has made Oneness and power special for Himself, intention, power and knowledge, which, He has used. There is no obstacle in His command and none could be equal to Him and no opponent could precede Him. And neither is there anything having a similar name which could be like Him and nor anyone like Him could precede Him. No actions surround Him and nor conditions are effective upon Him. Events do not happen to Him and words are not capable to describe the reality of His greatness. The magnitude of His powers could be accommodated in the hearts because there is nothing equal to Him. His knowledge cannot be perceived by
intellects and neither by thinkers through their thoughts. But, certainly and by belief of the unseen He cannot be compared to anything in the universe. He is such a Oneness, that is needless. He is against all imaginations about Him. Whatever is in the imagination of man, God is other than it and whatever is imagined is not God. And whatever…And not a deity who is desirous and undesirous. He is present in the things not in existence that there should be an obstacle for Him. He is distant from the things but in such a way that He should be hidden from them. He is not such a powerful one that there could be someone in his opposition or equal to Him. His antiquity is not related to any time period and His presence is not related to a place (space). He is concealed from the intellects just as His concealment from the eyes and His concealment in the sky is same as that His concealment from the inhabitants of the earth. His proximity implies the bestowal
of His favors and His remoteness indicates that He makes someone worthless and not in the sense that He is in some place or time. He changes non-existence into existence and makes the existing one non-existing. Except for Him, no one could have the two equalities at the same time. Faith in His existence is received through Him only and existence of faith is not existence based on description. All qualities are described through Him and not that He is described through qualities. And all the divine recognitions are recognized through Him and not that Allah is recognized through these divine sciences. And He is that Allah for Whom there is no one with same name. He is purified of everything and there is nothing like Him and He is the hearing, the seeing.”
The Imam has warned against comparing Him to His creations who were nothing in the beginning and who shall be destroyed in the future.
No matter how powerful a man may become he will be limited in quantity and quality and it is impossible to reach to the reality of the Great Creator Who has created these souls and stars. Intellects are helpless to imagine Him. And that complex systems that are applied to him….Man has not been able to understand his own mechanisms like the machinery of the sight hearing and feelings etc. then
 Tohafful Uqool, Pg. 244
how could he understand His creator?!
Anyhow, this interesting discourse has explained many aspects of the concept of the monotheism of the godhead. It is one of the best explanations that have reached us from the Imams of Ahle Bayt
2 – Historians say that the scholar of the nation, Abdullah bin Abbas spoke to people in the Prophet’s mosque. Then Nafe Azraq stood up and said: “You are giving a verdict about the ant and the mosquito! Describe the god whom you worship.”
Abdullah Ibn Abbas in the honor of his statements bowed down his head. Imam Husain was sitting there. He called out to him: “O son of Azraq! Come to me.”
He replied: “I didn’t say anything to you.” Ibn Abbas stood up and said to him: “He is from the family of Prophethood and they are the inheritors of Knowledge…”
So he went towards His Eminence, Husain and His Eminence said: “O Nafe! One who conjectures in ones religion would be continuously involved in more and more confusion and doubts. He would begin to commit evils and fall into deviation and sinful activities and speak foul things. I am explaining you about my Lord with what He has explained Himself and I will introduce Him to you as He has introduced Himself. Sense does not perceive Him and He cannot be compared to people, but He is not attached but there is no distance in between. He is considered One but He could not be divided. He is recognized by His signs and is described by His signs, there is no god except Him. He is great and High…”
Azraq became astonished and was not able to reply, because confusion had surrounded him and the Imam has closed all avenues for him. All those present who heard the discourse of the Imam were astonished and repeated the words of Ibn Abbas that Husain is from the family of Prophethood and they are the inheritors of knowledge.
Imam addressed the Helpers and Immigrants in these brilliant words and revived them from their carelessness about enjoining good and forbidding evil as the Islamic society is based on these two principles. He informed them about it, just as the nation was affected by social injustice. He made it the topic of attention that danger had developed due to the shortcoming in this matter. The rest of his discourse is as follows:
“O people, gain lesson from matters that Allah has cited as warnings for His disciples when He denounced the rabbis in His saying: Why do not the learned men and the doctors of law prohibit them from their speaking of what is sinful
 Al-Kawaakibut Durriya 1/58, Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 225, Ibne Adeem, Baghiyatut Talib, Pg. 144
and their eating of what is unlawfully acquired? Certainly evil is that which they work. Those who disbelieved from among the children of Israel were cursed by the tongue of Dawood and Isa, son of Maryam; this was because they disobeyed and used to exceed the limit. They used not to forbid each other the hateful things (which) they did; certainly evil was that which they did.
Allah humiliated them because they did not forbid wrongdoers from evil and committing sins while they were among them, for they had desired for gaining more gifts from the wrongdoers and they had feared them. Allah says: “Therefore fear not the people and fear Me… And (as for) the believing men and the believing women, they are guardians of each other; they enjoin good and forbid evil.”
Allah has begun with enjoining good and forbidding evil because He has known that if these two matters are carried out thoroughly, all the other obligatory duties, including the easy and the difficult, will be carried out thoroughly. This is because enjoining good and forbidding evil is advocacy to Islam, restoration of the grievances, opposition of the wrongdoer, (just) allotment of the booty and the spoils, and taking the alms to spend them in their proper ways.
You are the company famous for knowledge, mentioned in goodness, renowned with advice, and respected by people through Allah. The masters stand in awe of you, the weak honor you, and those whom you have not done favors and who do need you prefer to others. You intercede for fulfilling people’s needs when they are deprived. You walk in the ways with gravity of kings and dignity of celebrities. You have attained all these just because you are expected to fulfill the rights of Allah; yet, you omitted most of His rights when you disregarded the rights of the Imams, threw away the rights of the weak, and sought only your claimed rights.
You have not spent any wealth, risked your souls for their Creator, or opposed your clan for the sake of Allah. You are looking forward to gaining Paradise, the neighborhood of Allah’s messengers, and the salvation from His punishment. I anticipate you to suffer a form of Allah’s retribution because you, through the favors of Allah, have attained such a rank by which you are preferred to other. You are respected among people by means of Allah. However, you notice that the traditions of Allah are omitted, but you do not move for it, while you may move when any of your fathers’ traditions is violated. The traditions of the Prophet are broken. The blind, the deaf, and the chronically ill are left without help in the cities. You neither behave mercifully nor do you use your positions. You do not aid those who assume such deeds and you achieve your safety from the wrongdoers (or the unjust rulers) by means of flattery and cajolery. Allah has warned you
against all these conducts but you are negligent while you will be responsible more
 Surah Maidah 5:63
 Surah Maidah 5:78
 Surah Maidah 5:44
 Surah Taubah 9:71
than others because you enjoy the positions of scholars. Had you only felt thus! Moreover, the courses of affairs and rulings are under the control of scholars who are keepers of legal and illegal affairs of Allah. This standing is surely usurped from you just because you have gone in different direction away from the right and disagreed about the Sunnah after clear exposition of evidences. If you tolerated harm and bore burdens for Allah’s sake, all affairs of Allah would come into your hands, emanate from you, and devolve upon you. But you have made unjust rulers occupy your positions and handed over affairs of Allah to them. They are acting suspiciously and pursuing their positions.
Your escape from death and adherence to his life, which will sooner or later leave you, gave them a free hand on doing so. Thus, you forsook the weak ones; some of whom were enslaved compulsorily and others were suffering under straitened livelihood. The unjust rulers therefore are rolling in royalty with their own opinions and disgracing others by their own passions as they follow the examples of the evil and dare the All-omnipotent (Allah). In every country, they are assigning an eloquent orator on the pulpits of Allah. Lands are vacant for them as their hands are prevailing on everything and people are taken as their slaves because they lack the power to defend themselves. They are either a transgressing tyrant or domineering, coarse to the weak, and obeyed; who does not acknowledge the Initiator the Recreator. How strange is this! I am astonished at such affairs when lands are prevailed by tyrannical cheaters, wrongful bribers, or unmerciful
governors. Allah is the judge in our question of disputation and His judgment will pass over our controversy.”
These political documents explain and highlight moral decadence and spread of evil in the world, which was due to the inability and inaction of the Helpers and Immigrants, because they occupied a significant position in the world of Islam. They were the companions of the Prophet, defenders of Islam and capable to speak the truth and they could defeat falsehood, but they failed to perform this obligation. This became the cause of the Bani Umayyah tyrants to become rulers on the Muslims and they enslaved people and plundered the wealth of God.
Types of Jihad (Holy War)
It was inquired from His Eminence, Imam Abu Abdullah about the Jihad (Holy war) whether it was recommended or obligatory. His Eminence replied:
“Two are obligatory, one is recommended but performed only with obligatory, and one is independently recommended. One of the two obligatory jihads is self-control against committing acts of disobedience of Allah. It is surely the greatest form of Jihad. The other obligatory Jihad is fighting those of you who inclined to the infidels.
The Jihad that is recommended but performed only with the obligatory is fighting the enemy. It is obligatory upon everybody. Punishment would befall them if they
 Tohafful Uqool, Pg. 237-239
neglect fighting the enemies. Meanwhile, fighting the enemies is recommended for the Imam who is permitted to fight the enemies with people.
The Jihad that is independently recommended is every (good) tradition that a man founds and exerts efforts for instituting, achieving and enlivening it. Activities and efforts that are exercised for achieving such traditions are the best deeds because they represent the restoration of traditions.
The Prophet said: “One who introduces a good tradition will gain the reward of that tradition in addition to the rewards of all who follow it up to the Day of Judgment without any reduction in their rewards.”
Legislation of fasting
Imam Husain was asked regarding the wisdom behind the legislation of fasting and His Eminence replied: “So that the rich could experience hunger and become inclined to help the poor.”
Types of worship
Imam mentioned about the types of worship and said: “A group worships God due to greed, which is the worship of entrepreneurs. And a group worships God due to fear. It is the worship of slaves. And a group worships Allah by way of thankfulness and that is the worship of freemen and it is the best kind of worship.”
His Eminence spoke about the one who worships the Almighty with seriousness and said: “One who worships Allah as He should be, the Almighty Allah gives him more that what he has hoped or more than what would suffice him.”
Love for Ahle Bayt
Imam Husain encouraged love of Ahle Bayt. Abu Saeed says: “I heard His Eminence, Husain that he said: ‘One who loves us, the Almighty Allah would reward him for as if someone has become a prisoner of Dailam and love for us makes sins fall off like wind does to the leaves…’”
And he said, “Inculcate love for us Ahle Bayt, as whoever meets the Almighty Allah with the condition that he loves us, our intercession would reach him.”
Bashir bin Ghalib has narrated that Imam Husain said, “One who loves us for the sake of Allah, we and him would reach to the prophets.” And he joined two fingers of his hand. “And one who loves us for the sake of the world, the world gives place to both the good and the evil people.”
 Tohafful Uqool, Pg. 243
 Ibne Asakir, Tarikh 13/56
 Biharul Anwar 78/116, Tohafful Uqool, Pg. 246
 Askari, Tafsir, Pg. 327
 Ibne Maghazali, Manaqib, Pg. 400, Tradition 454, Hadith no. 388, from the handwritten manuscript of Amirul Momineen Library
 Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 227
Imam has mentioned about benefits that they would gain saying: “One who comes to us will not be deprived from all three of the following things: clear verses, just matters, profitable brother and companionship of the scholars. Imam tells about the benefits of those who begin to follow them afterwards and he said: One who comes to us, he could not leave any of these four qualities: (1) An established sign. (2) A just matter (3) A beneficial brother, and (4) company of scholars.”
Imam described the lofty morals and good qualities of his Ahle Bayt and his followers and commanded them so that they may decorate themselves with it so that they be an example for others. Some of them are explained below:
1 – His eminence said, “Forbearance is an ornament, having loyalty, tolerance, good behavior, bounty and more desire is shamelessness, precedence, foolishness, is a weakness; extremism (ghuluw), to fall into a doubt and to cultivate company of debased people are mischiefs and company of sinners creates doubts, and company of the debased ones is an evil, and sitting with transgressors creates doubts…”
2 – His Eminence said, “Truthfulness is an honor, falsehood a weakness. Secret is a trust. Neighborhood, relationships, helpfulness is charity and work, experience, good manners, worship, silence are ornaments. Miserliness is poverty; generosity is wealth and forbearance is intelligence…”
3 – His Eminence said, “O people! One who gives, gains happiness and one who is miserly becomes debased and most generous is one who gives to one who does not expect it from him.”
4 – His Eminence said, “One who is generous gains happiness and one who is miserly becomes debased. One who makes haste in helping his brother, when tomorrow time comes for him he would receive it.”
5 – His Eminence said, “Indeed the needs of people put towards you are bounties of God to you, so do not be upset by these bounties otherwise they will be turned into calamities…”
6 – Imam saw a man who was invited for dinner but he did not accept the invitation. He told him: “Get up as there is no excuse in invitation and if you are not fasting eat it and if you are fasting say: May Allah give more…”
 Kashful Ghumma, 2/32
 Nurul Absar, Pg. 277
 Yaqubi, Tarikh 1/219
 Nihayatul Arab 3/205
 Ibid, 3/205
 Sherani, Tabaqat 1/26, Mukhtasar Sifwatul Safwa 62
 Daimul Islam 2/107
7 – His Eminence said, “A needful one has staked his honor by asking, so You maintain Your honor by not turning him away empty-handed.”
8 – His Eminence often used to repeat the following couplets that speak of good behavior and invites lack of hardship in seeking the world. Some narrators say that they are compositions of His Eminence himself.
“If actions of the day are judged for man, his morals and behavior is the highest.
And if sustenance is restricted, making less effort is best for him.
And if in the world the cost of anything is calculated, the reward of Allah is the greatest.”
If sustenance is destined, beauty lies in working least for it.
And if bodies were created for death, being killed in the way of Allah is the greatest.
And if wealth is obtained to be kept and lost then why people adopt miserliness in spending whatever he leaves.”
These couplets were recited by the Imam about martyrdom in the path of Allah just as his kind temperament and generosity shows.
9 – His Eminence said: “Do not take up a responsibility of that you are not capable of. Do not go after something, which is not going to come to your hand. And do not promise that which you are not capable of. And do not spend except in proportion to what you earn. And do not expect reward but to the extent of what you have done. And do not remain happy but to the extent of the divine obedience you have observed. And do not obtain information except to the extent what is appropriate for you…”
10 – His Eminence said to Ibn Abbas, “Do not speak about that which is not related to you. As I am fearful of the sin on you and do not speak about that which is not related to you so that you are called to testify for it later. Many are the speakers who speak the truth but become butts of criticism. And neither should you argue with forbearing people nor with fools; as the forbearing one would change you and the fool will cause you pain. And whenever a believer brother passes before you, do not say anything about him except what he says about you, when you pass before him. And act like one who knows that sinful deeds will be punished and good deeds will be rewarded…”
These golden words are some of the matters that His Eminence narrated about good manners and good qualities so that man could through them the right way and good behavior and well being of the world and the hereafter .
 Nurul Absar, Pg. 277, Kashful Ghumma, 2/29
 Mukhtasar Sifwatul Safwa 62, Al-Anwaarul Bahiya, Pg. 46
 Asraar al-Hukma, Pg. 90 by Yaqub Musta’si
 Bihar, 78/127
Legislation of the Call of Prayer
Some contemporaries of the Imam claimed that Abdullah bin Zaid had made the call for prayer legal due to the dream he had seen and told about it to the Prophet and the Prophet ordered it. Imam rejected this theory and said, “Revelation came on your prophet and you claim that he obtained it from Abdullah bin Zaid? While the call of the prayer is the face of your religion…!”
His Eminence said, “Brothers are four: A brother is for you and for himself and a brother is for you and a brother due to you and a brother who is neither for you not for himself…?”
Then the Imam explained as follows, “A brother who is for himself and for you, he is such a brother who wants to maintain his brotherhood and for his brotherhood he does not desire death for the brother. Then it is for you and for himself, because if brotherhood is established, both their lives shall become good and if the brotherhood becomes conflicting, both of them shall be spoiled. And the brotherhood that is for you is a brotherhood that has taken itself out from greed to attachment. Thus if there is brotherly love there would not be greed in the world and he will be ready for you wholly. And the brotherhood that is upon you, it is the brotherhood, which is waiting for an opportunity about you, and who conceals the secrets for you and tells lies about you to the people, and looks at your face with eyes of jealously that the curse of Allah may be on him. And the brotherhood which neither for you nor for him is that the Almighty Allah has made him a
complete fool and kept him away from His mercy. Thus you will see him that he is showing his superiority to you, and there is nothing that he sees in you but that he demands it…”
Knowledge and Experience
His Eminence said, “Study of knowledge is the result of divine recognition and more experience increases intellect and nobility, piety, contentment and comfort are bodies and one who considers you a friend restrains you and whoever is inimical to you, deceives you.”
Meaning of Charity
A Bani Umayyad person gave a lot of charity but it was not lawful wealth, thus the Imam said: “His simile is like that of a person who robs Hajj Pilgrims, then gives those things away in charity. Indeed charity is of the one who sweated in obtaining it and got his face smeared in dust (i.e. he worked very hard).”
 Daimul Islam 1/143
 Bihar, 78/119
 Ibid, 78/128
 Daimul Islam 1/249
Advice and Guidance
Imam Husain used to accord great importance to advising and guiding the people like before him his father had done, and both of them used to be particular in strengthening the powers of good in the people and guiding people to the path of truth and good and prevent them from bad qualities some of which are pride, arrogance etc. some of these are sayings of His Eminence on this subject:
1 – His Eminence said, “I advice you fear of Allah and I warn you of the days of Allah and I wave His flag on you as it is a terrible matter and coming of its fear and its reaching unwillingly and the bitter food is destroyed and your lives are drowned and it has become an obstacle between the deeds and you. Thus run for it by your healthy bodies and the period of life-spans as if it has come upon you. It would take out those below the earth and those who are out, below it. It would replace company with loneliness, comfort and light with darkness and its wideness with restrictiveness. Where no relative would be visited nor a sick person and nor the plaintiff be replied. May Allah help you and me in the horrible calamities of that day and may He keep us away from its consequences and may He give us more reward.
O slaves of Allah! Then if that is your nearest aim and destination of your journey, it is sufficient for everyone who acts, to leave their griefs and sorrows on him and stop him from his world. And in order to be released from it, its difficulties should be more. Then what would be the condition when even after that they are in the limits of their account of deeds and he is stopped for accounting. And he has no helper and caretaker to look for him and neither is there any help for him to remove it. On that day no…
I advise you to fear Allah. Allah has guaranteed to those who fear Him from that which he does not like. And he makes him enter what he likes, gives sustenance to him from where he least expected. Thus be careful that you become such that you fear your sins due to people but are not afraid of the consequences of sins. The Almighty Allah, blessed and the High cannot he deceived regarding His Paradise and whatever is with Him cannot be obtained without His obedience.”
This statement is full of that which brings the people near to Allah and that which keeps them away from His disobediences and restrains them from evil deeds and qualities.
2 – A person wrote a letter to him and asked His Eminence to issue him two words of advice or to teach something in brief. So His Eminence wrote to him, “One who desires an act for Allah’s disobedience, what he has desired will be fulfilled soonest and whatever he fears would come at the earliest. One who asks Allah for something in His disobedience, He takes him up very fast and that which he fears
 Surah Anam 6:158
 Al-Anwaarul Bahiya, Pg. 45, Bihar, 78/120
comes down very fast.”
3 – His Eminence said, “O people! Have the fear of the Almighty and beware of the world for if the world had been for anyone or if anyone had been in it forever, the prophet were more deserving, more eligible for divine pleasure and most satisfied with His decision. Except that Almighty Allah has made the world as a test for the people and created its inmates for annihilation. Thus its new things shall be destroyed. And its bounties will go away and its happiness will become darkness. It is the stage of contentment and a house on loan. So take provision from this; and the best provision is piety.”
4 – A person wrote to the Holy Imam to teach him something about the good of the world and the hereafter. His Eminence wrote back to him, “So to say: One who seeks the pleasure of Allah with displeasure of people, the Almighty Allah will make him needless of people. One who seeks the pleasure of people with displeasure of Allah, the Almighty Allah leaves him to the people. And peace (be upon you)!”
5 – His Eminence said, “On everything that the sun shines on the east and west of the earth, be it in the sea or land, on the plains or on the mountains, that on whichever part of land the sun shines, it is for every saint of God and all this is like a shadow for those who have recognition of God.”
And after that he said, “Where is that independence that releases this talkative woman (world) for its inhabitants? Nothing less than Paradise is the price of your lives. So do not sell it for anything except that because one who becomes satisfied with the world from Allah, he has become satisfied with a thing of less value.”
6 – A person asked His Eminence: “O son of Allah’s Messenger! How did you begin your day? His Eminence replied, “I began the day with certainty that the Almighty Allah is above me and the fire (of hell) is before me and that death desires me and accounting has surrounded me and I am caught in the whirlpool of my deeds. I do not get what I desire and I cannot avoid what I don’t like, and my affair is in the control of someone else such that if He likes He could punish or forgive me. Then who is more needful and helpless than me?”
7 – His Eminence said, “O son of Adam (People)! Think upon it and tell me! Where are the kings of this world and its owners? Those who inhabited its ruins and dug streams, planted trees, founded towns and did not like that they should be separated from it but other people succeeded them there and soon we shall also join them.
 Usul al-Kafi 2/373
 Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 316
 Saduq, Majalis, Pg. 268, Bihar, 78/126
 Bihar 78/306
O son of Adam (Man)! Remember your death and your sleep in the grave. Remember that you are before the Almighty. Your limbs would witness against you on the day when the feet shall stumble and hearts would reach the throats and faces would become white and secrets would be exposed and scales of justice shall be installed.
O son of Adam (Man)! Remember the death of your father and sons. How they were and what place they reached. As soon you would also reach there and become a lesson for those who seek lessons. Then he recited the following couplets:
“Where are those kings who became careless of their defense? That the cupbearer of death made them drink the goblet of death.
Their towns and lands became deserted and ruined and their architects have tasted death.
We gather wealth for our successors and we build our houses for future destruction.”
These were some teachings of His Eminence that are narrated in traditions whose aim was to reform the character of people and keep them away from evil qualities.
 Dailami, Irshad, Pg. 30
# Sermons of Imam Husain
A greater part of the sermons of Imam Husain used to be about the stability of truth and determination and firm will for Jihad in the way of Allah. These were the highlights of his sermons:
The Imam delivered those sermons at a time when the sky was dark with clouds of political turmoil. In these sermons the Imam targeted the politics of Bani Umayyads and called the people to rise up against them. We shall quote important sermons of the Imam on their particular occasions but here we mention one of his discourses below:
His Eminence ascended the pulpit and praised and glorified the Almighty, then invoked blessings on the Prophet. Then he heard someone says, “Who is this delivering a sermon?” the Imam replied: “We are the successful group of God and the nearest progeny of the Messenger of Allah and his purified Ahle Bayt and one of the two weighty things that the Messenger of Allah has made us second to next to the Book of Allah which contains all the details and falsehood cannot come to it from the front and from the back and we are depended upon for its commentary and its interpretation does not make us tired. Rather we follow its truths. Thus obey us, as our obedience is obligatory because the obedience of Allah is joined with the obedience of the Prophet. Almighty Allah, the Mighty and Sublime says: “O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those in authority from among you; then if you quarrel about anything, refer it to Allah and the Apostle,
if you believe in Allah and the last day; this is better and very good in the end.”
And he said: “And if they had referred to the Prophet and the Ulil Amr, those who used to recognize them they used to be attentive towards them, and if the mercy and blessings of God had not been upon you, except for some they all would have followed the Shaitan. And I warn you to heed the pleadings of Shaitan because he is your open enemy. You become his friends in such a way that he says: “No one can overcome you this day, and surely I am your protector: but when the two parties came in sight of each other he turned upon his heels, and said: Surely I am clear of you…”()()
The sermon is rich with invitation to attachment to the Progeny of the Messenger of Allah and it makes it incumbent to obey and follow them. It warns people about the machinations and intrigues of Umayyads and the systematic destruction unleashed by them because they used to call the people to distance themselves from Ahle Bayt who were the source of knowledge and light of guidance on the earth.
 Surah Nisa 4:59
 Surah Anfal 8:48
 Bihar, 43/359 and 44/205
# Supplications of Imam Husain
Supplications that have been quoted from His Eminence, Imam Husain are full of lessons of training with the aim to make firm the foundation of faith and belief in Allah, strength, fear and humility for Allah in the depths of the souls of the people so that they may be restrained from crossing the limits and are prevented from injustice and oppression. And the Ahle Bayt used to emphasize on this aspect most…and such supplications are not related from any leader or righteous Muslims. And these supplications are considered greatest heritage of intellectual and literary treasure of Islam because they include the principles of ethics, rules of behavior and manners and in addition to this, contain the philosophy of divine oneness and signs of just politics and other things are also included. Here we shall mention some supplications of the Holy Imam:
1 – Supplication of Imam Husain for warding off the enemies
The Holy Imam recited this supplication and sought the refuge of the Almighty from the mischief of the enemies. The supplication is as follows: “O Allah! O my strength in my difficulties and my Helper in my problems. Protect me with the eye that never sleeps. And keep in Your refuge where no hand can reach. And have mercy on me through Your power so that I do not die; as You are my helper. O Allah, You are the Greatest, the Highest and more powerful than whatever I fear. O Allah, by Your power I keep the necks of my enemies away from me and from his mischief I seek refuge. Indeed You are powerful over everything.”
Imam Ja’far Sadiq supplicated in the same words when the tyrant Mansur ordered his arrest to harass him. The Almighty Allah saved him from his evil and bestowed him relief. He was asked about its explanation and he replied that it was a supplication of his great-grandfather that he had recited.
2- Supplication of Imam Husain for rain
When Imam Husain used to come out to pray for rain he used to say: “O Allah, grant us such rain that it shall be widespread and beneficial. It should be for all and it should be profitable and it should not carry any harm so that those who live in towns and deserted areas should all benefit and through this there should be increase in our sustenance and thankfulness. O Allah make it the day of faith and the day of forgiveness as Your forgiveness is not stopped by anything. O Allah, send blessings to our land and through it give harvest of olives and pastures.”
3 – Supplication of Imam Husain on the Day of Arafah
The supplication of Imam Husain on the Day of Arafah is one of the most significant supplications of Ahle Bayt. It contains most the divine graces and His great bounties. This blessed supplication has been narrated by Bashar and
 Uyunul Akhbar 2/303
Bashir Asadi and he says: We were with Imam Husain in Arafah in the evening. His Eminence came out with utmost humility and respect and accompanied with some people of Ahle Bayt, his son and servants went to the left side of the mountain and stood facing the House of Allah (Ka’ba). Then he raised up his hands before his face (to pray) and like a beggar asking for food he recited:
“Praise belongs to God, whose decree none may avert, and whose gift none may prevent. No fashioner’s fashioning is like His fashioning, and He is the Generous, the All-embracing. He brought forth the varieties of unprecedented creatures and perfected through His wisdom all He had fashioned. Hidden not from Him are harbingers, nor lost with Him are deposits. He repays every fashioner, feathers the nest of all who are content and has mercy upon all who humble themselves. He sends down benefits and the all-encompassing Book in radiant light. He hears supplications, averts afflictions, raises up in degrees, and knocks down tyrants. For there is no god other than He, nothing is equal to Him, “Like Him there is naught, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing”, the subtle, the Aware, and “He is powerful over all things”.
O God, I make You my quest and bear witness to Your Lordship, acknowledging that You are my Lord and to You is my return. You originated me by Your blessing before I was a thing remembered. You created me from dust, then gave me a place in the loins (of my fathers), secure from the uncertainty of Fate and the vagaries of the ages and the years. I remained a traveler from loin to womb in a time immemorial of past days and bygone centuries. In Your tenderness, bounty and goodness toward me You didst not send me out into the empire of the leaders of disbelief, those who broke Your covenant and cried lies to Your messengers. Rather, You sent me out to that guidance which had been foreordained for me, the way, which You made easy for me and in which You nurtured me. And before that You were kind to me through Your gracious fashioning and abundant blessings. You originated my creation from a sperm-drop spilled and made me to dwell in a threefold gloom among
flesh, blood and skin. You gave me not to witness my creation, nor didst You entrust me with anything of my own affair.
Then thou sent me out into the world for the guidance that had been ordained for me, complete and unimpaired. You watched over me in the cradle as an infant boy, provided me with food, wholesome milk, and turned the hearts of the nursemaids toward me. You entrusted my upbringing to compassionate mothers, guarded me from the calamities brought by the jinn and kept me secure from excess and lack. High are You, O Merciful! O Compassionate! Then when I began to utter speech You completed for me Your abundant blessings. You nurtured me more and more each year until, when my nature was perfected and my strength balanced, You made Your argument incumbent upon me by inspiring me with knowledge of You, awing me with the marvels of Your wisdom, awakening me to the wonders of Your
 Or did not expose me by my creation.
creation which You had multiplied in Your Heaven and Your earth, and instructing me in Your thanks and remembrance. You made incumbent upon me Your obedience and worship, made me to understand what Your messengers had brought and made easy for me the acceptance of Your good pleasure. You were gracious to me in all of this, through Your succor and kindness. Then, since You created me from the best soil, You were not satisfied, my God, that I should have one blessing without another. You provided me with varieties of sustenance and kinds of garments and Your tremendous, most tremendous, graciousness to me and Your eternal goodness toward me. And finally, when You had completed for me every blessing and turned away from me all misfortunes, You were not prevented by my ignorance and audacity from guiding me toward that which would bring me nigh to You or from giving me success in that which would bring me close to You. For if I prayed to You, You answered,
if I asked of You, You gave, if I obeyed You, You showed Your gratitude, and if I thanked You, You gave me more.
All of that was to perfect Your blessings upon me and Your goodness toward me. So glory be to You; Glory be to You, who are Producer and Reproducer, Laudable, Glorious. Holy are Your Names and tremendous Your bounties. So which of Your blessings, my God, can I enumerate by counting and mentioning? For which of Your gifts am I able to give thanks? Since they, O Lord, are more than reckoners can count or those who entrust to memory can attain by knowledge. But the affliction and hardship, O God, that You turned and averted from me is more than the health and happiness that came to me. And I witness, my God, by the truth of my faith, the knotted resolutions of my certainty, my pure and unadulterated profession of Unity, the hidden inwardness of my consciousness, the places to which the streams of light of my eyes are attached, the lines on my forehead’s surface, the openings for my breath’s channels, the parts of my nose’s soft point, the paths of my
ears’ canals, what my lips close upon and compress, the movements of my tongue in speaking, the joint at the back of my mouth and jaw, the sockets of my molar teeth, the place where I swallow my food and drink, that which bears my brain, the hollow passages of my neck’s fibers, that which is contained in my breast’s cavity, the carriers of my aorta, the places where my heart’s curtain is attached, the small pieces of flesh around my liver, that which the ribs of my sides encompass, the sockets of my joints, the contraction of my members, the tips of my fingers, my flesh, my blood, my hair, my skin, my nerves, my windpipe, my bones, my brain, my veins, and all of my members, what was knitted upon them in the days when I was a suckling baby, what the earth has taken away from me, my sleep, my waking, my being still, and the movements of my bowing and prostrating, that had I taken pains and had I striven for the duration of the epochs and ages were
my life to be extended through them to deliver thanks for one of Your blessings, I would not have been able to do so, except by Your grace,
 His Eminence in accordance with the command of Allah has indicated towards the 7th verse of Surah Ibrahim which says: If you are grateful, I would certainly give to you more…
which alone makes incumbent upon me never-ending and ever renewed gratitude to You, and fresh and ever present praise. Indeed, and were I and the reckoners among Your creatures ever so eager to calculate the extent of Your bestowal of blessings, whether past or approaching, we would fail to encompass it through numbers or to calculate its boundaries. Never How could it ever be done! For You announce in Your eloquent Book and truthful Tiding, “And if you count God’s blessing, you will never number it”. Your Book, O God, Your Message, has spoken the truth! And Your prophets and messengers delivered Your revelation that You had sent down upon them and the religion that You had promulgated for them and through them. And I witness, my God, by my effort, my diligence, and the extent of my obedience and my capacity, and I say as a believer possessing certainty, “Praise belongs to God, who has not taken to Him a son” that He might have an heir,
“and who has not any associate in His dominion” who might oppose Him in what He creates, “nor any protector out of humbleness” who would aid Him in what He fashions. So glory be to Him, glory be to Him! “Why, were there gods in earth and heaven other than God, they would surely go to ruin” and be rent. Glory be to God, the Unique, the One, “the Everlasting Refuge” who “has not begotten, nor has He been begotten, and equal to Him there is none”. Praise belongs to God, praise equal to the praise of the angels stationed near to Him and the prophets sent by Him. And God bless His elect, Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets, and his virtuous, pure and sincere household, and give them peace.
Then he began to supplicate. He occupied himself with prayer as tears ran from his blessed eyes. Then he said:
O God, cause me to fear You as if I were seeing You, give me felicity through piety toward You, make me not wretched by disobedience toward You, choose the best for me by Your decree (qadha’) and bless me by Your determination (qadar), that I may love not the hastening of what You have delayed, nor the delaying of what You have hastened. O God, appoint for me sufficiency in my soul, certainty in my heart, sincerity in my action, light in my eyes, and insight in my religion. Give me enjoyment of my bodily members, make my hearing and my seeing my two inheritors, help me against him who wrongs me, show me in him my revenge and my desires, and console thereby my eyes. O God, remove my affliction, veil my defects, forgive my offence, drive away my Satan, dissolve my debt, and give me, my God, the highest degree in the world to come and in this world. O God, to You belongs the praise, just as You created me and made me to hear and to see; and to You belongs
the praise, just as You created me and made me a creature unimpaired as a mercy to me, while You had no need of my creation. My Lord, since You created me and then made straight my nature; my Lord, since You caused me to grow and made good my shape; my Lord, since You didst good to me and gave me well-being in my soul; my Lord, since You preserved me and gave me success; my Lord, since You blessed me and then guided me; my Lord, since
 Surah Ibrahim 14:34
You chose me and gave me of every good; my Lord, since You gave me to eat and drink; my Lord, since You enriched me and contented me; my Lord, since You aided me and exalted me; my Lord, since You clothed me with Your pure covering and smoothed the way for me by Your sufficient fashioning: Bless Muhammad and the household of Muhammad, aid me against the misfortunes of time and the calamities of nights and days, deliver me from the terrors of this world and the torments of the world to come and spare me from the evil of that which the evildoers do in the earth.
O God, as for what I fear, spare me from it, and as for what I seek to avoid, guard me against it. in my soul and my religion watch over me, in my traveling protect me, in my family and my property appoint for me a successor, in what You have provided for me bless me, in my soul humble me, in the eyes of men magnify me, from the evil of jinn and men preserve me, for my sins disgrace me not, for my inward secrets shame me not, for my action try me not, of Your blessings deprive me not and to other than You entrust me not. My God, to whom wouldst You entrust me? To a relative? He would cut me off. Or to a stranger? He would look at me with displeasure. Or to those who act toward me with arrogance? But You are my Lord and the sovereign over my affair. I would complain to You of my exile and the remoteness of my abode, and that he whom You have made sovereign over me despises me. My God, so cause not Your wrath to alight upon me. If You become not wrathful
with me I will have no care, glory be to You But Your protection is more embracing. So I ask You, O Lord, by the Light of Your Face by which the earth and the heavens are illuminated, shadows are removed, and the affairs of the ancients and the later folks are set aright, not to cause me to die when Your wrath is upon me, nor to send down upon me Your anger. The pleasure is Yours The pleasure is Yours, to be satisfied with me before that. There is no god but You, Lord of the Holy Land, the Sacred Monument, and the Ancient House, upon which You caused blessing to descend and which You made a sanctuary for mankind. O He who pardons the greatest sins by His clemency! O He who lavishes blessings by His bounty! O He who gives abundance by His generosity! O Sustenance to me in my adversity! O Companion to me in my solitude! O Aid to me in my affliction! O Benefactor to me in my blessing! O my God and God of my fathers, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac and Jacob! Lord
of Gabriel, Michael and Israfil! Lord of Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets, and his household, the chosen ones! Revealer of the Torah, the Gospel, the Psalms and the Criterion, and Sender down of Kaf Ha’ Ya’ Ayn Sad, Ta’ Ha’, Ya’ Sin, and the Wise Quran! You are my cave (of refuge) when the roads for all their amplitude constrict me and the land for all its breadth is strait for me. If not for Your mercy, I would have been among the perishing, and You annul my slip. If not for Your covering me, I would have been among the disgraced, and You confirm me with help against my enemies. And if not for Your helping me, I would have been among those overcome. O He who appropriated loftiness and exaltation to Himself, so His friends (awliya’) are mighty through His might! O He before whom kings place the yoke of abasement
around their necks, for they fear His overwhelming power! “He knows the treachery of the eyes and what the breasts conceal” and the unseen brought by time and fate. O He about whom none knows how He is but He! O He about whom none knows what He is but He! O He whom none knows but He! O He who squeezed the earth onto the water and held back the air with the sky! O He to whom belong the noblest Names! O He who possesses kindness, which will never be cut off! O He who assigned the cavalcade to Joseph in the barren land, brought him out of the well and made him a king after slavery! O He who returned him to Jacob after “his eyes were whitened with sorrow that he was suppressing”. O He who removed affliction and tribulation from Ayyub and restrained Ibrahim’s hands from the sacrifice of his son after he had reached old age and his life had passed by! O He who answered the prayer of Zakaria and bestowed upon him John, not leaving him childless and
alone! O He who brought Yunus out from the stomach of the fish! O He who parted the sea for the Children of Israel, then saved them and drowned Firon and his hosts! O He who sends winds heralding His mercy! O He who does not hurry (to act) against those of His creatures who disobey Him! O He who rescued the sorcerers after (their) long denial! They had early benefited from His blessing, eating His provision and worshipping other than Him; they had opposed, denied and cried lies to His messengers. O God! O God! O Beginner, O Creator with no compeer! O Everlasting who has no end! O Living when nothing was alive! O Quickener of the dead! O “He Who is aware of the deserts of every soul”! O He toward whom my gratitude was little, yet He deprived me not! My transgression was great, yet He disgraced me not! He saw me committing acts of disobedience, yet he made me not notorious! O He who watched over me in childhood! O He who provided for me in my
adulthood! O He whose favors toward me cannot be reckoned and whose blessings cannot be repaid! O He who has confronted me with the good and the fair, and I have confronted Him with evil and disobedience in return! O He who led me to faith before I had come to know gratitude for His gracious bestowal O He upon whom I called when I was sick and He healed me, when naked and He clothed me, when hungry and He satisfied me, when thirsty and He gave me to drink, when abased and He exalted me, when ignorant and He gave me knowledge, when alone and He increased my number, when away and He returned me, when empty-handed and He enriched me, when in need of help and He helped me, and when rich and He took not from me. I refrained from (calling upon You in) all of that and You caused me to begin (to call). Yours are the praise and the gratitude! O He who overlooked my slip, relieved my distress, heard my prayer, covered my defects, forgave my sins, caused me to
reach my desire, and helped me against my enemy! If I were to count Your blessings, favors and generous acts of kindness I would not be able to reckon them. O my Protector! You are He who was gracious, You are He who blessed, You are He who worked good, You are He who was kind, You are He who was bounteous, You are He who perfected, You are He who provided, You are He who
 O one except Whom none know Him
gave success, You are He who bestowed, You are He who enriched, You are He who contented, You are He who sheltered, You are He who sufficed, You are He who guided, You are He who preserved (from sin), You are He who covered (my sins), You are He who forgave, You are He who overlooked, You are He who established (in the earth), You are He who exalted, You are He who aided, You are He who supported, You are He who confirmed, You are He who helped, You are He who healed, You are He who gave well-being, You are He who honored - blessed are You and high exalted! So Yours is the praise everlastingly, and Yours is gratitude enduringly and forever! Then I, my God, confess my sins, so forgive me for them. I am he who did evil, I am he who made mistakes, I am he who purposed (to sin), I am he who was ignorant, I am he who was heedless, I am he who was negligent, I am he who relied (upon other than You), I am he who premeditated, I am he who promised, I am he who
went back on his word, I am he who confessed (my sins) and I am he who acknowledged Your blessings upon me and with me and then returned to my sins. So forgive me for them, O He who is not harmed by the sins of His servants nor needs He their obedience. He gives success through His aid and His mercy to whomsoever of them works righteousness. So praise belongs to You, My God and My Lord!
My God, You commanded me and I disobeyed and You forbade me and I committed what You had forbidden. I became such that I neither possessed any of guiltlessness that I might ask forgiveness nor any power that I might be helped. Then by what means shall I turn toward You, O my Protector!? What, by my ears? Or my eyes? Or my tongue? Or my hand? Or my leg? Are not all of them Your blessings given to me? And with all of them I disobey You, O my Protector! Yours is the argument and the means against me. O He who veiled me (my sins) from fathers and mothers lest they drive me away, from relatives and brothers lest they rebuke me, and from kings lest they punish me! If they had seen, O my Protector, what You have seen from me, they would not have given me respite, they would have abandoned me and cut me off. So here I am, O my God, before You O Lord, humbled, abased, constrained, despised, neither possessing guiltlessness that I might ask forgiveness nor
possessing power that I might be helped. There is no argument with which I might argue, nor can I say I committed not (sins) and worked not evil. And denial, were I to deny-my Protector-could hardly profit me. How could it ever do that ? For all of my members are witness against me for what I have done. And I acted with certainty and without any doubt that You wilt ask me about great affairs, and that You are the equitable Judge who does no wrong. Your justice is deadly for me and I flee from Your every just act. If thou chastise me, O my God, it is for my sins after Your argument against me; and if You pardon me, it is by Your clemency, generosity and kindness. “There is no god but You, glory be to You! Truly I am one of the wrong-doers”. There is no god but You, glory be to You! Truly I am one of those who pray forgiveness. There is no god but You, glory be to You I Truly I am one of those who profess Your Unity. There is no god but You, glory be
to You! Truly I am one of the fearful. There is no god but You, glory
be to You I Truly I am one of those who are afraid. There is no god but You, glory be to You! Truly I am one of the hopeful. There is no god but You, glory be to You! Truly I am one of those who yearn. There is no god but You, glory be to You! Truly I am one of those who say “There is no god but You”. There is no god but You, glory be to You! Truly I am one of the petitioners. There is no god but You, glory be to You! Truly I am one of the glorifiers. There is no god but You, glory be to You! Truly I am one of those who magnify. There is no god but You, glory be to You, my Lord, and the Lord of my fathers, the ancients! My God, this is my praise of You exalting Your majesty, my sincerity in remembering You by professing Your Unity, and my acknowledgment of Your bounties by enumeration, even though I acknowledge that I cannot reckon them for their multitude, their abundance, their manifestness and their existence from ancient times until a present in
which You have never ceased to care for me through them from when You created me and brought me into existence in the beginning of (my) life, by enriching from poverty, relieving affliction, bringing ease, removing hardship, dispelling distress, and (giving me) well-being in body and soundness in religion. Were all the world’s inhabitants, both the ancients and the later folk, to assist me in attempting to mention Your blessing, I would not be able, nor would they, to do so. Holy are You and high exalted, a generous, mighty, merciful Lord. Your bounties cannot be reckoned, nor Your praise accomplished, nor Your blessings repaid. Bless Muhammad and the household of Muhammad, complete Your blessings upon us and aid us in Your obedience. Glory be to You! There is no god but You. O God, truly You hear the destitute, remove the evil, succor the afflicted, heal the sick, enrich the poor, mend the broken, have mercy upon the young and help the old. There is
no Support other than You and none powerful over You. And You are the Sublime, the Great. O Freer of the prisoner in irons! O Provider of the infant child O Protection of the frightened refugee! O He who has no associate and no assistant! Bless Muhammad and the household of Muhammad, and give me this evening the best of what You have given to and bestowed upon any of Your servants, whether a blessing You assign, a bounty You renew, a trial You avert, an affliction You remove, a prayer You hear, a good deed You accept or an evil deed You overlook. Truly You are gracious, Aware of what You wilt, and Powerful over all things!
O God, truly You are the nearest of those who are called, the swiftest of those who answer, the most generous of those who pardon, the most openhanded of those who give and the most hearing of those who are asked of. O Merciful and Compassionate in this world and the next! Like You none is asked of; and other than You none is hoped for. I prayed to You and You answered me, I asked of You and You gave to me, I set You as my quest and You had mercy upon me, I depended upon You and You delivered me, I took refuge with You and You sufficed me, O God, so bless Muhammad, Your servant, messenger and prophet, and his good and pure household, all of them. And complete Your blessings upon us, gladden us with Your gift and inscribe us as those who thank You and
remember Your bounties. Amen, amen, O Lord of all beings! O God, O He who owned and then was all-powerful, was all-powerful and then subjected, was disobeyed and then veiled (the sin of disobedience), and was prayed forgiveness and then forgave. O Goal of yearning seekers and utmost Wish of the hopeful! O He who “encompasses everything in knowledge” and embraces those who seek pardon in tenderness, mercy and clemency!
O God, truly we turn towards You this evening, which You honored and glorified through Muhammad, Your prophet and messenger, the elect of Your creation, the faithful guardian of Your-revelation which bears good tidings and warning and which is the light- giving lamp which You gave to those who surrender (al-muslimin) and appointed as a mercy to the world’s inhabitants. O God, so bless Muhammad and the household of Muhammad, just as Muhammad is worthy of that from You, O Sublime! So bless him and his elect, good and pure household, all of them, and encompass us in Your pardon, for to You cry voices in diverse languages. So appoint for us a share this evening, O God, of every good which You divide among Your servants, every light by which You guide, every mercy which You spread, every blessing which You send down, every well-being with which You cloth and every provision which You outspread. O Most merciful of the merciful! O God, transform us now into
men successful, triumphant, pious, and prosperous. Set us not among those who despair, empty us not of Your mercy, deprive us not of that bounty of Yours for which we hope, and set us not among those deprived of Your mercy, nor those who despair of the bounty of Your gift for which we hope. Reject us not with the disappointed, nor those driven from Your door. O Most Magnanimous of the most magnanimous! O Most Generous of the most generous! Toward You we have turned having sure faith, repairing to and bound for Your Sacred House. So help is with our holy rites, perfect for us our pilgrimage, pardon us, and give us well-being, for we have extended toward You our hands and they are branded with the abasement of confession. O God, so give us this evening what we have asked of You and suffice us in that in which we have prayed You to suffice us, for there is none to suffice us apart from You and we have no lord other than You. Put into effect concerning us
is Your decision, encompassing us is Your knowledge and just for us is Your decree. Decree for us the good and place us among the people of the good!
O God make incumbent upon us through Your magnanimity the mightiest wage, the most generous treasure and the lastingness of ease. Forgive us our sins, all of them, destroy us not with those who perish, and turn not Your tenderness and mercy away from us, O Most Merciful of the merciful! O God, place us in this hour among those who ask of You and to whom You give, who thank You and whom You increase, who turn to You in repentance and whom You accept and who renounce all of their sins before You and whom You forgive, O Lord of majesty and splendor! O God, purify us, show us the right way and accept our entreaty. O Best of those from whom is asked! And O Most Merciful of those whose mercy is sought! O He from whom is not hidden the eyelids’ winking, the
eyes’ glancing, that which rests in the concealed, and that which is enfolded in hearts’ hidden secrets I What, has not all of that been reckoned in Your knowledge and embraced by Your clemency? Glory be to You and high indeed are You exalted above what the evil-doers say! The seven heavens and the earths and all that is therein praise You, and there is not a thing but hymns Your praise. So Yours is the praise, the glory and the exaltation of majesty, O Lord of majesty and splendor, of bounty and blessing and of great favor! And You are the Magnanimous, the Generous, the Tender, the Compassionate.
O God, give me amply of Your lawful provision, bestow upon me well-being in my body and my religion, make me safe from fear and deliver me from the Fire. O God, devise not against me, lead me not on step by step, trick me not and avert from me the evil of the ungodly among jinn and men.
Then he lifted his head and eyes toward Heaven. Tears were flowing from his blessed eyes as if they were two water-skis, and he said in a loud voice:
O Most Hearing of those who hear! O Most Seeing of those who behold! O Swiftest of reckoners! O Most Merciful of the merciful! Bless Muhammad and the household of Muhammad, the chiefs, the fortunate. And, I ask of You, O God, my need. If You grant it to me, what You hold back from me will cause me no harm; and if You hold it back from me, what You grant me will not profit me. I ask You to deliver me from the Fire. There is no god but You alone, You have no associate. Yours is the dominion, and Yours is the praise, and You are powerful over everything. O my Lord! O my Lord!
Then he said “O my Lord” over and over.
Those who had been gathered around him, who had listened to any of his prayer and who had limited themselves to saying “amen” raised their voices in weeping. They stayed in his company until the sun went down, and then all of them loaded their mounts and set out in the direction of the Sacred Monument.
Narrators say that the Imam continued his supplication till sunset and after that moved towards Muzdalifah and the people also accompanied him.
 Majlisi, Zaad al-Maad 248-268, Kafa’mi 339-350, Baladul Amin, Eloquence of Imam Husain, Sayyid Ibne Tawus, Iqbal
# Some sayings of Imam Husain
The Almighty Allah had bestowed Imam Husain with beautiful eloquence and spontaneity of speech, as if he issued a flood of maxims, advices and exhortations for his tongue. Some of his shorter sayings are mentioned below:
1 – His Eminence said: “The wise does not speak to one whom he fears he shall be belied and he does not ask anyone of anything if he fears he shall not give. And he does not repose hope on one whom he does not trust.”
2 – His Eminence told his son Ali ibn al-Husain: “O son! Beware of oppressing the one who has none to repel your attack except Allah.” 
3 – His Eminence said, “Allah does not take power from anyone but He takes away from him His obedience. And He does not take anyone’s strength but that He ends his responsibility (duty).” 
4 – His Eminence said, “Beware of that for which you have to regret later. Because the believer neither commits a mistake nor seeks forgiveness and the hypocrite commits a mistake everyday and seeks forgiveness…
5 – His Eminence said, “Leave that which puts you to doubt towards that which does not put you to doubt because lying creates doubt and truthfulness accords comfort.” 
6 – His Eminence said: “O Allah, do not test me by bounties and do not punish me with difficulties.”
7 – His Eminence said, “If one does not have these five things there is no good in him: Intellect, religion, etiquette, shame and good manners.”
8 – His Eminence said, “The miser is the one who is miserly in saluting…”
9 – His Eminence said, “If a person hopes for something in Allah’s disobedience, it won’t last for long and what he fears will soon come to him (punishment).
10 – His Eminence said, “From the signs of acceptance are company of intelligent people and among the signs of ignorance is debating with people other than the infidels. And of the signs of the learned is to criticize is own statements and its knowledge of arts and sciences.”
 Raihaanatur Rasool, Pg. 55
 Tohafful Uqool, Pg. 46
 Tohafful Uqool, Pg. 46
 Tohafful Uqool, Pg. 46
 Ansaab al-Ashraaf, Vol. 3/143
 Kashful Ghumma, 2/31
 Raihaanatur Rasool, Pg. 55
 Raihaanatur Rasool, Pg. 55
 Tohafful Uqool, Pg. 246-248
11 – His Eminence said, “The believer considers Allah as his refuge and their statements as a mirror for Himself. Thus sometimes He looks at the qualities of believers and sometimes He pays attention to the arrogant ones. On the basis of this in fine things and in himself in recognition and about his consciousness and about his purity shall be utmost tranquility.”
12 – His Eminence said, “Whenever you hear that a person is speaking ill of others then you shall try that he does not recognize you.”
13 – His Eminence told a person who backbited in his presence: “O man! Do not resort to backbiting as it is the diet of the dogs of Hell…”
14 – A person began to speak to His Eminence and said: If one does good to an undeserving person it is wasted. His Eminence said, “It is not so. Because goodness is like rain that reaches both the good and the bad people…”
15 – His Eminence said, “He is commanded to speak about these bounties of religion that Allah had given.”() ()
16 – His Eminence said, “Death with honor is better than a life of degradation.”
17 – His Eminence said, “Weeping for the fear of Allah is salvation from the fire (of Hell)…”
18 – His Eminence said, “One who remains worried and all his tricks fail, then his key is caution (softness).”
19 – His Eminence said, “One who accepts your goodness has helped you in goodness.”
20 – His Eminence said, “On the Day of Judgment a caller will announce: O people! Anyone who has any arrears upon Allah may rise up. Then except for the righteous ones, no one would arise…”
21 – His Eminence said, “No deed of the nation is such that it is not presented to Allah, the Mighty and the Sublime, every morning.”
Here we conclude our discussion about some of the important sayings that are rich
 Tohafful Uqool, Pg. 246-248
 Raihaanatur Rasool, Pg. 55
 Bihar, 78/117, Tohafful Uqool, Pg. 245
 Tohafful Uqool, Pg. 245
 Surah Zuhaa 93:11
 Tohafful Uqool, Pg. 246
 Bihar 44/192
 Nuzhatul Nazir Fi Tanbihatul Khatir, Jame al-Akhbar, Pg. 97, Mustadrak al-Wasail 11/245
 Ibne Asakir, Tarikh 4/323, A’laamud Deen, Pg. 298, Biharul Anwar 78/128
 Bihar 78/127
 Bihar 93/347
 Bihar 93/347
in wisdom, morals and good manners that are related from His Eminence. For the sake of conciseness and to avoid verbosity we do not wish to prolong the discussion about the captioned sayings.
Among the Poems
Historical sources and Arab literature has mentioned many poetic compositions of His Eminence, Imam Husain. In some of those compositions, His Eminence has quoted other poets to emphasize his points, even though in our view some of them may be forgeries. A few poems are quoted below:
1 – A Bedouin arrived at the Mosque of the Holy Prophet and approached His Eminence, Husain Ibn Ali and stood before him while he was surrounded by some people. Then he asked about him and was informed that it was Husain bin Ali. He said, “My aim is also same; they speak and they have eloquence in their speech and I have passed through deserts, mountains and caves and have come here to speak to him and ask him about the intricacies of Arabic.” One of the Imam’s companions said, “If you have come for this you may pose your questions to this young man,” pointing towards His Eminence, Husain. He went towards His Eminence and stopped near him and saluted him. Imam replied to his salutation and asked him what he wanted. He replied, “I have come to you from Harqal, Ja’lal, Ainam and Hamham.”
The Imam smiled and said, “Except for the experts none knows about the meanings of the words you have spoken.”
The Bedouin said, “I will tell more of these words, can you reply according to what they say?”
His Eminence, Husain said, “Say what you like, I would give you the appropriate reply.”
He said, “I am a Bedouin and most of my speech consists of poetic couplets that are part of Arab collections.”
His Eminence said, “You say whatever you like and I would reply you. The Bedouin began to recite the couplets:
“My heart is attracted towards vain pastimes while the time of my youth is over.
While during the time of youth it (my heart) used to be extremely joyful.
There were kids, pleasures and what a joyful time it was.
And when old age has grayed the edges of my head
And compelled me to use hair dye
I have refrained myself from vain pastimes and given up all such things.
There is surprise for the man who has seen both the periods.
If man who is intelligent in the true sense uses his intellect in that matter.
 Words of tribal dialects
He would gain a lesson that would be useful for him in life.”
Imam Husain recited the following couplets extempore:
“All the signs, whose effects have been destroyed, do not aggrieve me.
That is like the dust and sand is scattered by the wind to all sides.
Winds that whistle, and cold winds that pile clothes upon clothes (to protect it).
And a cloud that moves towards the sky and comes near.
A black cloud that comes up, and through it blessings rain.
The cloud has such a lightning that does not have any deficiency.
The rain of that thunder is capable of flooding when it rains.
After that it is exhausted and no sign remains of its owner.”
When the Bedouin heard these words he was perplexed and said, “I have never heard a more eloquent and beautiful composition.”
Imam Husain told him, “O Bedouin!”
“The youth whom God has purified from the two grandfathers and exalted him.
And the brilliant Sun has dressed him with its light.
And I have made my couplet strong and made its rhymes firm.”
When the Bedouin heard these words of Imam Husain he exclaimed aloud, “May Allah bless you! People have not recognized you. May Allah bestow you a good reward.” Then he went away from there.
This example shows the great literary accomplishments of the Holy Imam but there is some doubt in some portions, like it seems highly improbable for a Bedouin to have come all the way only to ask those things from the Holy Imam.
2 – The following couplets overflow with wisdom are also attributed to the Holy Imam:
“When the world causes you trouble, do not pay any attention to the people. And except for the Almighty Allah, Who is the distributor of sustenance, do not ask anyone for anything.
If you remain alive and roam from the east to the west.
You would not find anyone who could make you happy or unfortunate.”
These couplets emphasize the quality of contentment and show that it is very important not to repose faith on others. And it also warns people not to ask anyone for anything except from Allah, Who is having control of all affairs.
3 – His Eminence said:
“Become needless of the creatures through the Creator. You will become
 Matalib al-So-ool fi Manaqib ar-Rasool, Pg. 28-29
 Kashful Ghumma 2/34-35, Al-Fusul al-Muhimma, Pg. 180
needless of the liars and the truthful.
And seek your sustenance from the Beneficent Lord as except for Allah no one bestows sustenance.
One who thinks that people make him needless, has no reliance on God.
Or if he thinks that he has obtained wealth, his step would slip from the heights.”
In these couplets, there is invitation to take refuge in Allah, Who is the Creator of the world and the bestower of life; and to seek needlessness from other than Allah, because one who takes refuge from anyone other than Him, his pursuit would fail and he would become deviated from truth.
4 – Imam Husain went to visit the graves of martyrs in the Baqi cemetery of Medina and recited the following lines of poetry:
“I call out to the inmates of the grave and they did not reply. Then dust of their graves replied in their lieu.
It said, “Do you know what I have done with my inmates? I have punctured their flesh and rent their garments.
And filled their eyes with dust even though they used to become restless with a mote in the eye.
As for the bones I have punctured till their joints and seams separated.
We separated them from each other and left them in this condition so that they may continue to rot for ages.”
These couplets are full of invitation to gain lesson from the condition of man and that when he is buried in the dust he is soon scattered and his form and beauty is destroyed. Then in a short time he turns into worthless dust.
5 – Aashi has attributed these couplets to Imam Husain:
“Sorrow and problems increase in direct proportion to wealth.
O you who blackens the life. I have recognized you. O one who is the destroyer and annihilator of all houses.
It is not possible for a pious to achieve piety when he finds it difficult to maintain the family.”
In these couplets, the Holy Imam has spoken of some special points about the creation of life which is that as much man is involved in worldly mater as much sorrow he shall have and he would have exerted more for the affairs of his life.
In the same way, the Holy Imam has said regarding someone that life is having some attachment to piety, because he does not move towards it while responsibility
 Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 231
 Al Bidayah wan Nihayah 8/208, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 233
 Ibne Asakir, Biography of Imam Husain, Pg. 232
of the family was heavy on him, as his involvement in these things stop him from piety of the world.
6 – Irbili has narrated that the Imam recited the following couplets describing the defects of oppression and injustice:
“Those whom I loved have gone away and I remain among those I do not like.
I find myself with one who denounced me on my back while I do not say anything against him.
As much as they can they try for my destruction although I try my best for their well-being.
The evil trait person defames me continuously while I do not say the same for him.
He sees the dirty flies around me that they are humming and he does not chase them away from me.
Whenever the malice of his heart is cured, he tries to fan the flames of hatred.
Does he not benefit from his intellect and does he not seek help of reason?
Does he not see that how bad his deeds are and how due to this evil is turning towards him?
O my Lord! In front of those I fear, he is sufficient and the oppression is sufficient for the oppressor.
And it is rarely that he is oppressed and that the help of the Lord does not reach him”
In these couplets, Imam has described about the evil qualities of human beings and one of them is oppression. That whosoever is involved in it he continuously steps to speak ill to his brother and to oppress him and to spoil his affairs and the when the malice of the heart reduces he tries to fan the flames more so that he could reach up to its daring.
Imam (a.s) in this way gives lesson to someone that if he refers to his own intellect and ponders on his own condition, he obtains that his oppressing his own brother is going to turn towards himself and he would be the recipient of its sin and loss. And it is natural that if he thinks like this continuously he would be able to uproot these defects from himself as the scholars of ethics have opined.
7 – Abul Faraj Isfahani has claimed that Imam Husain composed the following couplets regarding his daughter Sakina and her mother Rabab:
“I swear by your life, I love the house itself where Sakina and Rabab reside.
I love both of them and am prepared to sacrifice all I own on them and I do not care if someone flays me for it.”
 Kashful Ghummah 2/34, Raihaanatur Rasool, Pg. 48
 Al Aghani 16/139
And others (excepts Abul Faraj) have added the following couplet:
“Thus I would never leave them whenever they are away. Whether I remain alive or am put below the earth.”
These couplets, in our view are of the forged ones, because Imam Husain is much higher that he should make public his love and affections for his daughter and wife. It is not in consonance with his ethics. He is much above it. These lines were concocted and falsely attributed to the Holy Imam in order to decrease the position of Ahle Bayt.
8 – And from the lines composed by His Eminence are the following:
“And Allah what that is in the hands of Yazid, actually from others.
And that he has not obtained it with honesty and honor.
And if you seek justice with a clear conscience you would understand a subtle point.
And his mischief was nearer to him than his good deeds.”
Here we conclude our discussion about the meritorious qualities of the Holy Imam. His Eminence was an incomparable example unique in human intellect and a prominent example Islamic prophethood having all the good qualities that become the foundation of all virtues.
 Zikri al-Husain 1/139, Al Bidayah wan Nihayah 7/209
 Raihaanatur Rasool, Pg. 49
[PART 2 continues below...]